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“Dancer,” in wax. He afterwards returned to his studies Dekker, Edward Douwes (1820–1887), the of the sporting world, exhibiting in December 1884 at the Dutch writer, commonly known as MULTATULI, was born Petit Gallery two views of “Races” which had a great at Amsterdam on the 2nd of March 1820. His father, success, proving the increasing vogue of the artist among a ship's captain, intended his son for trade, but this collectors. He is ranked with Manet as the leader of humdrum prospect disgusted him, and in 1838 he went the “impressionist school.” At the eighth Impressionist out to Java, and obtained a post in the Inland Revenue. Exhibition, in 1886, Degas continued his realistic studies He rose from one position to another, until, in 1851, of modern life, showing drawings of the nude, of work he found himself assistant-resident at Amboyna, in the women, and of jockeys. Besides his pastels and his Moluccas. In 1857 he was transferred to Lebak, in the paintings of genre and portraits—among these, several Bantam residency of Java. By this time, however, all likenesses of Manet—Degas also handled his favourite the secrets of Dutch administration were known to him, subjects in etching and in aquatint; and executed several and he had begun to protest against the abuses of the lithographs of “Singers at Cafés-concert,” of “Ballet colonial system. In consequence he was threatened with girls,” and indeed of every possible subject of night-life dismissal from his office for his openness of speech, and, and incidents behind the scenes. Degas is reputed not to throwing up his appointment, he returned to Holland in a have striven for official recognition ; but his work is state of fierce indignation. He determined to expose in to be seen not only at the Luxembourg but in many of the detail the scandals he had witnessed, and he began to do great private collections in Paris, as in those of M.
so in newspaper articles and pamphlets. Little notice, Camondo and M. Manzi, in England and America. In however, was taken of his protestations, until, in 1860, he the Centenary Exhibition of 1900 he exhibited published, under the pseudonym of “Multatuli,” his romance Interior of a Cotton-Broker's Office at New Orleans” entitled Max Havelaar. An attempt was made to ignore (belonging to the Museum at Pau) and “The Rehearsal.”
this brilliant and irregular book, but in vain; it was See also G. MOORE. “Degas, the Painter of Modern Life,”
read all over Europe. The exposure of the abuse of Magazine of Art, 1890.–J. K. HUYSMANS. Certains. Paris, free labour in the Dutch Indies was complete, although 1889.-G. GEFFROY. La vie Artistique. (3e Serie.) Paris, 1894. there were not wanting apologists who accused Dekker's
Dehra, a town of British India, headquarters of the terrible picture of being over-coloured. He was now Dehra Dun district. In 1881 the population was 18,959 ; fairly launched on literature, and he lost no time in 1891 it was 25,684 ; the municipal income in 1897–98 in publishing Love Letters (1861), which, in spite of was Rs.27,518 ; the death-rate in 1897 was 27:15 per their mild title, proved to be mordant satires of the thousand. It is the headquarters of the Trigonometrical most rancorous and unsparing kind. The literary merit Survey, and of the Forest Department, besides being a can
of Multatuli's work was much contested ; he received tonment for a Gurkha regiment; it has an American
an unexpected and most valuable ally in Vosmaer. He Presbyterian mission.
