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preservation than could be possible if they had been long been assigned to this building, probably to the gables, exposed to the air. The earlier treasury was probably as they are archaic in character, and show a remarkable destroyed either by earthquake or by the percolation of resemblance to the sculptures from the pediment of the water through the terracing.

early temple of Athena at Athens. The existing foundaThe Cnidian treasury stands on the south side of tions are these of the temple built in the 4th century. the way farther west. This building was originally They give no certain information as to the sacred cleft surmised by the excavators to be the Siphnian treasury, and other matters relating to the oracle. Though there but further evidence led them to change their are great hollow spaces in the structure of the foundations, opinion. The treasury was raised on a quadrangular these appear merely to have been intended to save material, structure, supported on its south side by the Hellenico, and not to have been put to any religious or other use. and built of tufa. The lower courses are left rough and Up in the north-eastern corner of the precinct, standing were most likely hidden. A small distyle Ionic temple of at the foot of the cliffs, are the remains of the interesting marble stood on this substructure. The sculpture from Cnidian Lesche or Clubhouse. It was a long narrow this treasury, which ornamented its frieze and pediment, building accessible only from the south, and the famous is of great interest in the history of the development of the paintings were probably disposed around the walls so as to art, and the fragments of architectural mouldings are of meet in the middle of the north side. Some scanty great delicacy and beauty. The whole work is perhaps fragments of the lower part of the frescoed walls have the most perfect example we possess of the transitional style survived; but they are not enough to give any information of the early 5th century. Standing back somewhat from as to the work of Polygnotus. the path just as it bends round up the hill is the Theban At the north-western corner of the precinct is the treasury. Farther north, where the path turns again, is the theatre, one of the best preserved in Greece. The foundaAthenian treasury. This structure, which was in the form tions of the stage are extant, as well as the orchestra, and of a small Doric temple in antis, appears to have suffered the walls and seats of the auditorium. There are thirtyfrom the building above it having been shaken down by an three tiers of seats in seven sets, and a paved diazoma. earthquake. There can be no doubt about the identity of the The sculptures from the stage front, now in the museum, building, for the basis on which it stands bears the remains have the labours of Heracles as their subject. The date of the dedicatory inscription, stating that it was erected of the theatre is probably early 2nd century B.C. from the spoils of Marathon. Almost all the sculptured The stadium lies, as Pausanias says, in the highest part metopes are in the museum, and are of the highest interest of the city to the north-west. It stands on a narrow to the student of archaic art. The famous inscriptions plateau of ground supported on the south-east by a terrace with hymns to Apollo accompanied by musical notation wall. The seats have been cleared, and are in a state of were found on stones belonging to this treasury.

extraordinary preservation. A few of those at the east Above the Athenian treasury is an open space, in which end are hewn in the rock. No trace of the marble seats is a rock which has been identified as the Sibyl's rock. It mentioned by Pausanias has been found, but they have has steps hewn in it, and has a cleft. The ground round probably been carried off for lime or building, as they it has been left rough like the space on the Acropolis at could easily be removed, An immense number of inscripAthens identified as the ancient altar of Athena. Here tions have been found in the excavations, and many works too was placed the curious column, with many flutes and of art, including a bronze charioteer, which is one of the an Ionic capital, on which stood the colossal sphinx, most admirable statues preserved from ancient times. dedicated by the Naxians, that has been pieced together Provisional accounts of the excavations have appeared during and placed in the museum.

the excavations in the Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique. A A little farther on, but below the Sacred Way, is another

summary is given in Frazer, Pausanias, vol. v. For the works of

art discovered sec ARCHEOLOGY. open space, of circular form, which is perhaps the älws or

(E. GR.) sacred threshing-floor on which the drama of the slay Delyannis, Theodore (1826-), Greek ing of the Python by Apollo was periodically performed. statesman, was born at Kalavrytra, Peloponnesus, in 1826. Opposite this space, and backed against the beautifully He studied law at Athens, and in 1843 entered the jointed polygonal wall which has for some time been Ministry of the Interior. In 1862 he began to take an known, and which supports the terrace on which the temple important part in politics after the deposition of King stands, is the colonnade of the Athenians. A dedicatory Otho. In 1867 he was Minister at Paris. On his return inscription runs along the face of the top step, and has to Athens he became a member of successive cabinets in been the subject of much dispute. Both the forms of the various capacities, and rapidly collected a party round him letters and the style of the architecture show that the consisting of those who opposed his great rival, Tricoupis. colonnade cannot date, as Pausanias says, from the time In the so-called “ Ecumenical Ministry” of 1877 he voted of the Peloponnesian War; M. Homolle now assigns it to for war with Turkey, and on its fall he entered the cabinet the end of the 6th century. The polygonal terrace wall of Koumoundoros as Minister for Foreign Affairs. He at the back, on being cleared, proves to be covered with was a representative of Greece at the Berlin Congress in inscriptions, most of them concerning the manumission of 1878. From this time forward, and particularly after slaves.

