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year 1,061,868,376 fb of dressed beef, 505,834,067 th from taxes paid by the owners of property in the sanitary of lard, 203,454 barrels of pork, and 863,363,437 ib of district, which includes the greater part of the city and other hog products. The receipts of sheep were 3,682,832. certain suburban areas, a total of 185 square miles. The The Union stock-yards include 475 acres of land, of work is in the hands of a board of trustees elected by which 320 acres are floored with planks or brick. Within the people of the district. the yards are 13,000 pens, 8500 of which are covered, for Parks.-An extensive system of parks and connecting housing hogs and sheep. These covered pens occupy 75 drives girdles the city from the shore of the lake on the acres. There are also within the yards 25 miles of streets, north to the shore on the south. There are three distinct 38 miles of water troughs, 90 miles of water pipes, and divisions of the system, known as the north, west, and 50 miles of sewerage. The receipts of grain and of flour south parks, each being managed by a board of trustees. in the grain equivalent were 320,670,440 bushels, and The trustees of the north parks and those of the west the shipments were 246,369,099 bushels. The port of parks are appointed by the governor of Illinois, while the Chicago showed 8048 arrivals, with a tonnage of 6,281,355, south park trustees are appointed by the judges within and 8126 clearances, with a tonnage of 6,317,884. The Cook county. There are also several minor parks, which duties collected on imported goods at the Chicago custom- are controlled by the city government. The entire park house amounted to $7,551,400. The greater part of these area comprises 2232:1 acres—323.7 on the north side, imports came by rail in bond. The bank clearings were 627:3 on the west side, and 1281.1 on the south side. $6,612,311,611, as against $60,761,791,901 for New Lincoln Park on the north side, and Jackson Park on York, $7,086,285,271 for Boston, and $4,811,079,611 for the south side, are on the lake shore. The parks contain Philadelphia. The gross receipts of the post office for some interesting monuments—especially noteworthy being the fiscal year ending 30th June 1899 were $6,131,123, the bronze statue of Lincoln, the equestrian statue of as against $8,881,547 for New York, $3,143,929 for Grant, and the memorials of Lassalle, Schiller, and Linnæus Philadelphia, and $2,920,383 for Boston.

in Lincoln Park, and the equestrian statue of Logan in Government. The constitution of the state of Illinois Lake Front Park. The monument dedicated to the forbids the legislature to grant special charters for muni- Ottawa Indians, in Lincoln Park, and that commemorating cipal corporations, and requires that all such incorporations the Indian massacre of 1812, are also of interest. In the shall be in accordance with a general law. The govern- Oakwoods cemetery is a monument to the memory of the ment of Chicago, therefore, is framed by the statute

Union soldiers of the Civil War, and also one to the memory which provides for all cities in the state alike. The city of the Confederate soldiers who died while prisoners in is divided into thirty-five wards. Each of these elects Camp Douglas in the suburbs of Chicago between 1861 two members of the city council, one being chosen each and 1865. year for a term of two years. Thus the council is a con- Finance.—The total receipts of the city for the fiscal tinuous body, one half of its seventy members being year 1900 were $34,962,473. They were derived from renewed annually. The powers of the council are very taxation on real estate and on personal property, and extensive, including the granting of franchises for the from various other sources. The main items of the supplying of light and locomotion. The supreme executive receipts, in addition to $2,956,734 cash on hand at officer is a mayor, elected by the qualified voters of the beginning of the year, were—property tax, $14,295,829; city for two years. Legislation requires his assent to be liquor licenses, $3,174,003; other licenses, $538,092; valid, unless a two-thirds vote of the council adopts the special assessments, $3,246,121; water-works, $3,292,759; measure notwithstanding his veto. The mayor has large loans, $5,138,000. power of appointment and removal of officers, and it is his The total expenditures for the year were $28,733,848, of duty to enforce the laws. The administrative departments which the expenditures for construction and other capital are organized in general on the plan of a single head for outlay amounted to $9,215,772, and those for maintenance each, appointed by the mayor with the approval of the and operation to $19,518,076. The main items of the council, the subordinates being appointed by the head former class of expenditures were-schools, $608,109; with the approval of the mayor. These departments are streets, $898,699; and loans repaid, $6,060,511. The those of finance, law, public works, fire, police, health, main items of the latter class were—police department, and buildings. The department of education and the $3,773,423; fire department, $1,617,225; schools, public library are administered by boards, whose members $6,200,433; parks and gardens, $643,089; street cleanare appointed by the mayor with the approval of the ing and sprinkling, $588,662; water-works, $1,210,001; council. The courts of law are courts of the state of and interest on debt, $1,313,916. The assessed valuIllinois, but a certain number of justices of the peace ation of real property in 1900, on a basis of about 20 are designated by the mayor to act as police magistrates. per cent. of the full value, was $202,884,012; of personal