continued to write much, and to faggot his miscellanies in
uniform volumes called Ideas, of which seven appeared Dehra Dun, a district of British India, in the
between 1862 and 1877. Douwes Dekker quitted Holland, Meerut division of the North-West Provinces. Its area is shaking off her dust from his feet, and went to live at 1193 square miles. The population in 1881 was 144,070;
Wiesbaden He now made several attempts to gain the in 1891 it was 168,135, giving an average density of 141 stage, and one of his pieces, The School for Princes, persons per square mile. In 1901 the population was 1875 (published in the fourth volume of Ideas), pleased 177,646, showing an increase of 6 per cent. The land
himself so highly that he is said to have styled it the revenue and rates were Rs.1,12,666, the incidence of
greatest drama ever written. It is a fine poem, written assessment being R.0–5–9 per acre; the cultivated area in blank verse, like an English tragedy, and not in in 1896–97 was 87,912 acres, of which 23,441 were Dutch Alexandrines ; but it is undramatic, and has not irrigated; the number of police was 372; there were 22 held the boards. Douwes Dekker moved his residence to vernacular schools, with 705 pupils ; the death-rate in 1897 Nieder Ingelheim, on the Rhine, and there he died on the 19th was 24.25 per thousand. A railway to Dehra from Har of February 1887. Towards the end of his career he was dwar, on the Oudh and Rohilkhand line (32 miles), was the centre of a crowd of disciples and imitators, who did completed in 1900. Up to 1897-98 the capital outlay on his reputation no service; he is now, again, in danger of the Dun canals was Rs.7,15,311; the net receipts in that being read too little. To understand his fame, it is necesyear were Rs.68,151, showing a profit of 9:5 per cent.
sary to remember the sensational way in which he broke There are four printing-presses, issuing two English and into the dulness of Dutch literature forty years ago, like a one vernacular newspapers ; and three breweries. Tea
flame out of the Far East. He was ardent, provocative, gardens cover an area of nearly 5000 acres.
perhaps a little hysterical, but he made himself heard all Deir, or Deir ez-Zor, a town of Asiatic Turkey,
over Europe. He brought an exceedingly severe indicton the right bank of the Euphrates, at an altitude of
ment against the egotism and brutality of the administrators 806 feet. It is the capital of the Zor sanjak, which was
of Dutch India, and he framed it in a literary form which formed in 1857, and includes Rás el-Ain to the east, and
was brilliantly original. Not satisfied with this, he Palmyra to the west of the river. The town is connected
attacked, in a fury that was sometimes blind, everything by a bridge with an island, whence there is a ferry to
that seemed to him falsely conventional in Dutch religion, the left bank. The climate is healthy, but hot. Large
government, society, and morals. He respected nothing, numbers of sheep and camels are bred in the sanjak, and
he left no institution untouched. Now that it is possible cereals are grown. Roads lead to Aleppo and Damascus,
to look back upon Multatuli without passion, we see in and, by Sinjar, to Mosul. The population of the sanjak
him, not what Dutch enthusiasm saw, (the second writer is 100,000, chiefly nomads; of the town, 7000, including
of Europe in the nineteenth century” (Victor Hugo being a few Christians and Jews.
presumably the first),—but a great man who was a power
ful and glowing author, yet hardly an artist, a reckless Dekalb, a city of Dekalb county, Illinois, U.S.A., enthusiast, who was inspired by indignation and a burning in the northern part of the state, at the intersection of two sense of justice, who cared little for his means if only he railways. Population (1890), 2579; (1900), 5904, of could produce his effect. He is seen to his best and worst whom 1520 were foreign-born.
in Max Havelaar; his Ideas, hard, fantastic, and sardonic,
seldom offer any solid satisfaction to the foreign reader. in 1865. In 1854 he turned his attention to solar physics, But Multatuli deserves remembrance, if only on account and for the purpose of obtaining a daily photographic of the unequalled effect his writing had in rousing Holland representation of the state of the solar surface he devised from the intellectual and moral lethargy in which she lay the photoheliograph. This instrument is described in his half a century ago.
(E. G.) report to the British Association, “ On Celestial PhotoDelane, John Thaddeus (1817-1879),
graphy in England” (1859), and in his Bakerian Lecture
(Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. vol. clii. pp. 333-416). Regular editor of The Times, was born 11th October 1817, in
work with this instrument was inaugurated at Kew by London, being the second son of Mr W. F. A. Delane, a
De la Rue in 1858, and was carried on there for fourteen barrister who was employed by Mr Walter in The Times
years; since 1872 it has been continued at the Royal office. While still a boy he attracted Mr Walter's atten
Observatory, Greenwich. The results obtained in the tion, and it was always intended that he should find work on the paper.
