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of directing the movements of distant armies from the through Georgia across the Mississippi, in the vain hope seat of government, though those armies were under able of continuing the war with the forces of Generals Smith generals. This naturally caused great dissatisfaction, and and Magruder. He was taken prisoner by Federal troops more than once resulted in irreparable disaster.

before he reached the river, and was brought back to Old Only two instances need be cited. In the winter of Point, Virginia, that he might be confined in prison at 1861-62 General Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson was Fortress Monroe. His prison was a casemate under a damp in command of the Valley forces. He planned and executed parapet, in which a light was kept constantly burning, and a brilliant winter attack on Romney in Hampshire county, sentinels paced backwards and forwards continually. He occupied by the Federals, and during his march destroyed was heavily chained, and his coarse food was served in a dam on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, an important filthy vessels. He entered the prison a feeble man, and feeder to Washington. The position gained was very im- such treatment soon brought him to death's door. Dr portant in the defence of the Valley of Virginia. General Craven, the Federal surgeon who attended him, by earnest Loring, with a part of the command, was left at Romney pleas had his treatment changed and saved his life. Perto hold the advantages gained. But he communicated sistent efforts were made to connect him with the assassinwith the War Department, and requested to be allowed ation of President Lincoln and with the harsh treatment of to retire, on the plea that he might be cut off, although prisoners at Andersonville, but without avail. Two indictJackson was within supporting distance. Thereupon, the ments were found against him for treason, and for several administration, without consu on with General Jackson, years he was denied trial or bail. Such uel treatment ordered Loring's withdrawal, which resulted in a serious aroused the sympathy of the Southern people, who regarded disadvantage in the defence of the Valley. General him as a martyr to their cause, and in a great measure Jackson at once wtendered his resignation, and it was with restored him to that place in their esteem which by his the greatest difficulty that the Governor of Virginia, with blunders he had lost. It also aroused a general feeling in something like an apology from the War Department, was the North, and when finally he was admitted to bail, able to retain for the Confederacy the services of this great Horace Greely, Cornelius Vanderbilt

, Gerrett Smith, and military genius. In 1864 General Joseph E. Johnston, in others in that section who had been his political opponents, command of the army of Tennessee, was faced by General became his sureties. Charles O'Conor, a leader of the New Sherman with nearly double his force. Johnston eluded York Bar, volunteered to act as his counsel. With him Sherman's efforts to outflank him, and in a series of en was associated Robert Ould of Richmond, a lawyer of great gagements, inflicting great loss, drew him some hundreds ability. They moved to quash the indictment on which of miles from his base. He then urged Mr Davis to send he was brought to trial. Chief Justice Chase and Judge a strong body of cavalry to the rear of Sherman and Underwood constituted the court, which was divided, the destroy his line of supplies. This Mr Davis declined to Chief Justice voting to sustain the motion and Underwood do, but instead insisted on Johnston's stopping the advance to overrule it. The matter was thereupon certified to the of his opponent. General Sherman commanded the best Supreme Court of the United States, and no decision of of the Federal troops, and Johnston, having reached which there is record was ever announced by that high Atlanta and having prepared to defend it on his own chosen tribunal. Meanwhile the administration dismissed the ground, declined to say what his future movements might prosecution and discharged the accused. The health of be, as they were dependent on the fortunes of war. Mr Davis was greatly injured by the harsh treatment Whereupon Mr Davis relieved him and placed in command inflicted on him while at Fortress Monroe, a harrowing acGeneral J. B. Hood, a greatly inferior soldier, who, in a count of which is given by the Federal surgeon Dr Craven series of wild assaults on Sherman, soon shattered the in his Prison Life of Jefferson Davis. It was some years magnificent army which Johnston had led with such before he was sufficiently recovered to write his Rise and ability.

Fall of the Confederate States of America. In this The defeats of Hood hastened the fate of the Confeder volume he attempted to vindicate his administration, and acy. During the winter of 1861–65 the resources of the in so doing he attacked the records of those generals he Government showed such exhaustion that it was apparent disliked. He died on 6th December 1889 at New Orleans, that the end would come with the opening of the Spring leaving a widow and two daughters—Margaret, who married campaign. This was clearly stated in the reports of the J. A. Hayes, and Varina, better known as “Winnie” Heads of Departments and of General Lee. President Davis, the daughter of the Confederacy,” who died unDavis, however, acted as if he was assured of ultimate suc married in 1899.