Local Works.—The water supply is derived from Lake property, on the same basis, $73,681,868. The general Michigan, there being a series of pumping stations from tax-rate was $74.87 per $1000. The net debt was one mile to five miles from the shore. The system belongs $32,989,819. to the city, and is maintained and operated by the depart- By an anomaly in the laws, the rural towns over which ment of public works. The main drainage of the city has the city has extended retain their political structure and been into the lake. In order to preserve the lake water from some of their functions. It is also true that the dual pollution a drainage canal has been constructed from the system of city and county government—the city area south branch of the Chicago river to the Desplaines paying nine-tenths of the city taxes—is clumsy and river, a total distance (including the improved portion of burdensome. The rapid growth of the city makes it the river) of 34 miles. By this means the water flows necessary to provide public improvements on a large scale, from the lake into the Desplaines, and thence by way of and under the laws of the state the income heretofore has the Illinois river into the Mississippi. The water was been insufficient to cover necessary expenses.

How to turned into the channel on 2nd January 1905. The provide an adequate income without an excessive burden present flow is limited to 360,000 cubic feet per minute, on taxpayers, and without incurring a crushing debt, is but the canal is designed to have a maximum capacity of one of the grave problems of the near future. 600,000 cubic feet per minute. The entire cost (1st The World's Fair, 1893.—The four-hundredth anniJanuary 1900) was $34,000,000. The cost is defrayed versary of the discovery of America was commemorated






by a World's Fair at Chicago (see article EXHIBITIONS). | board $200,000 towards the permanent building on the The site was at Jackson Park, on the lake shore, and lake front, used during the fair as a place of meeting for included 666 acres. On 21st October 1892 (corresponding the various congresses. to 12th October, o.s.), the date of the discovery, occurred Municipal Reform.-In the spring of 1893 the Civic the formal dedication of the grounds. The fair was opened Federation was organized by a number of public-spirited on 1st May 1893, and was continued until 15th November. citizens, and through that agency, as well as by other The buildings, planned by a commission of architects, means, much has been accomplished in the direction of formed a collection of rare beauty, while the grounds, giving Chicago better government and better civic con

ditions. In 1895 the state adopted a municipal civil service law, which might be put in force by any city on affirmative vote of the people. It

was ratified in Chicago by a majority LE

of over 50,000. Later an improved revenue law and a law for the protection of primary elections have been enacted. All these measures secured by the efforts of Chicago reformers. In 1896 the Municipal Voters' League was organized. This body has devoted itself to securing a better common council. The league examines and publishes the record of each candidate, no matter by what party nominated, and recommends election or defeat, as the case may be. As a result the council has been largely redeemed from the corrupt element which at one time controlled it.

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AUTHORITIES.- ANDREAS. History of Chicago. 3 vols.-BLANCHARD. History of Chicago and the North - II est. -BROSS. History of Chicago.LAND. Chicago : Her Trade and Commerce.—Moses and KIRK

History of Chicago. 2 vols. — SHEAHAN and UPTON. Chicago : Lau's and Ordinances of Chicago; Industrial Chicago. 1891-96. 6 vols. —SPARLING. Municipal History of Chicago. School Census Reports; Forty-third Annual Statement of the Finances of City of Chicago, from 1st January 1999 to 31st December 1899.The Lakeside City Directory, 1899. -Forty-second Annual Report of the Trade and Commerce of Chicago (to the Board of Trade) for the year ending 31st December 1899. - Reports of the City Departments and of the various Institutions, Report of the Committee of the Common Council on Street Railways.

(H. P. J.)