years 1862-1866 are discussed in two memoirs published He received a good general education at
by De la Rue, in conjunction with Professor Balfour private schools and King's College, London, and also at Magdalen Hall, Oxford; and after taking his degree in
Stewart and Mr B. Loewy, in the Phil. Trans. (vol. clix. 1839, he read for the Bar, being called in 1847. Mean
pp. 1-110, and vol. clx. pp. 389–496), entitled “Re
searches on Solar Physics.” In the year 1860 De la Rue while he had already begun work for The Times as a
took the photoheliograph to Spain for the purpose of reporter; and in 18-11, on the death of Mr Barnes, he
photographing the total eclipse of the sun, which occurred succeeded him as editor, a post which he occupied for thirty-six years.
on July the 18th of that year. This expedition formed He was not himself a writer, but he was
the subject of the Bakerian Lecture already referred to. the greatest newspaper editor of his time, and perhaps of any time. Though he went into society and had a position
The photographs obtained on that occasion proved beyond
cloubt the solar character of the prominences, or red there such as no journalist had previously enjoyed, using his opportunities with a sure intuition for the way in which
flames, seen around the limb of the moon during a solar cvents would move, he had no liking for personal publicity, cclipse. In 1873 De la Rue gave up active work in but was careful to preserve his impersonality as an editor,
astronomy, and presented most of his astronomical instru
ments to the University Observatory, Oxford. Subseand to merye himself in the newspaper which he represented.
quently, in the year 1887, he provided the same observatory His triumph was the triumph of The Times, which under his régime attained an influence which has never been
with a 1:3-inch refractor to enable it to take part in the
International Photographic Survey of the Heavens. In surpassed. He was a man of many interests and great
conjunction with Dr Hugo Müller, he published several judgment; capable of long application and concentrated attention, with power to seize always on the main point
papers of a chemical character between the years 1856
and 1862. He was twice President of the Chemical at issue, and rapidly master the essential facts in the
Society, and also of the Royal Astronomical Society most complicated affair. His general policy was to
(1864-1866). In 1862 he received the gold medal of the keep the paper a national organ of opinion above party,
latter society, and in 1864 a Royal medal from the Royal but with a tendency to sympathize with the Liberal moveinents of the day. He admired Palmerston and respected
Society, for his observations on the total eclipse of the sun
in 1860, and for his improvements in astronomical photoLord Aberdeen, and was of considerable use to both; and it was Lord Aberdeen himself who, in 1815, told him of
graphy. He died on 19th April 1889. (A. A. R*.) the impending repeal of the Corn Laws, an incident round which many incorrect stories have gathered. The history,
Delaware.—One of the Middle Atlantic States of however, of the events during the thirteen administrations,
the American Union, and next to Rhode Island the between 1841 and 1877, in which The Times, and therefore
smallest in extent, Delaware is situated on the Atlantic Delane, played an important part cannot here be recapitu
scaboard, and forms part of the peninsula between the lizted. In 1877 his health gave way, and he retired from
Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. Its total land surface is the editorship; and on 22nd November 1879 he died at
approximately 1960 square miles. The population in Iscot.
1870 was 125,015, of whom 102,221 were white and (11. CH.)
