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“MOONLIGHT. By C. F. DAUBIGNY. (From the Picture in the possession of the Ilon. George A. Drummond, Montreal, Canaila.)

his now famous "Moonlight” being badly hung in the Old as possessing individuality and promise. Morny, the Royal Academy. But the personal encouragement of his emperor's all-powerful minister, appointed him to be one admirers in England made up for the disappointment, and of his secretaries,—a post which he held till Morny's the sale of his picture to a Royal Academician greatly death in 1865,—and showed him no small kindness. He pleased him. In 1870-71 he again visited London, and had put his foot on the road to fortune. The first of his subsequently Holland, where he painted a number of river longer books, Le Petit Chose (1868), did not, however, scenes with windmills. In 1874, having returned to Paris, produce any very popular sensation." It is, in its main he fell ill, and from that time until he died (on 19th feature, the story of his own earlier years told with much February 1878) his work won less distinction than before. grace and pathos. But the next book, Froment jeune et Daubigny's finest pictures were painted between 1864 and Risler ainé (1874), at once took the world by storm. It 1874, and these for the most part consist of carefully com struck a note, not new certainly in English literature, pleted landscapes with trees, river, and a few ducks. It but comparatively new in French. Here was a writer has curiously been said, yet with some appearance of who possessed the gift of laughter and tears, a writer truth, that when Daubigny liked his pictures himself he not only sensible to pathos and sorrow, but also to added another duck or two, so that the number of ducks moral beauty. He could create too. His characters were often indicates greater or less artistic quality in his pictures. real and also typical; the ratés, the men who in life's One of his sayings was, “The best pictures do not sell," as battle had flashed in the pan, were touched with a he frequently found his finest achievements little under master hand. The book was alive. It gave the illusion stood. Yet although during the latter part of his life he of a real world. Jack, the story of an illegitimate child, was considered a highly successful painter, the money value a martyr to his mother's selfishness, which followed in of his pictures since his death has increased nearly tenfold. 1876, served only to deepen the same impression. HenceDaubigny is chiefly preferred in his riverside pictures, of forward his career was that of a very successful man of which he painted a great number, but although there are letters,-publishing novel on novel, Le Nabab (1877), Les two large landscapes by Daubigny in the Louvre, neither Rois en Exil (1879), Numa Roumestan (1880), Sapho, is a river view. They are for that reason not so typical L'Immortel, and writing for the stage at frequent inas many of his smaller Oise and Seine pictures. None of tervals,-giving to the world his reminiscences in Trente his paintings can be seen in public galleries in Great ans de Paris and Souvenirs d'un homme de lettres. These, Britain, although they frequently appear in loan exhibitions with the three Tartarins, — Tartarin the mighty hunter, both in London and in Scotland.

Tartarin the mountaineer, Tartarin the colonist,—and the The works of Daubigny are, like Corot's, to be found in admirable short stories, written for the most part before many modern collections. His most ambitious canvases he had acquired fame and fortune, constitute his life are : “Spring-time” (1857), in the Louvre; “Borde de la work. Though Daudet defended himself from the charge Cure, Morvan” (1864); "Villerville sur Mer" (1864); of imitating Dickens, it is difficult altogether to believe “Moonlight” (1865); “Andrésy sur Oise" (1868); and that so many similarities of spirit and manner were quite “Return of the Flock-Moonlight” (1878).

unsought. What, however, was purely his own was his His followers and pupils were his son Karl (who some style. It is a style that may rightly be called " impressiontimes painted so well that his works are occasionally ist,” full of light and colour, not descriptive after the old mistaken for those of his father, though in few cases do fashion, but by a masterly juxtaposition of words that are they equal his father's mastery), Oudinot, Delpy, and like pigments flashing its intended effect. Nor does it Damoye.

convey, like the style of the Goncourts, for example, a FRED HENRIET. C. Daubigny et son Euvre. Paris, 1878.

constant feeling of effort. It is full of felicity and charm,D. CROAL THOMSON. The Barbizon School of Painters. London, un charmeur M. Zola has called him. An intimate friend 1890.–J. W. MOLLETT. Daubigny. London, 1890.–J. CLARETIE. of Edmond de Goncourt (who died in his house), of Peintres and Sculpteurs Contemporains : Daubigny. Paris, 1882. ALBERT WOLFF. La Capitale de l'Art : Ch. François Daubigny.

Flaubert, of M. Zola, Daudet belonged essentially to the Paris, 1881.