He sent Duncan F. Kenner as special commissioner The life of Jefferson Davis has been written several times. The to the courts of England and France to obtain recognition most prominent of these publications are those by J. William of the Confederacy on condition of the abolition of Jones, D.D., and by Mrs Varina Davis, his widow. But his life slavery. When a conference was held in Hampton Roads

is so prominently identified with the struggle between the States,

that every history of that great contest must present him in the on 3rd February 1865 between President Lincoln and foreground.

(w. W. *) Secretary Seward on the one side, and A. H. Stevens, R. M. T. Hunter, and Judge James A. Campbell, representing

Dawlish, a seaside resort in the Ashburton parliaPresident Davis, on the other, he instructed his representa

mentary division of Devonshire, England, 11 miles south tives to insist on the recognition of the Confederacy as a

by east of Exeter by rail. A masonic hall was built in condition to any arrangement for the termination of the

1890. A dispensary was established in 1885, and an war. This defeated the object of the conference, and

infirmary in 1896. The cottage hospital, founded in 1871, deprived the South of terms which would have been more

was removed to other premises in 1880. The area of the beneficial than those imposed by the conqueror when the

civil parish is 5370 acres. The population in 1881 was end came a few weeks later. The last days of the Con

4595, and in 1891 it was 4925. The area of the urban

district is 1500 acres. federate Congress were spent in recriminations between

The population in 1881 was 3977; that body and President Davis, and the popularity with

in 1901, 4003. which he commenced his'administration had almost entirely Dawson, Sir John William (1820-1899), vanished.

Canadian man of science, was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, After the surrender of the armies of Lee and Johnston on 30th October 1820. Of Scottish descent, he went to in April 1865, President Davis attempted to make his way Edinburgh to complete his education, and graduated at


that university in 1842. Returning to Canada he carried broad, with a fairly regular plan, and paved with gravel. out some geological explorations under the direction of Sir It is supplied with water by the Holly pumping system, the Charles Lyell, and was afterwards appointed superin works being owned by the city. Dayton is a commercial tendent of education for Nova Scotia, a position in which city of importance, being on the Miami and Erie Canal, he was responsible for important reforms in the educational and on ten lines of railway, belonging to five railway arrangements of the province. From 1855 to 1893 he was companies, and radiating in all directions. Its manufacprincipal of M‘Gill University, which prospered under his tures are large and varied. In 1890 the invested capital fostering care and attained a reputation that was a good was $13,470,000, employing over 12,000 hands. The deal more than local. When the Royal Society of Canada product was valued at $22,446,572. The more prominent was constituted he was the first to occupy the presidential of the products were agricultural implements, flour, and chair, and he also acted as president of the British iron and steel goods. The assessed valuation of real and Association at its meeting at Birmingham in 1866, and of personal property, on a basis of about 55 per cent of the the American Association for the Advancement of Science. full value, was, in 1899, $42,565,200, the net debt of the Sir William Dawson's name is especially associated with municipality, $3,562,943, and the rate of taxation, $25.60 the Eozoon Canadense, which in 1865 he described as an per $1000. The city had a slow growth between 1870 organism existing in a fossil state in the Laurentian rocks, and 1880, but from then until 1900 it increased rapidly, but his views on the subject were far from commanding owing to the development of manufactures and trade. general assent. Besides many memoirs published in the Population (1880), 38,678; (1890), 61,220; (1900), Transactions of various learned societies, he was the author 85,333, of whom 10,053 were foreign-born and 3387 of numerous popular books on geological subjects. In negroes. The death-rate in 1900 was 16.5. these he maintained a distinctly theological attitude, declining to admit the descent or evolution of man from