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Chicago, University of,

situated at Chicago, Ill., U.S.A., was NEN

founded by John D. Rockefeller, and opened its doors in October 1892. In 1899-1900 it had 223 teachers and 3183 students. It occupies eight blocks in the city of

Chicago, upon which seventeen stone intersected by lagoons and bordered by the waters of buildings have been erected; seven additional the lake, gave an appropriate setting. The principal are now being built. The library contains 305,000 nations of the world, and nearly all the states of the volumes. The value of grounds, buildings, and equipment Union, had appropriate buildings, and the exhibits were is nearly $1,000,000, and the invested funds approximate on an extensive scale. A notable feature was the series $6,500,000. The only professional school is in divinity, of congresses on iinportant subjects, of which the parlia- but fully one-third of the students are engaged in graduate ment of religions was perhaps the most successful. The work in arts, literature, and science. The university total number of paid admissions was 27,529,401. Two extension division is important, and the university press permanent results of the fair remain in Chicago. The publishes twelve scientific periodicals. By a system of Field Columbian Museum found the nucleus of its great affiliation close relationship is sustained with a number of collection in many exhibits which were presented to it. colleges and secondary schools. Students of both sexes The Chicago Art Institute was given by the World's Fair are admitted on equal terms. The Yerkes observatory of the university, which contains the largest telescope in 12,000 to 15,000. The place is growing fast, and a the world, is situated on Lake Geneva in Wisconsin, 60 considerable population, probably over 100,000 in number, miles from Chicago.

(W. R. H.) inhabits the plain in the neighbourhood of the capital. Chicago Heights, a village of Cook county, Situated as it is, midway between Moulmein and Yunnan Illinois, U.S.A., a few miles S. of Chicago, of which it Shân states, it has long been of commercial importance ;

and is a suburb. Population (1900), 5100, of whom 1530 while as the centre of the principal teak forests of were foreign-born and 47 were negroes.

Siam it has since 1880 attracted a considerable number Chichester, an ancient Roman city and municipal of British, Shân, and Burmese foresters. By the treaty of borough in the Chichester parliamentary division of 3rd September 1883 between Siam and Great Britain a Sussex, England, about 14 miles N.E. of Portsmouth by British consul resides at Chieng Mai, and an International rail. In 1897 a tramway to Selsey Beach was completed, Court has been constituted, with civil and criminal jurisdicand the town was thoroughly drained in 1894 at a cost tion in all cases in which British subjects are parties. of £33,000. The restoration of the cathedral, which Surveys have been made for railways from both Bangkok was commenced in 1830, is still in progress, the cloisters (500 miles) and Moulmein (230 miles). The total value of being the portions most recently restored (1890-91). The the annual import and export trade with Burma, China, city and borough has been twice extended, and in 1901 and Bangkok of the consular district of Chieng Mai, is had an area of 1595 acres. Population (1881), 8149; approximately £1,000,000 sterling, excluding teak. The (1901), 12,241

output of teak will probably be somewhat restricted by Chickamauga Creek, a small branch of the conservancy regulations enforced by the Siamese

Forest Department. Tennessee river, joining it about 6 miles above Chattanooga. It gave the name to a desperate battle during Chihuahua, a state of Mexico, bounded on the N. the Civil War, fought on 19th and 20th September 1863, by the United States, on the W. by Sonora, on the E. by between the Federal forces under Rosecrans and the Coahuila, and on the S. by Sonora, Sinaloa, and Durango. Confederates under Bragg ; and after terrible fighting It has an area of 87,820 square miles. The populaRosecrans was repulsed. The Union loss was reported at tion in 1879 was 225,541, and in 1895 it was 262,771, 16,000, that of the Confederates 18,000. The site of this or 3:0 per square mile. It is divided politically into battle has been converted into a national park by the eighteen departments. Mining and stock-raising are the general Government.

principal industries, though the agricultural interests are

also considerable. The state contains some 200 towns and Chicopee, a city of Hampden county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated in 42° 10' N. lat. and 72 31 villages. The exports are principally gold and silver, lead, W. long., on Connecticut river, which is here not navig: $90,000,000 (gold) represents the American capital in

It is estimated that

copper, cattle, sheep, and hides. able, and on the Boston and Maine railway, 6 miles N. of vested in mining. The value of the agricultural products Springfield. It was chartered as a city in 1890, with an in 1896 was $2,381,565. The capital, Chihuahua, had area of 26 square miles of level surface, in which there are

a population in 1895 of 18,279, and an estimated one in the three villages of Chicopee Center, Chicopee Falls, and 1898 of 24,000. It is on the Vexican Central railway, Willimansett. It has fine water-power in Chicopee river, 226 miles south of El Paso (Texas) and 6400 feet above which joins the Connecticut within the city limits, and has sea-level. It is lighted by electricity, has tramways and extensive cotton mills and factories for iron and steel good sewerage. The principal public buildings are the goods, especially for bicycles, arms, cutlery, and agri- cathedral, the state palace, and the Hospital Porfirio Diaz. cultural tools. Population (1880), 11,286; (1890), Other important towns are Parral (7-269), Ciudad Juarez 14,050; (1900), 19,167, of whom 8139 were foreign- (6917), and Jimenez (5381). born and 10 were negroes.