1882, when Tricoupis again came into power at the head After rounding the east end of the terrace wall, the of a strong party, the duel between these two statesmen was Sacred Way turns northward, leaving the Great Altar, the leading feature of Greek politics (see GREECE, History). dedicated by the Chians, on the left. After passing Delyannis first formed a cabinet in 1885, and his warlike the altar, it turns to the left again at right angles, and so policy resulted in the intervention of the Powers, who enters the space in front of the temple. Remains of eventually blockaded the Piræus and other ports, and this offerings found in this region include those dedicated by brought about his downfall. He returned to power in 1890, the Cyrenians and by the Corinthians. The site of the with a radical programme, but his failure to deal with the temple itself carries the remains of successive structures. financial crisis produced a conflict between him and the Of that built by the Alemæonids in the 6th century B.C. king, and his disrespectful attitude resulted in his sumconsiderable remains have been found, some in the founda mary dismissal in 1892. Delyannis, by his demagogic tions of the later temple and some lying where they were behaviour, evidently expected the public to side with him; thrown by the earthquake. The sculptures found have but at the elections he was badly beaten. In 1895, how











ever, he again became Prime Minister, and was at the the corn crop acreage, barley occupying about two-sevenths, and head of affairs during the Cretan crisis and the opening oats nearly four-sevenths. Nearly three-fourths of the green crop of the war with Turkey in 1897. The humiliating defeat

area are occupied by turnips, and nearly one-fourth by potatoes.

Industries and I'rade. --According to the annual report for 1898 which ensued—though Delyannis himself had been led of the chief inspector of factories (1900), the number of persons into the disastrous war policy to some extent against his employed in factories and worshops in 1897 was 4690, as compared will-caused his fall in April 1897, the king again dis

with 5359 in 1896. Non-textile factories employed 3379 persons, missing him from office when he declined to resign.

workshops 1150, the majority being engaged in the clothing in

dustries. The total number of persons employed in connexion Delyannis kept his own seat at the election of 1899, but

with mines and quarries in 1899 was 11,138. Coal-mining is the his following dwindled to small dimensions.

most important industry, of the less valuable minerals there

were raised (in 1899) 264,982 tons of clay, 204,599 tons of limeDemotica, a town of Turkey in Europe, in the stone, 23,042 tons of sandstone, and 28,840 tons of igneous rocks. sanjak and province of Adrianople, situated on the Iron ore has almost ceased to be raised. The following table gives right bank of the Kizil-deli, near its junction with the

the productions of coal, lead, and zinc in 1890 and 1899 :Maritza, and on the Maritza Valley or Dédéahgatch-KuleliBourgas Railway, about 35 miles south of Adrianople. It is of some industrial importance, the chief exports being

1890 2,221,497 £916,367 1416 £12,821 6593 £41,104 pottery, for which it has some repute, linen, silk, cocoons,

1899 2,512, 104 973,440 1983 20,150 3273 25,976 and grain. The population is about 12,000.

See WILLIAMS and UNDERWOOD. The Village Churches of Denbigh, a maritime county of North Wales, is Denbighshire, illustrated by geometrical, perspective, and detail bounded N. by the Irish Sea, N.E. by Flint and Cheshire, drawings. Denbigh, 1872.

(T. F. H.) S.E. by Flint and Shropshire, S. by Montgomery and Denbigh, a municipal and contributory parliaMerioneth, and W. by Carnarvon.

mentary borough (uniting with Holt, Ruthin, and Area and Population.—The area of the ancient county is Wrexham), market-town, and county town of Denbigh423,477 acres or 662 square miles. The population in 1881 was shire, Wales, 25 miles west of Chester. There are three 111,957, and 117,872 in 1891, of whom 59,569 were males and Established, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Presbyterian, 58,303 females; the number of persons per square mile being 178, Methodist, and Congregationalist churches; also a new and of acres to a person 3:59. In 1901 the population was 129,935. The area of the administrative county, as given in

county school under the Welsh Intermediate Education the census returns of 1891, was 424,435 acres, with population Act, a Blue Coat school (both of old foundation), a school of 118,843, but since then certain alterations have been made for 50 orphan girls maintained from funds left to the in the administrative area. In 1897 the part of the parish of Nanerch in Denbigh was transferred to Flint, and the part of Drapers' Company, and, in the neighbourhood, the North the parish of Llanarmon yn Vale in Flint, and part of the parish