Deacon. The


of the Christian diaconate may brute ancestors, and holding that the human species only

be seen in the choosing of the Seven (Acts vi.), whose made its appearance on this earth within quite recent

primary function was “to serve tables”; but its definite and times. He died on 20th November 1899. His


permanent shape comes from the Greek churches founded GEORGE MERCER DAWSON (1849–1901), was

born at

by St Paul. The ministers of these formed two distinct Pictou on 1st August 1849, and received his education at

classes, “those who rule” and “those who serve,” with the M'Gill University and the Royal School of Mines, London, designations én lokomot and diákovou ; and St Paul enumerwhere he had a brilliant career. In 1873 he was appointed

ates their qualifications in 1 Tim. ii. 8-13, &c. With the geologist and naturalist to the North American Boundary development of the episcopate in the later sense), the Commission, and two years later he joined the staff of the

deacons became the immediate ministers of the bishop for Geological Survey of Canada, of which he became assistant disciplinary purposes; and their primary function was exdirector in 1883, and director-general in 1895. He was in

tended to include supervising church property, visiting the charge of the Canadian Government's Yukon Expedition sick, distributing alms, &c. By degrees these became subin 1887, and as one of H.M. Bering Sea Commissioners

sidiary to another function, that of ministering in the spent the summer of 1891 investigating the facts of the

church, especially in Baptism and the Eucharist, and seal fisheries on the northern coasts of Asia and America.

later on that of teaching too. And thus the duties of For his services there, and at the subsequent arbitration in

the deacon came to be summed up as follows in the Paris, he was made a C.M.G. He died on 2nd March

Roman Pontifical : diaconus oportet ministrare ad altare, 1901. He was the author of many scientific papers and

baptizare et prædicare. (In the English Ordinal both reports, especially on the surface geology and glacial functions, ministering in temporal matters and ministering phenomena of the northern parts of America, and he was

in the congregation, are kept in view.) But the fundamental largely responsible for the Canadian articles in this character of his office remained : on the one hand he was Supplement.

sharply distinguished, as being in “holy orders” like the

bishop and presbyter, from the various lower orders in the Dax, chief town of arrondissement, in the department

ancient Church ; on the other hand, he “ministered” to of Landes, France, 35 miles west-south-west of Mont

those of higher degree. And although in their absence fresh de-Marsan, with station on railway from Bordeaux to

functions devolved upon him (varying with times and Bayonne. It is an important market for resinous

regions), he could never perform strictly “sacerdotal” substances, cattle, mules, and horses, and has considerable

functions, such as consecrating the Eucharist. The office mercantile interchange with Spain. In the middle of the town there is a hot sulphur spring of a temperature of frequently led in ancient days

to the

higher orders ; but it

was frequently held for life, and in great cities, where the 140° Fahr.; and the place is consequently frequented by number of deacons was long restricted to seven, it became visitors for the sake of the baths. An important new

one of high honour and emolument. In modern days both bathing establishment, beautifully situated on the site of

tendencies are represented : in the West the office is the old castle and near the Adour, was opened by the

usually a stepping-stone to the priesthood, whereas in the President of the Republic in 1891. In the same year a East it is often held for life, and some high offices are monument to the engineer Borda (d. 1799) was unveiled.

reserved to deacons. The ancient canonical age for the Population (1881), 8359; (1891), 8403 ; (1896), 8307, diaconate was twenty-five; it is now twenty-three. In (comm.) 9836; (1901), 10,329.

the Lutheran Churches the Diakonat is merely a title of Dayton, a city of Campbell county, Kentucky, certain assistant clergy, not a separate order; in most U.S.A., on the south bank of the Ohio river, opposite other non-Episcopal Churches it is practically a lay office. Cincinnati, and adjoining Bellevue and Newport, Ky.,

THOMASSINUS. Vetus ac Nova Disciplina, pars i. lib. i. c. 51 f. in the northern part of the state. Population (1890), and lib. ii. c. 29 f. Lugdunum, 1706.-J. N. SEIDL. Der Diakonat 4264; (1900), 6104, of whom 655 were foreign-born and in der katholischen Kirche. Regensburg, 1884.-R. Sohm. Kirchen

recht, i. 121–137. Leipzig, 1892.–Smith and CHEETHAM. Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, art. “Deacon."

(W. E. co.) Dayton, capital of Montgomery county, Ohio, U.S.A., in 39° 44' N. lat. and 84° 08' W. long., on the Deaconess.—The office of deaconess has a special Great Miami river, which here is not navigable, at an importance at the present day, in view of the movement altitude of 737 feet. The site is level, and the streets for its revival. It may now be considered certain that (a)

63 negroes.