Chilas, an insignificant hill village, dominated by a Chidambaram, or CAELUMBRUM, a town of fort, on the left bank of the Indus, about 50 miles below British India, in the South Arcot district of Madras, 7 Bunji. It is situated in 35° 27' N. lat. and 34° 8' E. long., miles from the coast and 151 miles S. of Madras by rail. | 4100 feet above sea-level. It was occupied by a British The population in 1881 was 19,837, and in 1891 it was force early in 1893, when a determined attack was mad 18,634; the municipal income in 1897-98 was Rs.23,690. on the place by the Kohistanis from the Indus valley Its temples are among the most famous in Southern India, districts to the south-west, aided by contingents from and attract 60,000 pilgrims every December. The great Darel and Tangir west of Gilgit and north of the Indus. temple has a court of 1000 pillars, each a solid block of Its importance consists in its position with reference granite, and its roof is covered with copper and gold. to the Kashmir-Gilgit route via Astor, which it flanks. There are a high school and three printing-presses. It is now connected with Bunji by a metalled road.

Chieng Mai (Burm. Zimmé), the capital of the Chilas is also important from its command of a much Lao state of the same name and the residence of a Siamese shorter and more direct route to Gilgit from the Punjab high commissioner appointed from Bangkok. This

frontier than that of Kashmir and the Burzil pass. By the official has jurisdiction over the neighbouring less im- Kashmir route Gilgit is 400 miles from the rail-head at portant states of Lampun, Lakawn-Lampang, Pre, and Rawal Pindi. By the Khagán route it would be brought Nan, each of which, like Chieng Mai itself, retains its

100 miles nearer, but the unsettled condition of the hereditary chief, or chao muang, and other hereditary officers. country through which the road passes is at present a bar The town, surrounded by the remains of long ineffectual to its general use. fortifications, is situated on the right bank of the river Child, Francis James (1825 - 1896), Meping, one of the chief branches of the Menam, in American scholar and educationalist, was born in Boston, E. long. 99° 0' and N. lat. 18° 46', in a plain about 800 1st February 1825. He graduated at Harvard University

. feet above sea level, and surrounded by densely forested in 1816, taking the highest rank in his class in all subhill ranges. The population of the town consists chiefly jects; at once became tutor in mathematics (1846-48); and of Lao, with a number of Chinese, Siamese, Shâns, and in 1848 was transferred to a tutorship in history, political Ka hillmen, and about fifty Europeans, and numbers from economy, and English, serving in that capacity for one