22,794 coloured; in 1880 it was 146,608, of whom De la Rue, Warren (1815-1889), British 120,160 were white, 26,442 coloured, 5 civilized Indians, astronomer and chemist, son of Thomas de la Rue, the and 1 Chinese. In 1890 it was 168,493, of whom 110,066 founder of the large firm of stationers of that name in were white, 28,386 coloured, 37 Chinese, and 4 civilized London, was born in Guernsey on 18th January 1815. Indians. In 1900 the population was 184,735, of whom Having completed his education in Paris, he entered his 153,997 were white, 30,677 negroes, 51 Chinese, 1 father's business, but in his leisure hours he devoted him Japanese, and 9 Indians. Out of 54,018 males 21 years self with success to chemical and electrical researches, and of age and over, 7538 were illiterate (unable to write), of between 1836 and 1848 published several papers on these whom 3945 were white and 3593 coloured. Of the total subjects. Towards the end of this period he was attracted population 94,158 (51 per cent.) were males, and 90,557 to astronomy, and with the aid of a 13-inch reflecting (19 per cent.) females ; 170,925 (92-5 per cent.) were telescope, the optical parts of which were made entirely by native-born, and 13,810 (7.5 per cent.) foreign-born. The himself, he executed many drawings of the celestial bodies increase in population from 1890 to 1900 was 9:6 of singular beauty and fidelity. His name, however, per cent., and the number of inhabitants per square mile will be chiefly remembered as one of the earliest and most in 1900 was 94.2. There were 35 incorporated cities successful pioneers in the application of the art of photo and towns. The largest city was Wilmington, with graphy to astronomical research. In the year 1851 his 76,508 inhabitants. The city next in size, Newcastle, attention was drawn to a daguerreotype of the moon by had a population of but 3380, while the largest town, G. P. Bond, which was exhibited at the Great Exhibition Dover, the State capital, had 3329. In Indian River of that year. Encouraged by this first attempt, and Hundred, Sussex county, there lives a race of persons, employing the more rapid wet - collodion process, he nearly white, called "Indians” or “Moors,” whose origin succeeded before long in obtaining exquisitely defined is unknown, although local tradition says they are the automatic pictures of the moon, which remained unsur descendants of some Moorish sailors who were cast ashore passed until the appearance of the Rutherfurd photographs years ago in a shipwreck. They do not associate with
persons of negro descent; and they maintain separate across the lower part of the State, connects, at Queonstown, churches and schools, the latter receiving State aid. Maryland, with steamers for Baltimore. Delaware is an agricultural and manufacturing State. The financial condition of the State is excellent, the assets, in Much of it is in a high state of cultivation. Besides bonds, railway mortgages, and bank stocks, exceeding the wheat, maize, and other grain, peaches are grown in
liabilities. Besides the income from assets, the State revenues are
derived from taxes on licences, on commissions to public officers, immense quantities and sent over the country. Straw
on railway and banking companies, and to a slight extent from berries, raspberries, and other small fruits are raised for taxes on collateral inheritances, and on investments, as bonds, transportation. Increased attention has lately been given mortgages, notes and stocks, the investment tax yielding in 1899 to dairy products. The canning of fruits, vegetables,
only $1,311.35. There are county taxes, on land and live-stock, meats and poultry, is carried on extensively. The kaolin
for the care of the roads and the poor ; local taxes, levied on the
rental value of land and on live-stock, towards the support of mines were among those first worked in the United
the public schools; town taxes, and, in same places, ditch taxes. States, the product in 1899 being 10,500 tons, valued at The vital statistics of the State are of little value, not having $91,500. The forests, which afforded excellent timber, been systematically kept A State Board of Health was organized
in 1879, and there are now local boards in various towns. There including white oak for the building of ships, have been
is in each county a jail and an almshouse. Under recent legislation greatly reduced by constant cutting. In the northern there is to be established in Newcastle county a workhouse, part of the State there are numerous and important where persons under sentence must labour for eight lours each manufactories. Wilmington and its suburbs have large secular day, pay being allowed for overwork, and credit given, by machine shops, whose products, including marine engines hospital for the insane.
reduction of sentence, for good behaviour. There is a State
A certain number of persons are and boilers and paper and pulp machines, are justly maintained out of the State School fund at outside institutions, renowned ; cotton, cotton-finishing, paper, morocco, patent such as the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb), and leather, vulcanized fibre, car-wheel, carriage, and silk the Pennsylvania Training School for Feeble-Minded Children. factories; rolling-mills and bridge works. Cars, for steam
There are various private charities, particularly in the city of
Wilmington. and street railways, are manufactured on a large scale. Education exhibits progress. Delaware College, at Newark, Upwards of 400 iron steamships have been built in with the support of Federal grants, steadily increases in efficiency. Wilmington, exceeding in number and in aggregate The maintenance of a system of public schools is rendered tonnage those constructed in any other American city.