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there was a true diaconate of women in the churches founded of Canterbury; and the Lambeth Conference of 1897 by St Paul. Bishop Lightfoot held that Phoebe, diákovos recognizes with thankfulness the revival of the office of of the church at Cenchreæ (Rom. xvi. 1), “is as much a deaconess.” Nevertheless, the revival cannot yet be condeacon as Stephen or Philip is a deacon"; and even if the sidered complete : the deaconess is not yet more than a word be used loosely here, it is clear that 1 Tim. iii. 11 diocesan officer, who “may be released from her obligations

Women (-deacons) in like manner,” &c. (6) Nor by the bishop, if he thinks fit, upon cause shown”; her must they be confused with the “widows” of the ancient special functions are undetermined, and her status is still Church, to whom certain functions were sometimes in in many ways indefinite. No doubt, however, further trusted; they were ordained (excepting apparently for a time development is only a question of time. in Egypt) and had a definite position “about the altar,"

Deaconess CECILIA ROBINSON. The Ministry of Deaconesses. i.e., in the ranks of the clergy. Their work was to visit

London, 1898.—Church Quarterlg Review, vol. xlvii. p. 302 f., art. and instruct the women, to have charge of them during “On the Early History and Modern Revival of Deaconesses. service, and to anoint women and children for baptism;

London, 1899 ; and the works there referred to.-D. LATAS. sometimes also to cleanse the sanctuary and even administer

Xplotlavikń 'Apxaloloyla, vol. i. pp. 163–171. Athens, 1883.

Testamentum Domini, ed. RAHMANI. Mainz, 1899. the chalice to women. At first they ranked with, but

(W. E. Co.) below, the men-deacons ; in course of time, however, the former rose in the scale and the latter fell, ranking below Dead Sea, a lake in Palestine, so called from the the sub-deacons; and indeed the author of the TESTA absence of animal life in its waters. It lies nearly north and MENTUM DOMINI (2.v.) places over them an entirely new south, in the deepest part of the Jordan-Àraba depression. officer, the “canonical widow," "presbytera,” or “vidua It has no outlet, and its surface is from 1289 to 1300 feet habens præcedentiam sedendo," of whom there are only below that of the Mediterranean. At its northern end faint traces elsewhere. Although the order appears to the broad valley down which the Jordan flows; and have existed from the first in the East, where women were beyond the marshy plain at its other extremity, the floor of much secluded (the two ministræ tortured by Pliny, Ep.

the Åraba rises southward to the watershed between the xcvi, may well have been deaconesses), it only spread Dead and Red Seas (651 miles from the Dead and 461 elsewhere by degrees. It is not mentioned in Egypt till miles from the Red Sea ; altitude 660 feet). From the well on in the 3rd century, and does not appear in the West eastern shore the ground rises abruptly in terraces to the till about 400 A.D., -first in Gaul and then in Italy. Even Moabite plateau (3100 feet); and from the western with then it does not seem to have been a thriving institution. almost equal abruptness to the hill country of Judah Some deaconesses are known to us of a strictly ministerial (3300 feet). The slopes on either side are deeply seamed kind, but more frequently they are of a monastic or quasi by watercourses, through which winter torrents and, in monastic character; and the institution died away by about some cases, perennial streams flow to the lake. The Dead the 11th century. In the East they throve better: they Sea is about 47 miles long, and its greatest width is 97 are well known to us in the writings of St Chrysostom and miles ; its area is about 340 square miles. It is divided other fathers, synods made regulations respecting them, into two unequal parts by a peninsula, el-Lisán, and their position before the law is clearly laid down in which breaks off on the west in a cliff about 300 feet high, the Civil Law. Nevertheless, here also they passed away and is connected with the Moabite shore by a narrow by degrees; first the office came to be held by the heads of strip of marshy land. The peninsula is composed of communities of women, then the name came to be given