(D. C. T.)

naturalist school of fiction. His own experiences, his

surroundings, the men with whom he had been brought Daudet, Alphonse (1840-1897), French into contact, various persons who had played a part, more novelist, was born at Nîmes on the 13th May 1840. or less public, in Paris life—all passed into his art. But His family, on both sides, belonged to the bourgeoisie. he vivified the material supplied by his memory. His The father, Vincent Daudet, was a silk manufacturer world has the great gift of life. L'Immortel is a bitter a man dogged through life by misfortune and failure. attack on the French Academy, to which august body The lad, amid much truancy, had but a depressing Daudet never belonged. His married life—he married in boyhood. In 1856 he left Lyons, where his schooldays 1867—seems to have been singularly happy. There was had been mainly spent, and began life as an usher at perfect intellectual harmony, and Madame Daudet posAlais, in the south. The position proved to be intoler sesses much of his literary gift. In his later years came able. As Dickens declared that all through his prosper insomnia, failure of health, and chloral. He died in Paris ous career he was haunted in dreams by the miseries on the 17th December 1897. The story of Daudet's earlier of his apprenticeship to the blacking business, so Daudet years is told in his brother Ernest Daudet's Mon frère et says that for months after leaving Alais he would wake moi. There is a good deal of autobiographical detail with horror thinking he was still among his unruly in Daudet's Trente ans de Paris and Souvenirs d'un pupils. On the 1st November 1857 he abandoned teach homme de lettres, and also scattered in his other books. ing, and took refuge with his brother Ernest, only some The references to him in the Journal des Goncourts are three years his senior, who was trying, “and thereto numerous.

(F. T. M.) soberly," to make a living as a journalist in Paris. Alphonse betook himself to his pen likewise, — wrote Dauphiné, one of the old provinces (the name is still poems, shortly collected into a small volume Les Amour in current use in the country) of pre-Revolutionary France, euses (1858), which met with a fair reception, -obtained in the south-east portion of France, between Provence employment on the Figaro, then under Villemessent's and Savoy. After the death of the last king of Burgundy, energetic editorship, wrote two or three plays, and began Rudolf III., in 1032, Dauphiné (as part of his realm) to be recognized, among those interested in literature, reverted to the far-distant emperor. Much confusion fol

lowed, out of which the counts of Albon (between Valence elected a fellow of his college. In 1861 he was called to and Vienne) gradually came to the front. The first dynasty the Bar at Lincoln's Inn, and read in the chambers of Mr ended in 1162 with Guigue V., whose daughter and (afterwards Vice-Chancellor) Wickens. Devoting himself heiress, Beatrice, carried the possessions of her house to her to the Chancery side, he soon acquired a large practice, and husband, Hugh III., duke of Burgundy. Their son, André, in 1875 became a Q.C. In 1880 he was returned to continued the race, this second dynasty making many

Parliament as a Liberal for Christchurch, Hants, but lost territorial acquisitions, among them (by marriage) the his seat in 1885. On Mr Gladstone's return to power in Embrunais and the Gapençais in 1232. In 1282 the 1886 he was appointed Solicitor-General and was knighted, second dynasty ended in another heiress, Anna, who but had no seat in the House; from 1888 to 1892 he sat carried all to her husband, Humbert, lord of La Tour du for Stockton-on-Tees. As an equity lawyer Sir Horace Pin (between Lyons and Grenoble). The title of the chief Davey ranks among the finest intellects and the most of the house was Count (later Dauphin) of the Viennois, subtle pleaders ever known at the English Bar. He was not of Dauphiné.

standing counsel to the University of Oxford, and senior The origin of the title " Dauphin ” (borne also by the allied

counsel to the Charity Commissioners, and was engaged in house of Auvergue) is very obscure. Guigue IV. (1132–1142) all the important Chancery suits of his time. Among the seems to have adopted the rare name Delphinus” as a second chief leading cases in which he took a prominent part were Christian name, and so did his son, Guigue V. (1142–1162). The latter's daughter, Beatrice, the heiress, gave it to her son André,

those of The Mogul Steamship Company, Boswell v. Cokes, to recall his descent from the ancient house of the counts of Albon.

Erlanger v. New Phosphate Co., and the Ooregum Gold Two princes of the second dynasty, namely, Guigue VI. and John I., Mines Co.; he was counsel for the promoters in the trial use the form “ Dalphini” (gonitive case) as a sort of patronymic. of the Bishop of Lincoln, and leading counsel in the But even under Guigue VI. (1237–1270) the term “Delphinus” is

Berkeley Peerage case. In 1862 he married Miss Louisa used (especially by foreigners) as a title of dignity, and is so borne regularly by the third dynasty. The “canting arms” of a dolphin