compulsory by the State Constitution. The State School fund, The flour-mills on the Brandywine, founded in 1762,
ranging from about $130,000 to $140,000 a year, is apportioned
among the school districts, and is used exclusively for teachers' are famous, and the Dupont Gunpowder Works, 6 miles salaries and free text-books. In the apportionment no discriminafrom Wilmington, are the oldest and largest in the tion is allowed on account of race or colour ; but separate schools country. There is a petroleum refinery at Marcus
for white and coloured children must be provided, and there is a
State college for coloured students. Besides the State Board of Hook.
Education, there is in each county a School Commission and a According to the census of 1900, the number of manu Superintendent of Public Schools, and in each district a School facturing establishments in the State (excluding 169 Committee chosen by the voters of the district, with power to having an annual product of less than $500 each) was
levy taxes. At school elections women as well as men may be 1417, in which was invested a total capital (including
qualified to vote.
The Constitution now in force was framed in 1897, superseding land, buildings, machinery, tools, &c., but not including the Constitution of 1831. Following the precedent recently set capital stock) of $41,203,239. There were 1327 salaried elsewhere, it was published and put into operation by authority of employées receiving salaries amounting to $1,422,831, a resolution of the Constitutional Convention, without submission
to the people. In the General Assembly the number of Repreand an average number of 22,203 wage-earners receiving
sentatives is raised from 21 to 35, and of Senators from 9 to 17, $9,263,661 in wages. The cost of materials used, in
equal county representation being done away with. cluding mill supplies, freight, fuel, &c., was $26,652,601, The State is divided into 35 representative districts, Newcastle and the miscellaneous expenses (including rent, taxes, &c.,
county having 15, and Kent and Sussex each 10 ; and 17 senatorial but not including interest on capital invested) $2,158,350.
districts, Newcastle having 7, and Kent and Sussex each 5. Of
the 15 Newcastle Representatives, Wilmington has 5 ; of the 7 The added values of the products in the different establish Senators, 2. The sessions of the General Assembly, held at ments amounted to $45,387,630. If from this gross Dover, the State capital, are still biennial. The members receive value be deducted, in order to avoid duplication, the value an allowance for cach day of the session not exceeding sixty, ($15,849,388) of materials purchased in a partly manu
after which they get no compensation. At a special session the factured form—where the finished product of one industry prolibited. The Governor's appointnients to oflice must, except in
daily allowance is limited to thirty days. Legislative divorces are is used later as the raw material for another—the net certain cases, be confirmed by the Senate. He has a suspensory value is found to be $29,538,242. If the steel and rolling veto on legislation. Certain State officers, including the Attorney
General, and various county officers, formerly appointed by mills, car shops, foundry and machine shops, and ship
the Governor, are now elected. The judges are still appointed, building be grouped as the iron and steel industry, there
but only for terms of twelve years. All persons coming of age, were in this industry fifty-three establishments having a or becoming citizens of the United States, after 1st January 1900, capital of $14,929,935, employing 8536 wage-earners,
must, in order to vote, be able to real the State Constitution paying $4,265,670 as wages, and having a gross product
in English and write their names. The payment of a pollof $13,953,379. The leather industry ranks next in
tax as a prerequisite to voting is abolished, and all cligible persons
are registered on payment of a fee of one dollar. Persons importance, with twenty establishments, a capital of charged with bribery at elections are triable by the court on $5,178,804, 2457 wage-earners receiving $1,044,903, and information and without a jury. A Board of Pardons, consisting gross product of $9,400,504.