year. After two years of study in Europe, in 1851 he | South Edinburgh, and Home Secretary in the succeeded Edward T. Channing, who had helped to shape Ministry of 1886. When the first Home Rule Bill was the style of so many Harvard authors during his occupancy introduced he demurred privately to its financial clauses, of the chair of the Boylston professorship of rhetoric and and their withdrawal was largely due to his threat of oratory. He studied the English drama (having edited resignation. He retired from Parliament in 1892, and Four Old Plays in 1818) and Germanic philology, died on 29th January 1896, his last piece of work being the latter at Berlin and Göttingen during a leave of the drafting of a report for the Royal Commission on absence, 1819-51; and took general editorial supervision Irish Financial Relations, of which he was chairman. of a large collection of the British poets, published in Childers was a capable and industrious administrator of Boston in 1853 and following years. Spenser was newly the old Liberal school, and he did his best, in the and thoroughly edited, with life and notes, by him. At political conditions then prevailing, to improve the naval one time he planned an edition of Chaucer in the same and military administration while he was at the Admiralty series, but contented himself with a treatise, in the and War Office. His own bent was towards finance, Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences but no striking reform will be associated with his name. for 1863, entitled Observations on the Language of Chaucer's His most ambitious effort was his attempt to effect a Canterbury Tales, which did much to establish Chaucerian conversion of Consols in 1884, but the scheme proved grammar, pronunciation, and scansion as now generally a failure, though it paved the way for the subsequent understood. His largest undertaking, however, grew out conversion by Mr Goschen in 1888. The Life of Mr of an original collection, in his British Poets series, of Childers, published by Murray in 1901, throws some English and Scottish Ballads, selected and edited by him- interesting side-lights on the inner history of more than self, in eight volumes (Boston, 1857-59). Thenceforward one Gladstonian Cabinet. the leisure of his life—much increased by his transfer, in 1876, to the professorship of English-was devoted to Children, Cruelty to.-English law has always the comparative study of British vernacular ballads. He in theory given to children the same remedies as to adults accumulated, in the university library, one of the largest for ill-usage, whether by their parents or by others, and folk-lore collections in existence, studied manuscript has never recognized the patria potestas as known to rather than printed sources, and carried his investigations earlier Roman law; and while powers of discipline and into the ballads of all other tongues, meanwhile giving a chastisement have been recognized as necessarily incident sedulous but conservative hearing to popular versions still to paternal authority, the father is civilly liable to his surviving. At length his final collection was put to press, children for wrongs done to them. The only points in as The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, at first which infancy created a defect in civil status were that issued in parts (1882-98), and then gathered into five infants were subject to the restraints on complete freedom folio volumes, which remain the authoritative treasury of of action involved in their being in the legal custody of their subject. Professor Child worked—and overworked- the father, and that it was and is lawful for parents, to the last, dying in Boston, 11th September 1896, having guardians, employers, and teachers to inflict corporal completed his task save for a general introduction and punishment proportioned in amount and severity to the bibliography. A full and sympathetic biography was pre- nature of the fault committed and the age and mental fixed to the work by his pupil and successor George L. capacity of the child punished. But the Court of Chancery, Kittredge.

in delegated exercise of the authority of the sovereign

as parens patriæ, has always asserted the right to take Childers, Hugh Culling Eardley (1827- from parents, and if necessary itself to assume the ward1896), British statesman, was born in London on 25th ship of children where parental rights were abused or June 1827. On leaving Cambridge he went out to serious cruelty was inflicted; while abuse of the power Australia (1850), and became a member of the Govern- of correction is regarded as giving a cause of action or ment of Victoria, but in 1857 returned to England as prosecution for assault; and if attended by fatal results. Agent-General of the colony. Entering Parliament in renders the parent liable to indictment for murder or 1860 as Liberal member for Pontefract (a seat that he manslaughter. continued to hold till 1885), he became Civil Lord of the The conception of what constitutes cruelty to children Treasury in 1864, and in 1865 Financial Secretary to the has undoubtedly changed considerably with the relaxation Treasury. A devoted admirer of Gladstone, Childers of the accepted standard of severity in domestic or scholoccupied a succession of prominent posts in the various astic discipline and the growth of new ideas as to the Gladstone Ministries. He was First Lord of the Admiralty duties of parents to children, which in their latest developfrom 1868 to 1871, and as such inaugurated a policy of ments tend enormously to enlarge the parental duties retrenchment. Ill-health compelled his resignation of office without any corresponding increase of filial obligations. in 1871, but next year he returned to the Ministry as Starting from the earlier conception, which limited illChancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. From 1880 to treatment legally punishable to actual threats or blows, 1882 he was Secretary for War, a post he accepted some- the common law came to recognize criminal liability in what unwillingly; and in that position he had to bear the cases where persons, bound under duty or contract to responsibility for the reforms which were introduced into supply necessaries to a child, unable by reason of its tender the War Office under the parsimonious conditions which years to provide for itself, wilfully neglected to supply were then part of the Liberal creed. During his term of them, and thereby caused the death of the child or injury office the Egyptian war occurred, in which Childers acted to its health, although no actual assault had been comwith creditable energy; and also the Boer war, in which mitted. Questions have from time to time arisen as he and his colleagues showed to less advantage. From to what could be regarded as necessary within this 1882 to 1885 he was Chancellor of the Exchequer, and rule; and quite apart from legislation, popular opinion has the beer and spirit duty in his budget of the latter year influenced courts of justice in requiring more from parents was the occasion of the Government's fall. Defeated at and employers than used to be required. But Parliathe general election at Pontefract, he was returned as ment has also intervened to punish abandonment or a Home Ruler (one of the few Liberals who adopted exposure of infants under two years (24 and 25 Vict. c. 100, this policy before Mr Gladstone's conversion) in 1886 for $ 27), and the neglect or ill-treatment of apprentices or

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