Wales Asylum. The chief industries are tanning, bootof Erbistock were transferred from Flint to Denbigh. The area making, and slate-quarrying. Area of borough, 8868 of the registration county is 386,416 acres, with a population in acres. Population (1901), 6439. 1891 of 116,698. Within this area the increase of population between 1881 and 1891 was 3.29 per cent. The excess of births Denia, a Mediterranean seaport of Spain, in the over deaths between 1871 and 1881 was 11,172, and the actual province, and 45 miles north-east of the town, of Alicante. increase of population was 5716. The following table gives the Population (1897), 11,401. There are manufactures of numbers of marriages, births, and deaths, with the number and woollen and linen cloths and esparto grass rugs. The percentage of illegitimate births, for 1880, 1890, and 1898 :

export trade in fruit is considerable, the figures for raisins

Illegitimate Births. in 1898 being : to Great Britain, 13,000 tons; elsewhere, Year. Marriages.

12,000 tons; 150,000 barrels of grapes were also exported,

exclusively to English ports. Of onions, 81,400 crates 1880 738 3535 2394 239 6.7

were despatched, practically all to North America. A 1890 871

2313 173 5:3 1898 881 3572 2369 184 4.9

breakwater, 1485 yards long, is in course of construction.

426 vessels of 165,246 tons entered in 1898, and 427 In 1891 there were in the county 554 natives of Scotland, 819

of 165,511 tons cleared. About half of these were small natives of Ireland, and 171 foreigners; while 38,310 persons could vessels engaged in the coasting trade, carrying agricultural speak English, 37,195 Welsh, and 35,030 English and Welsh. produce. The chief imports were timber from the Baltic

Constitution and Government. The ancient county is divided and coal from England. into two parliamentary divisions, and it also includes the Denbigh district of parliamentary boroughs, consisting of Denbigh, Holt, Denison, George Anthony (1805-1896), Ruthin, and Wrexham. There are three municipal boroughs, English Churchman, brother of Mr Speaker Denison (Lord Denbigh, Ruthin, and Wrexham. The following are urban districts-Abergele and Pensarn, Colwyn Bay and Colwyn, Llan

Ossington: 1800–1873), was born at Ossington, Notts, 11th gollen, and Llanrwst. Denbighshire is in the North Wales Circuit,

December 1805, and educated at Eton and Christ Church, and assizes are held at Ruthin. The boroughs of Denbigh and

Oxford. In 1828 he was elected fellow of Oriel ; and after Wrexham have separate commissions of the peace, but no separate a few years there as a tutor, during which he was ordained court of quarter sessions. The ancient county, which is in the diocese of St Asaph's, contains 75 entire ecclesiastical parishes and

and acted as curate at Cuddesdon, he became rector of districts, and part of one other.

Broadwindsor, Dorset, and married (1838) the daughter of Education. - The number of elementary schools on 31st August Mr Henley, M.P. In 1813 he was preferred by his brother, 1899 was 122, of which 48 were board and 74 voluntary schools, the Bishop of Salisbury, to the valuable living of East the latter including 70 National Church of England schools,

Brent, Somerset, and in 1851 was made Archdeacon of 2 Roman Catholic, and 3 “British and other.”. attendance at board schools was 9288 and at voluntary schools

Taunton. For many years Archdeacon Denison repre8258. The total school board receipts for the year ended 29th sented the extreme High Tory party not only in politics September 1899 were over £38,495. The income under the

but in the Church, regarding all “ progressive ” movements Technical Instruction Act was £69 ; that under the Agricultural

in education or theology as abomination, and vehemently Rates Act was over £1384.

Agriculture. — More than three-fifths of the total area of the repudiating the “higher criticism ” from the days of Essays county is under cultivation, and of this nearly three-fifths is in and Reviews (1860) to those of Lux Mundi (1890). In permanent pasture. There are also over 80,000 acres of mountain 1853 his views on the doctrine of the Real Presence pasture grazed by sheep, and over 18,000 acres under woods.

subjected him to a suit for heresy on the complaint of a Only about 220 acres are under orchards. The acreage under corn crops has considerably decrea the decrease being chiefly in the neighbouring parson, and after various complications he acreage under wheat, which now occupies about one-seventh of was condemned by the Archbishops' Court at Bath ; but




Per cent.