of the Chancellor and certain administrative officers, is created, The Delaware and Chesapeake Canal connects the
and no reprieve for more than six months, or commutation of
sentence, or pardon, can be granted by the Governor unless on Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, and affords water transit the written recommendation of a majority of this Board. There for produce between Philadelphia and Baltimore. The is also established a State Board of Agriculture. Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad, and the The Judicial power of the State is vested in a Supreme Court, a Baltimore and Philadelphia Railroad run through the
Superior Court, a Court of Chancery, an Orphans' Court, a Court
of Oyer and Terminer, a Register's Court, and Justices of the northern part of the State; the Wilmington and Northern Peace. There are six State judges, namely, a Chancellor, a Chief Railroad communicates with the Pennsylvania coal region; Justice, and four Associate judges. The Chancellor, Chief Justice, the Delaware Railroad runs through the whole length of
and one of the Associates may be appointed from and reside the State below Wilmington, connecting with various
in any part of the State ; the other three Associates may be
appointed from any part of the State, but must reside one in each railways that reach either the Atlantic Ocean or the
county. The five law judges compose the Superior Court, Court Chesapeake Bay; while another line, running directly of General Sessions, and Court of Oyer and Terminer, but not
S. III. 51
more than three of them can sit together in any one of those Council was constituted, in which Delbrück, who became courts, though three must do so whenever practicable. Two
the first President of the Bundeskanzleramt or Federal constitute a quorum, save in the Court of Oyer and Terminer,
Chancellery (1867), represented Bismarck in political as where three are required. The Supreme Court consists, on error or appeal from a law court, of the Chancellor, who presides, and such
well as commercial questions. In 1868 he became a of the five law judges as did not sit below; on appeal from the Prussian Minister without portfolio. In October 1870, Court of Chancery, of the five law judges, three of whom when the political union of Germany under Prussian constitute a quorum,
headship became a practical question, Delbrück was chosen In politics, since the close of the Civil War in 1865, the State has generally been Democratic. But, in 1889, a Republican was elected
to go on a mission to the South German States, and conto the United States Senate ; and candidates of the same party tributed greatly to the agreements concluded at Versailles were, in 1894, 1898, and 1900, chosen to the National House of in November. In 1871 he became President of the newly Representatives, and, in 1894 and 1900, to the Governorship. In constituted Reichskanzleramt. Delbrück now, however, 1895, 1899, and 1901, the Legislature, being then Republican, was, because of a division in the party as to candidates, unable to elect began to feel himself uneasy under Bismarck's leanings a United States Senator, so that the State had, from 4th March towards Protection and State control. On the introduction 1895 till 1897, and from 4th March 1899 till 4th March 1901 only of Bismarck's plan for the acquisition of the railways one United States Senator, and none at the special session of the by the State, Delbrück resigned office, nominally on the Senate in March 1900. In 1896 and 1900, Mr M‘Kinley, the Republican candidate for the Presidency, partly because of the
ground of ill-health (1st June 1876). In 1879 he opposed attitude of the Gold Democrats, carried the State by large majorities.
in the Reichstag the new protectionist tariff, and on the General Grant obtained, as the Republican candidate in 1872, a failure of his efforts retired definitely from public life. small majority.
(J. B. M*.)
Delcassé, Théophile (1852- —), French Delaware, capital of Delaware county, Ohio,
statesman, was born at Pamiers, in the department of U.S.A., on the Olentangy river, at an altitude of 902
Ariège, on 1st March 1852. He wrote articles on foreign feet. It has three railways, the Cleveland, Cincinnati,
affairs for the République Française and Paris, and in Chicago, and St Louis, the Columbus, Sandusky and
1888 was elected Conseiller Général of his native departHocking, and the Hocking Valley. The Ohio Wesleyan
ment, standing as "un disciple fidèle de Gambetta." In University, located here, had, in 1899, 53 professors and
the following year he entered the Chamber as deputy for instructors, and 1055 students, one-third of whom were
Foix. He was appointed Under Secretary for the Colonies Its property was valued at over $1,300,000, in the second Ribot Cabinet (January to April 1893), and and its income was $62,000. Population (1880), 6894;
retained his post in the Dupuy Cabinet till its fall in (1890), 8224; (1900), 7940, of whom 572 were foreign
December 1893. It was largely owing to his efforts that born and 432 negroes.