white calcareous marl with beds of salt and gypsum, and, to abbesses in general, and by about the 13th century like Jebel Usdum, which it resembles in character and deaconesses were practically extinct. Several mediæval composition, it formed part of the bed of the lake when and Protestant sects, however, possessed a ministry of its waters stood at a higher level. North of the peninsula deaconesses, amongst whom may be mentioned the Cathari, the lake has a maximum depth of 1278 feet. South of Mennonites, United Brethren, and the early Independents. it the depth is only 3 to 12 feet, and some years ago Moreover, the enlarged scope of women's work at the it was fordable opposite el-Lisán. The marshy plain, present day has led to the foundation of “deaconess insti es-Sebkha, at the south end is liable to inundation, and tutions” of an entirely new kind. Such an institution was strewn with driftwood encrusted with salt; it extends inaugurated at Kaiserwerth in 1833 by the Lutheran Dr southwards to a terrace 500 feet high, which marks the leidner; others of the same kind followed, both abroad and commencement of the Araba. At the south-west end of in England (e.g., at Tottenham and Mildmay Park); and the lake is Jebel or Khashm Usdum, about 600 feet high, they are now to be found in most parts of Europe. The and 7 miles long, of which the lower part is formed of members of these institutions, however, do not really solid rock-salt. The principal affluents, including winter represent the deaconesses of early days: they are not torrents, are, on the north, the Jordan and Ain esministers of their churches in any real sense, but rather Súeimeh ; on the east, Wadies Ghuweir, Zerka Ma'ín, in members of voluntary societies for common work. In fact which lie the hot sulphur springs of Callirrhöe, Mójib they are Protestant sisters of charity rather than deaconesses. (Arnon), ed-Derá'a or el-Kerak, en-Nʻmeirah, and el-Hesi or In recent days, however, there has been a movement in es-Sáfieh, which passes to the lake through the reed-thickets the churches of the Anglican communion for the revival of es-Sebkha; on the south, Wadies et-Tafileh, el-Jeib, and of the order of deaconess on ancient lines. In 1861 el-Fikreh ; and on the west, Wadies Muhauwát and Seyál, Bishop Tait of London set apart Miss E. Ferard as a 'Ain Jidi, W. el-Merabba or ed-Derajeh, 'Ain Ghuweir, deaconess by laying on of hands, and she became the first W. en-Nár, and ‘Ain Feshkha. It is estimated that these head of the London Deaconess Institution. Similar insti affluents pour more than six million tons of water into the tutions have since been founded at home and abroad, Dead Sea daily, all of which passes off by evaporation. some on a "regular" and some on a “secular” basis ; i.e., The surface level of the lake varies with the season. in some cases the members are professed sisters, in others In March 1865 it was 1292 feet below sea-level (Wilson) : not. By degrees, too, they have received further recog it is highest in February or March. The boiling-point of nition. In 1871 a body of “Principles and Rules” for the water is 221° F. The density increases from north to deaconesses received the signature of the two English south, and with the depth-rapidly to a certain point, archbishops and eighteen bishops ; in 1891 eight “Reso after which it is more uniform. Its density at 300 mètres lutions” on the subject were passed in the Convocation is 1.253, average 1.166. The solid matter at a depth of


300 m. is 27:8 per cent. of the weight, and consists of by the Turks an attempt has been made to place small chlorides of calcium, magnesia, sodium, and potassium, steamers on the lake. and in smaller proportions of bromides and sulphates of

Name. In the Old Testament the Dead Sea is called “the the same substances. The richness in bromine is held to

sea,” the “salt sea,” the "

sea of the Arabah,” and “the eastern indicate greatly prolonged concentration. Eggs float in ." The name “Dead Sea” appears in the Vulgate (Jos. iii. 16), the water. Curative properties were attributed to it in and is used by Pausanias, Galen, Justin, and Eusebius. Diodorus Roman times; and according to Mukaddasi, A.D. 985,

Siculus, Pliny, and Josephus call it the " Asphaltic Lake,” and

others the “Sodomitish sea. It is now known to the Arabs as people assembled to drink it on a feast day in August. A Bahr Lút, “the sea of Lot," bath in the lake is wholesome and refreshing.

The oily

Geology.The Jordan-Àraba depression, in which the Dead sensation after bathing is due to the chloride of calcium ;

Sea lies, was produced by subsidence along a line of faults or

fractures during the terrestrial movements that accompanied the and the noisome, acrid taste to the chloride of magnesia.