Donkin. In 1893 he was raised to the Bench as a Lord were borrowed from the Counts of Clermont (Dauphins of Auvergne), Justice of Appeal, and in the next year was made a Lord and appear first in 1237 on a seal of Guigue VI., son of André of Appeal in Ordinary and a life-peer. Dauphin (1192-1237). Humbert II. (1333-1319), grandson of the heiress Anna, was the last in lependent Dauphin, selling his David, Félicien (1810–1876), French composer, dominions in 1319 to Charles of Valois, and stipulating that every was born on 13th April 1810 at Cadenet. After having one who inherited this province shoull bear the name of Dauphin, and quarter the arms of Dauphiné with those of France. As a

studied for a while at the Paris Conservatoire, he joined matter of fact, the title was borne by all succeeding eldest sons of

the sect of Saint Simonians, and travelled in the East in the kings of France. In 1-122 the Diois and the Valentinois by the order to preach the new doctrine. After three years' will of the last count passe l to the eldest son of Charles VI., and absence, during which he visited Constantinople, Smyrna, in 1424 were annexed to the Dauphiné. Louis (1440-1461), later Louis XI. of France, was the last Dauphin who occupied a semi

and spent some time in Egypt, he returned to France and independent position. The suzerainty of the emperor gradually

published a collection of Oriental melodies. For several died out. In the 16th century the names of Farel and of the duke years he worked in retirement, and wrote two symphonies, of Lesdiguières ara prominent in Dauphiné history. The “States” some chamber music, and songs. On the 8th of December of Dauphiné (dating from about the middle of the 14th century)

1844 he suddenly leapt into fame through the extraordinwere suspended by Louis XIII. in 1630. (W. A. B. c.)

ary success obtained by his symphonic ode entitled Le Davenport, capital of Scott county, Iowa, U.S.A., Désert, produced at the Conservatoire. In this work in 41° 30' N. lat. and 90° 39' W. long., on the west bank David had struck out a new line. He had attempted in of the Mississippi, at the foot of Rock Island Rapids, at simple strains to evoke the majestic stillness of the desert. an altitude on the river bank of 590 feet. It is laid out

Notwithstanding its title of “symphonic ode,” Le on a regular plan, is supplied with water from the Missis Désert has little in common with the symphonic style. sippi by the Holly pumping system, is well sewered and What distinguishes it is a certain naïveté of expression and well paved with brick and macadam, and contains six an effective Oriental colouring. In this last respect David wards. It is entered by three great railway systems, and may be looked upon as the precursor of a whole army enjoys a large trade. In 1890 it contained 475 manu of composers. His succeeding works, Moïse au Sinaï facturing establishments, with a capital of $8,732,122, and (1846), Christophe Colomb (1847), L'Eden (1848), scarcely employing 5136 hands; the value of the manufactured bore out the promise shown in Le Désert, although goods was $10,357,232. The principal articles of manu the second of these compositions was successful at the facture were lumber and flour. The assessed valuation of time of its production. David now turned his attenreal and personal property in 1900, on a basis of about tion to the theatre, and produced the following operas one-half of the full value, was $14,396,585, the debt of in succession : La Perle du Brésil (1851), Herculanum the municipality was $441,112, and the total rate of taxa (1859), Lalla-Roukh (1862), Le Saphir (1865).

Of tion was $51.75 per $1000. The death-rate in 1900 was these, Lalla-Roukh is the one which has obtained the 15.9. Population (1880), 21,831; (1890), 26,872; (1900),

greatest success. It is still played in France. He died at 35,254, of whom 8479 were foreign born and 488 negroes. Saint-Germain-en-Laye on the 29th of August 1876. If

Daventry, a municipal borough of Northampton- David can scarcely be placed in the first rank of French shire, England, 12 miles west by north of Northampton. composers, he nevertheless deserves the consideration due There are Established, Roman Catholic, Congregational, to a sincere artist, one who was undoubtedly inspired by and Methodist churches; an endowed grammar school, and lofty ideals. At a time when the works of Berlioz were a grammar school for girls. A public recreation ground caviare to the general, David succeeded in making the was opened in 1890. The principal industry is the manu public take interest in music of a picturesque and descripfacture of boots and shoes. Area, 3427 acres. Population

tive kind. Thus he may be considered as one of the (1881), 3859; (1901), 3780.

pioneers of modern French musical art.