the French Colonial Office was made a separate departDelaware River, a river of the eastern United ment with a Minister at its head, and to this office he was apStates, rises in the Catskill Mountains, in south-eastern pointed in the second Dupuy Cabinet (May 1894 to January New York, and flows south-west to the north-east corner of
1895). He gave a great impetus to French colonial Pennsylvania ; thence, with a south-east course, it forms the enterprise, especially in West Africa, where he organized boundary between New York and Pennyslvania, and the newly acquired colony of Dahomey, and despatched the farther down, with a course alternating between south-east Liotard mission to the Upper Ubangi. While in opposition, and south-west, it forms the boundary between New he devoted special attention to naval affairs, and in speeches Jersey on the east and Pennsylvania and Delaware on the that attracted much notice declared that the function of the west. It has no well-defined mouth, but gradually widens French navy was to secure and develop colonial enterprise, into Delaware Bay. It is navigable to Trenton, where are
deprecated all attempts to rival the British fleet, and falls, a distance from the capes of the Delaware of 128 advocated the construction of commerce-destroyers as miles, Its entire length from its head to the capes at
France's best reply to England. On the formation of the the entrance to Delaware Bay is upwards of 400 miles
second Brisson Cabinet in June 1898 he succeeded M. and its drainage basin comprises 12,012 square miles. Hanotaux at the Foreign Office, and retained that post its upper course, after leaving the Catskills, it flows alter under the subsequent premierships of MM. Dupuy and nately through the valleys between the Appalachian ridges Waldeck-Roussean. In 1898 he had to deal with the and across these ridges through water-gaps. The most
delicate situation caused by Captain Marchand's occupation picturesque and best known of these is Delaware Water of Fashoda, for which, as he admitted in a speech in the Gap. The falls at Trenton, which have been utilised for Chamber on 23rd January 1899, he accepted full responsipower, are produced by the passage of the river over a bility, since it arose directly out of the Liotard expedition, fault-line from hard granite rocks to soft Tertiary beds. which he had himself organized while Minister for the Delbrück, Martin Friedrich Rudolf,
Colonies; and in March 1899 he concluded an agreement Prussian statesman (1817--), was born at Berlin on
with Great Britain by which the difficulty was finally 16th April 1817. On completing his legal studies he entered
adjusted, and France consolidated her vast colonial empire the service of the State in 1837; and after holding a series
in North-West Africa. In the same year he acted as of minor posts, was transferred in 1844 to the Ministry of
mediator between the United States and Spain, and Commerce, which was to be the sphere of his real life's
brought the peace negotiations to a successful conclusion. work. Both Germany and Austria had realized the
He introduced greater cordiality into the relations of influence of commercial upon political union. Delbrück
France with Italy : at the same time he adhered firmly in 1851 induced Hanover, Oldenburg, and Schaumburg
to the alliance with Russia, and in August 1899 made a Lippe to join the Zollverein ; and the southern States, which
visit to St Petersburg, which he repeated in April 1901.
In June 1900 he concluded an important agreement with had agreed to admit Austria to the union, found themselves forced in 1853 to renew the old union, from which Spain, fixing.the long-disputed boundaries of the French Austria was excluded. Delbrück now began, with the
and Spanish possessions in West Africa. support of Bismarck, to apply the principles of Free Trade Delft, a town in the province of South Holland, to Prussian fiscal policy. In 1862 he concluded an im Netherlands, 10 miles north-west of Rotterdam by rail. Forportant commercial treaty with France, which he succeeded merly it rivalled Rotterdam in the importance of its shisiping in inducing the southern States to accept. After the and commerce, but it is now only the market for the butter Prussian victories of 1866, a Zollbundesrath or Federal and cheese of the fertile district around. There i'3 still