gradual elevation of the region out of the sea after the close of the The chloride and bromide of magnesia are fatal to all Eocene period. As a result of the faulting, the formations on the animal life excepting certain microbes found in the mud opposite sides of the lake do not correspond. Whilst the hills on by Ehrenberg and Lortet. Fish carried down by the

the western side are formed entirely of Cretaceous limestones, the Jordan, and small fish from brackish pools and streams

abrupt face of the Moabite plateau is composed of a base of ancient

volcanic rocks, upon which rest, in ascending order, red sandnear the shore, die at once in the water of the lake. The

stones and conglomerates of the Carboniferous age, Carboniferous water strongly affects the eyes, and evaporation leaves a limestone, variegated sandstones (Nubian sandstone) of Lower thick deposit of salt. The water is limpid and trans Cretaceous age, and Cretaceous limestones. The deeply cut parent, and under varying conditions is deep blue or

raviues of the Moabite plateau owe their origin to the same sub

sidence, but their features, and those of the hills east and west of green in colour. Its surface, far from being motionless,

the lake, were greatly modified by the heavy rainfall in the as some writers have supposed, is constantly rippled by Pliocene and Pleistocene periods. Terraces of lacustrine deposits breezes, or raised into waves by the strong northerly

at different levels indicate that in Pleistocene times the Jordan winds, and is sometimes veiled by light bluish clouds or

valley was occupied by a lake 200 miles long, which had the same

surface level as the Mediterranean ; and that the water gradually haze produced by the evaporation. Molyneux, in 1847,

subsided until, long before the dawn of history, the evaporation and others since that date, have noticed a streak of white equalled the supply, and the lake assumed approximately its foain which sometimes stretches from the north-west end present level. The surface is liable to frequent fluctuations of of the lake towards el-Lisán, following nearly the axis of

level, which, though confined to narrow vertical limits, are suffithe lake. From this Blanckenhorn concludes that there is

cient to alter considerably the form and superficial extent of the

lake. Such fluctuations are due to a succession of exceptionally a sub-lacustrine fissure which he considers to be thermal dry or rainy seasons, to the greater or lesser activity of subaqueous and asphaltic; but the phenomenon is possibly due to the springs, to landslips, to changes in the drainage, to the gradual current of the Jordan, which does not expend its force

silting up of the basin, and, possibly, to slight earth movements completely until it reaches el-Lisán. A recent traveller,

which escape detection. The annual rise and fall is estimated at

from 6 to 10 feet, but there seems to be also prolonged periods of Rev. P. Cady, writes of a strong current setting towards high and low level. The lines of driftwood and the marks on the the north along the east coast ; of oil floating on the rocks show the limits of rise which might occur under existing water near the mouth of the Zerka Ma'în ; and of disturb

conditions, and a fall of 15 feet is quite possible after excepances of level that appear, like those to which the Lake

tional periods of dryness. Such a fall would dry up almost the

whole of the lagoon south of el-Lisán, and effect great changes in the of Geneva is subject, to be due to differences of barometric

appearance of the lake.

During the forty years 1860-1900 there pressure at different points on the lake. The origin of was a gradual rise in the level of the surface, apparently coinciding these and other phenomena can only be ascertained by a

in part with a succession of wet seasons, but accurate observations thorough scientific examination of the lake and its basin.

are wanting. A small island near the north end of the lake,

which in 1858 was from 10 to 12 feet above the surface, and conThe shores are sterile and clesolate from the absence of nected with the shore by a causeway, has been entirely submerged fresh water, and from the smallness of the rainfall, and since 1892 ; and the track between Jebel Usdum and the lake has not, as formerly supposed, from the poisonous nature of for several years been covered with water. Monthly measurements the air.

of the rise and fall of the lake, taken for the Palestine Exploration The springs near the lake give life to thickets

Fund during an exceptionally dry year, October 1900 to October of willow, tanarisk, and acacia, which are frequented by

1901, showed a rise of 1 foot 3 inches up to 30th March 1901, and birds; and wherever, as at Engedi, there is running water then a fall of 1 foot 9 inches to October. Thus the level of the the vegetation is almost tropical in its luxuriance. The lake was lowered 6 inches during the year. The asphalt or plain of Jericho is very fertile, and south of the lake the

bitumen, so highly prized in ancient times, is supposed to be

derived from subaqueous strata of bituminous limestone or marl, Arabs raise crops of wheat, dura, cotton, and tobacco.

and to collect at the bottom of the lake until it is loosened by an The climate in summer and autumn is very hot and earthquake and rises to the surface. The Arabs collect the bitumen unhealthy; but in winter it is good, with hot days and which reaches the shore, and the salt of Jebel Usdum and of the cool nights. The unhealthiness is due partly to the

Deacl Sea has been carried to Jerusalem from the earliest times.