(A. HE) Davey of Fernhurst, Horace Davey, Davis, Jefferson (1808–1889), American soldier BARON (1833-—), English judge, son of Peter Davey, of and statesman, President of the Confederate States in Horton, Bucks, was born 30th August 1833, and educated the American War of Secession, was born on 3rd June at Rugby and University College, Oxford. He took a 1808 in Christian (now Todd) county, Kentucky. His double first-class in classics and mathematics, was senior father, Samuel Davis, was of Welsh, his mother, Jane mathematical scholar and Eldon law scholar, and was Cook, of Scotch-Irish, descent. Jefferson Davis was edu


cated at Transylvania College and West Point Academy. with his intellectual gifts, won him the esteem of all From the latter he graduated in July 1828, with the rank of parties. While believing in Secession as a last resort, he second lieutenant of infantry. He was assigned for duty earnestly sought to avoid the necessity, and when his State to Jefferson Barracks at St Louis, and later to Fort Craw- passed the ordinance he resigned his seat with the saddest ford, now Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. Here he met forebodings of the impending conflict. His parting speech Sarah Knox, the daughter of the commanding officer, whom was a clear and able statement of the position taken by he married two years later. During the Black Hawk war his State, and a most pathetic expression of his feelings in he was under General Winfield Scott at Fort Snelling, and saying farewell to his associates. was sent to Dixon, Illinois, to muster into service some On 25th January 1861 Mr Davis was commissioned volunteers from that State. Their captain was Abraham Major-General of the forces Mississippi was raising in view Lincoln, and Lieutenant Davis is said to have adminis of the threatened conflict. On the 9th of February he tered to him his first oath of allegiance.

After his received the unanimous vote of the Congress of the seceded marriage, he resigned from the army and settled in Missis States as President of the “Confederate States of America." sippi, where Mrs Davis died of fever, and Jefferson Davis This office he had not sought, preferring service in the field. afterwards married Miss Varina Howell of Mississippi. In His brilliant career, both as a civilian and a soldier, drew 1843 Mr Davis entered the field of politics as a Democrat, all eyes to him as best fitted to guide the fortunes of the and exhibited great power as a public speaker. In 1844 new Confederacy, and with a deep sense of the responsihe was chosen as Presidential

bility he obeyed the call. Elector, and in 1845

He heartily approved of the elected to Congress. From

“Peace Conference,” which the beginning of his political

attempted to draw up a plan career he advocated a strict

of reconciliation between the construction of the United

two sections, but whose failure States Constitution. He was

made war inevitable. The an ardent admirer of John

disparity between the hostile C. Calhoun and his political

sections was very great. In opinions. In his speeches in

white population the North Congress, which were few, he

had four times that of the clearly defined his position in

South, and her manufacturregard to State Rights, which

ing resources were nearly five he consistently held ever after

hundred times as great; she wards. During his first ses

had uninterrupted commerce sion, war with Mexico was

with the outside world, and declared, and he left his seat

out of her population and the to take command of the First

great stream of immigrants Regiment of Mississippi Vol

she had an unlimited supply of unteers. He was greatly dis

soldiery. She had the army tinguished for gallantry and

and navy, with the munisoldierly conduct at Monterey

tions of war belonging to the and Buena Vista. In this

Federal Government. On the last battle he was severely

other hand, the South had to wounded early in the engage

create everything needed for ment, but continued in com

Never having been a mand until victory crowned

manufacturing people, and the American arms.

having her ports soon blockUpon his return to his

aded, she was greatly at a home, he was made a United

disadvantage. It was, indeed, States Senator. After a serv

astonishing that she was able ice of nearly six


to maintain the unequal conresigned his seat to accept

test for four years.

Montthe nomination for Governor (From a photograph by Sarony, New York.)

gomery, Alabama, was the of his State, but was de

first Confederate capital, but feated. In 1853 he accepted the position of Secretary of after Virginia joined her sister States, the seat of governWar in the Cabinet of President Pierce, and for four ment was removed to Richmond. How Mr Davis— years performed the duties of the office with great distinc of whom Mr Gladstone, in the early days of English tion and with lasting benefit to the nation. He organized sympathy with the South, said that he had “made a the engineer companies which explored and reported on nation

-bore himself in his most responsible position the several proposed routes for a railway connecting the during the gigantic conflict which ensued, cannot here be Mississippi Valley with the Pacific Ocean. He effected the related in detail. It is sufficient to say that it was with enlargement of the army, and made material changes in its great ability and an unblemished character. In a wonderequipment of arms and ammunition, utilizing the latest fully short time he organized and put into the field one of improvements. He made his appointments of subordinates the finest bodies of soldiers' of which history has record. on their merits, regardless of party considerations. Factories sprung up in the South in a few months, supplyrevised the system of tactics, perfected the signal corps ing the army with arms and munitions of war, and the service, and enlarged the coast and frontier defences of the energy of the President was everywhere apparent. That country. At the end of his service in the Cabinet, he was he committed serious errors, his warmest admirers will returned to the Senate, and continued as a member until hardly deny. Unfortunately his firmness developed into the secession of his State in 1861. As a senator he stood obstinacy, and exhibited itself in continued confidence in in the front rank in a body distinguished for its ability; officers who had proved to be failures, and in dislike of some and his purity of character and courteous manner, together of his ablest generals. He committed the great mistake, too,




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