The average

on appeal the Court of Arches and the Privy Council and shipment of cotton. Population (1880), 3975; (1890), quashed this judgment on a technical plea. The result 10,958; (1900), 11,807, of whom 604 were foreign-born was to make Archdeacon Denison a keen champion of the

and 2251 negroes. Ritualistic school. Until the end of his life he remained Denizli, chief town of a sanjak of the Aidin viláyet a protagonist in theological controversy and a keen fighter of Asia Minor, altitude 1167 ft.

of Asia Minor, altitude 1167 ft. It is beautifully situated against latitudinarianism and liberalism; but the sharpest at the foot of Baba Dagh (Mt. Salbakus), on a tributary of religious or political differences never broke his personal the Churuk Szz (Lycus), and is connected by a branch line friendships and his Christian charity. Among other things with the Smyrna-Dineir Railway. It took the place of for which he will be remembered was his origination of Laodicea when that town was deserted during the wars Harvest Homes. He died 21st March 1896.

between the Byzantines and Seljúk Turks, probably

between 1158 and 1174. It had become a large and Denison, a city of Grayson county, Texas, U.S.A., fine Moslem city in the 14th century, and was then called on the south bank of the Red river, at an altitude of Ladík. The delightful gardens of Denizli have obtained 723 feet. It is regularly laid out on a level site, and has for it the name of the Damascus of Anatolia. Population, four wards. It has three railways, the Houston and Texas 17,000 (Moslems, 14,500; Christians, 2500). Central, the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas, and the Texas See RAMSAY. Cilies and Bishoprics of Phrygia, vol. i. Oxford, and Pacific, and is an important point in the collection 1895.-MURRAY, dsia Minor HÌundbook. 1895.


DENMARK. ENVARK, in the strictest geographical sense, com western part, are so shallow that it offers no facility for

prises the northern portion of the Cimbric Peninsula navigation except to small craft. The Cattegat itself is full called Jutland (Jylland) and the Danish Islands, which of sandbanks and difficult of navigation ; in the winter it is are situated mostly to the south-cast of Jutland, between often obstructed by drifting ice. From the Cattegat three the southern part of the Cimbric Peninsula and the passages lead to the Baltic, of which they form the outlet, southern part of Sweden. Jutlani lies between lat. namely, the Little Belt, the Great Belt, and the Sound 55° 16' and lat. 57° 15', whilst the islands are situated (see BALTIC SEA). South of Copenhagen the passage is between lat. 51° 33' and lat. 56° 8'. The westernmost narrowed by the islands of Amager and Saltholm ; and point of Jutland is in long. 8° ¢ 5t", the easternmost the channels on both sides of these islands have in their point of the islands (apart from Bornholm) is in lony. shallowest parts only 23 feet of water, besides being difficult 12° 17' 25". The last-named island is situated in the to navigate. On the west coast of Jutland the ordinary Baltic, 76 miles east of the rest of Denmark, but in the tides of the North Sea are experienced, but in the Cattegat Same latitude as the southernmost of the other islands. the difference between high and low water gradually According to the latest measurements, the total area of diminishes towards the south. In the Belts and in the Denmark proper is 14,829 square miles, of which 9753 Sound the changes become almost imperceptible, and are square miles fall to the share of Jutland, including the obscured by the effects of winds and currents. In the small islands belonging to it. The islands together cover Baltic there are no tides. No hill in Denmark exceeds 5076 square miles, and may be divided into four groups : 550 feet in height. Gudenaa in Jutland, the largest river the westerninost group, of which Fyen is the largest, covers in Denmark, has a course of 80 miles. Small lakes abound, 1324 square miles; whilst Sealand 2 (Sjælland), with some but there are none of considerable size. alljacent smaller islands, occupies 2856 square miles;

The surface in Denmark is almost everywhere formed by the Lolland and Falster, which are to the south of Sealand, so-called Boulder Clay and what the Danish geologists call the and separated from each other only by a very narrow Boulder Sand. The former, as is well known, owes its