But no systematic attempt has been made yet to turn the mineral intense heat, and partly to the miasma from the swamps wealth of the Dead Sea and its basin to account. and lagoons at the southern end. The


is remark The following analysis of water taken from the north end of the able for the brilliancy of the colouring, and the varying lake, not near the Jordan, in March 1885, when the level was high, effects of light and shade. The abrupt slopes on either

was made by Dr Bernays :

Sp. gr. 1.1528 at 15.5 C. side, the deep ravines on the eastern shore, and the intense colouring of the water combine to form a scene of

Calcium carbonate

70.00 grandeur and beauty which has been compared, not

Calcium sulphate



Magnesium nitrate inaptly, with the aspect of some portions of the Lake of

Potassium chloride

1089.06 Geneva. Boats were employed on the lake in Roman, Sodium chloride

5106:00 and possibly in much earlier, times (Tacitus, Hist. v. 6; Calcium chloriile

594.46 Josephus, Ant. ix. 1, $ 2; B. J. iv. 7, § 6); they are Magnesium chloride,



Magnesium bromide. represented on it in the mosaic map at Jledeba ; and

Iron and aluminium oxides

10.50 under the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem the navigation dues formed part of the revenue of the Lords of Kerak.

14,942-43 The use of boats died out when the Turks abandoned the Organic matter, water of

317.57 country east of the Jordan to the Bedawín. During the

crystallization and loss | 19th century boats have occasionally been used for exploration, and since the occupation of Moab and Edom

per gallon. S. III.



15,260-00 { grains residue

This is not the place to discuss the theories respecting the de was of Belgian extraction, but his family had long been struction of the Cities of the Plain (Gen. xix.). The catastrophe was settled in Germany. He was born, January 26, 1831, in no way connected with the formation of the Dead Sea. Some

at Frankfort-on-Main. From 1849 to 1853 he studied authorities place the cities at the south end of the lake; but it is clear from the statements in the Bible that they were situated in

medicine at Heidelberg, Marburg, and Berlin. In 1853 the Jordan valley to the north of the lake.

he settled at Frankfort as a surgeon.

In 1854 he became AUTHORITIES. —DUC DE LUYNES. Voyage d' Exploration à la Mer privat-docent for botany in Tübingen, and afterwards ProMorte, tome 3, Géologie par Louis LARTET, Paris, 1875.—FRAAS.

fessor of Botany at Freiberg (1859). In 1867 he migrated Aus dem Orient.—WILSON, in Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem, Notes (for levels), and in P. E. F. Qy. Stat., 1900.—Hull. Memoir

to Halle, and in 1872 to Strassburg, where he was the on the Geology and Geography of Arabia, Petrca, Palestine, &c., P.

first rector of the newly constituted university. He E. Fund, 1889; Mount Seir, 1889.-G. A. SMITH. Historical died there January 19, 1888. In his earlier years he Geography of the IIoly Land, 1894.-Lortet, in Zeitschrift des

came under the influence of Mohl, Fresenius, A. Braun, Deutschen Palästina Vereins, xvii. 142.-BLANCKENHORN, in 2.D.P.V. xix. 157.—GAUTIER, Autour de la Mer Morte, 1901.—DE

Ehrenberg, and Johannes Müller, but his startling originLAPPARENT. Etude Géologique sur la Mer Morte in Revue Biblique, ality and ability soon brought him into prominence, and vol. v. (1896). —GRAY Hill and PUTNAM CADY in P. E. F. Qy. he became one of Germany's most distinguished biologists, Stats., 1900, 1901.