Physical channel, cover 671 square miles ; Bornholm, finally, has an

origin to the action of ice on the mountains of Norway


in the Glacial period. It is unstratified ; but by the area of 225 square miles. Denmark is almost entirely

action of water on it, stratified deposits have been surrounded by the sea, as it is connected with the

formed, some of clay, containing remains of arctic animals, some. Continent only at the southern frontier of Jutland, in and very extensive ones, of sand and gravel. This boulder sanil which place the width of the peninsula is only about 37 forms almost everywhere the highest hills, and besides, in the miles. The west and north-west coasts of Jutland, from

central part of Jutland, a wide expanse of heath and moorlanıl

apparently level, but really slopiny gently towards the west. Blaavandshuk to the Scaw, are destitute of harbours, and

The deposits of the boulder formation rest generally on limestone girt by sandbanks very dangerous to shipping. In many of the Cretaceous period, which in many places comes near the places the sea has encroached very considerably; even in

surface and forms cliffs on the seacoast, of which the most interestthe 19th century entire villages were destroyed, but

ing is the “Klint,” on the island of Moen. But in the south

western parts a succession of strata, described as the Brown Coal or during the last twenty years of the century systematic

Liguite formations, intervenes between the chalk and the boulder efforts were made to secure the coast by groynes and clay ; its name is derived from the deposits of lignite which occur embankments. A belt of sand dunes, from 500 yards to in it. It is only on the island of Bornholm that older formations 7 iniles wide, stretches along the whole of this coast for

come to light. This island agrees in geological structure with the.

southern part of Sweden, and forms, in fact, the southernmost about 200 miles. The cast coast of Jutland is of quite a

portion of the Scandinavian system. There the boulder clay lies different description, a series of long fjordis entering deep immediately on the primitive rock, except in the south-western into the country from the Cattegat. The longest of these corner of the island, where a series of strata appear belonging to is the Limfjord, which reaches the western coast of Jutland,

the Cambrian, Silurian, Jurassic,'and Cretaceous formations, the true and since 1825 has been in communication with the North

Coal formation, &c., being absent. Some parts of Denmark are sup

posed to have been finally raised out of the sea towards the close Sea, so that the northern portion of Jutland is really an of the Cretaceous period ; but as a whole the country did not island ; but the waters of the Limfjord, particularly in the appear above the water till about the close of the Glacial period.

The upheaval of the country, a movement common to a large part

of the Scandinavian peninsula, still continues, though slowly, north1 “Fühnen” is Gerinan, not Danish.

east of a line drawn in a south-easterly direction from Nissum2 This spelling of the English name is nearer to the Danish and less fjord on the west coast of Jutland, across the island of Fyen, a liable to misunderstanding than that of Zealand, which is properly little south of the town of Nyborg. Ancient seabeaches, markedl the name of a well-known islaud in Ilolland.

by accumulations of seaweed, rolled stones, &c., have been noticed


per cent.

Per cent. of

Per cent. of

as much as 20 feet above the present level. But the upheaval does the average stood at 272.95, owing, on the one hand, to the not seem to affect all parts equally. Even in historic times it has

fact that large tracts in the interior of Jutland are almost vastly changed the aspect and configuration of the country. It will easily be understood from the foregoing that the mineral

uninhabited, and on the other to the fact that the capital products of Denmark are insignificant. Coal is found in Bornholm,

of the country, with its proportionately large population, several seams cropping out amongst the strata belonging to the is situated on the island of Sealand. The latter had Jurassic system. But the Bornholm coal is too hygroscopic to a population of 960,053, or 336-2 inhabitants to the bear transport, and its heating power falls far short of that of

square mile including Copenhagen (with the suburbs of English coal. The mines which have at different times been opened have proved failures, and their produce is only used for

Fredriksberg and Sundby), but without the capital only domestic purposes on the island itself. There is in Bornholm a 169.2. Not reckoning Sealand, the density of the populadeposit of kaolin of good quality, from which the Copenhagen tion on the islands was at the rate of 191.7 to the square porcelain factories take their supply. The Flora and Fauna of

mile. In 1901, 936,565 persons were living in towns in Denmark offer no peculiarities worthy of notice here. In ancient

Denmark, i.e., 38.24 per cent. of the total population, times extensive pine and fir forests existed, of which abundant remains are found in the peat bogs; but they have disappeared

whilst 1,512,975, or 61.77 per cent., were living in purely long ago, and at the present time firs and pines occur in Denmark rural districts. In 1890 the town population amounted to only in plantations. The forests of Denmark consist of oak and

735,554, or 33.86 per cent. of the total, leaving but beech, of which the latter is gradually getting the upper hand. The elm is comparatively rare in Denmark. The peat bogs are