(c. W. w.) remarkable for his broad and firm grip of the botanical Deadwood, capital of Lawrence county, South problems of his day, and for the clear insight he brought Dakota, U.S.A., in the northern part of the Black Hills, to bear on investigations. in 44° 23' N. lat. and 103° 44' W. long., in the cañon of Although one of his largest and most important works Whitewood Creek, at an altitude of 4532 feet. Its site is was on the Comparative Anatomy of Ferns and Phanhilly, and its street plan irregular. It has two railways, erogams, in which he produced an account of the tissues the Burlington and Missouri River, and the Fremont, of vascular plants which has never been entirely superseded, Elkhorn, and Missouri Valley. It is the commercial and his treatment of the epidermal system being especially mining centre of the Black Hills. About it are several yood, and notwithstanding his admirable acquaintance gold mines, characterized by the low grade of their ores, with systematic and field botany generally, De Bary will which range from $3 to $4 per ton, by their vast quantity always be remembered as the founder of modern Mycology. and by the ease of mining and of extracting the metal. This branch of botany he completely revolutionized in The ore contains free gold, which is extracted by the 1866 by the publication of his celebrated Morphologie und simple process of stainping and amalgamation. Several Physiologie d. Pilze, &c., a classic which he rewrote in hundred tons of ore are treated thus in Deadwood and its 1884, and which has had a world-wide influence on Biology. environs daily, and its stamp mills are exceeded in size only His clear appreciation of the real significance of Symby those of the Treadwell Mine in south-eastern Alaska. biosis and the dual nature of Lichens stands out as one The annual gold product of this region is about $4,000,000. of his masterpieces, and in many ways he showed powers Population (1880), 3777; (1890), 2366; (1900), 3498, of of generalizing in regard to the evolution of organisms whom 707 were foreign-born.

which would alone have made him a distinguished man. It Deal, a municipal borough and bathing resort in the was as an investigator of the then mysterious Fungi, howSt Augustine's parliamentary division (since 1885) of Kent,

ever, that De Bary stands out first and foremost among England, 8 miles north-cast by north of Dover by rail. The the biologists of the 19th century. He not only laid asphalted promenade is now nearly 4 miles long; the bare the complex facts of the life-history of many forms, pier has been provided with a pavilion and enlarged. There

—e.g., the Ustilagineæ, Peronosporeze, Uredineæ, and many are well-known golf links. Area, 1124 acres. Population Ascomycetes,—treating them from the developmental point (1881), 8500; (1901), 10,427. There is a parish of Deal. of view, in opposition to the then prevailing anatomical

method of the Tulasnes, but he insisted on the necessity De Amicis, Edmondo (1846-—), Italian

of tracing the evolution of each organism from spore to writer, was born at Oneglia 21st October 1816. After some

spore, and by his methods of culture and accurate obserschooling at Cuneo and Turin, he was sent to the Military

vation brought to light numerous facts hitherto undreamt School at Modena, from which he was appointed to a of. These his keen perception and insight continually lieutenancy in the 3rd Regiment of the line in 1865. He

employed as the basis for hypotheses, which he in turn fought at the battle of Custozza in 1866. In 1867 he became Director of the Italia Militare, Florence. In the equalled and probably never surpassed. One of his most

tested with an experimental skill and critical faculty rarely following year he published his first book, La Vitu Mili

fruitful discoveries was the true meaning of infection as ture, which consisted of sketches of military life, and

a morphological and physiological process. attained wide popularity.

He traced After the overthrow of the

this step by step in Phytophthora, Cystopus, Puccinia, and Pope's temporal power in 1870, De Amicis retired from the army and devoted himself to literature, making his head

other Fungi, and so placed before the world in a clear

light the significance of parasitism. He then showed by quarters at Turin. Always a traveller by inclination, he

numerous examples wherein lay the essential differences found opportunity for this in his new leisure, and some of

between a parasite and a saprophyte, a theme by no means his most popular books have been the product of his

clear in 1860–70, but which he himself had recognized as wanderings. Several of these have been translated into English and the other principal languages of Europe.

carly as 1853, as is shown by his work, Die Brandpilze.

These researches led to the explanation of epidemic The most important of these are his descriptions of Spain (1873), Holland (1874), Constantinople (1877), and

diseases, and De Bary's contributions to this subject were Morocco (1879). These have gained him reputation as a

fundamental, as witness his classical work on the Potato

Disease in 1861. They also led to his striking discovery brilliant depicter of scenery and the external aspects of

of heteroecism (or metoecism) in the Uredineæ, the truth of life; solid information is not within their sphere ; and

which he demonstrated in Wheat Rust experimentally, and much of their success is owing to the opportunities they

so clearly that his classical example (1863) has never been afford for spirited illustration. Of late years De Amicis has greatly extended his fame as a novelist, especially by

other than confirmed by subsequent observers, though we

now know much more as to details. It is difficult to Il Romanzo d'un Maestro (1890). His poems consist

estimate the relative importance of De Bary's astoundingly principally of sonnets.

accurate work on the sexuality of the Fungi. He not De Bary, Anton (1831–1888), German botanist, only described the phenomena of sexuality in Peronospores

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