1,436,826, or 66.14 per cent., for the rural districts. The numerous, and supply a large proportion of the fuel used in the movement of the population to the towns which is incountry. The sea fisheries are of importance, and a not incon dicated by these figures commenced about the middle of siderable quantity of fresh fish is exported to the interior of the

the 19th century, and increased until very near its end. Continent. Oysters are still found in some places, but have disappeared from many localities, where their abundance in ancient It has been stronger on the islands, where the rural times is proved by the shell mounds on the coast. Such mounds population has increased by 5.3 per cent. only in eleven occur in other countries too, but it was in Denmark that they years, whereas in Jutland the increase of the rural populawere first recognized as being but the accumulated remains of the

tion between 1890 and 1901 amounted to 12:0 per cent. meals of the ancient population, which largely fed on oysters. Gudenaa is the only salmon river in Denmark. The climate of

(But for some of the causes of this increase see JUTLAND.) Denmark does not differ materially from that of Great Britain in During the same years the population of Copenhagen the same latitude ; but whilst the summer is a little warmer, the increased by 24:94 per cent., namely, to 476,876 (491,340 winter is colder, so that most of the evergreens which adorn an with the environs); and the population of the provincial English garden in the winter cannot be grown in the open in Denmark. During 30 years the annual mean temperature

towns above 10,000 inhabitants by 43.6 per cent. ; but in varied from 43.88° to 46-22° in different years and different local the smaller towns the augmentation only amounted to 20:5 ities, the mean average for the whole country being 45.14°. The islands have, upon the whole, a somewhat warmer climate than Jutland. The mean temperature of the four coldest months,

According to the census of 1890, the population of Denmark December to March, is 33.26°, 31.64°, 31.82°, and 3398° respect

was divided as follows according to occupation, the figures ively, or for the whole winter 32:7°; that of the summer, June to

including dependants :August, 59-2°, but considerable irregularities occur. Frost occurs on an average on 20 days in each of the four winter months, but

Numouly on a couple of days in either October or May. A fringe of Occupation.


Popuice generally lines the greater part of the Danish coasts on the

lation. eastern side for some time during the winter, and both the Sound and the Great Belt are at times impassable on account of ice. In Agriculture 882,336


534,428 some winters the latter is sufficiently firm and level to admit of


1.6 172,929 Pensioners.

17,723 sledges passing between Copenhagen and Malmö. The annual


40,276 rainfall varies between 21:58" and 27.87" in different years and


44,667 different localities. It is highest on the west coast of Jutland; the Navigation 26,082



Transport, posts, small island of Anholt in the Cattegat has an annual rainfall of

telegraphs, &c. 42,730


3,753 only 1578". More than half the rainfall occurs from July to November, the wettest month being September, with an average of 2.95"; the driest month is April, with an average of 1.14".

In 1901, 1,193,448, or 48.72 per cent., of the population of Thunderstorms are frequent in the summer. South-westerly winds

Denmark were males ; 1,256,092, or 51.28 per cent., were females. prevail from January to March, and from September to the end

The number of marriages has increased, with little oscillation, of the year. In April the east wind, which is particularly search

from 14,975 in 1891 to 18,499 in 1900, that is, in a considerably ing, is predominant, while westerly winds prevail from May to

greater ratio than the population. The number of divorces in

1900 was 391. August.

The birth-rate appears to have oscillated during

the period in question between 29:3 and 38.8 per thousand, the According to the census taken on 1st February 1901, highest number of children born alive being 72,141 in 1900. On the total population of Denmark was 2,449,540, as com

an average, 51:3 per cent. of the children born annually are boys,

and the male sex remains in excess until about the 20th year, pared with 929,001 on the same date in 1801, Popula

from which age the female sex preponderates in increasing ratio showing an increase during the century in the with advancing age. Of all children born annually an average of

proportion of 100: 263. As compared with the 9.6 per cent. are illegitimate. In some rural districts the ratio total in 1890, namely, 2,172,380, the returns for 1901

is as low as 3.5 per cent., but in Copenhagen it reaches 20-2 per

cent. are 12:76 per cent. higher, corresponding to an average

12 per cent. of the illegitimate children born alive had

mothers who were under 20 years of age. The still-born numbered, annual increase of 1.09 per cent. during the ten years. in 1899, 2:47 per cent. of all births, but amongst them 12.8 per The first four years of the decade were, however, far from cent. were illegitimate. Between the middle and the end of the favourable, owing to a great increase of mortality and at

19th century the rate of mortality decreased most markedly for all the same time of emigration, which latter cause reduced

ages. The annual death-rate per thousand may be taken to have

varied during 1890-1900 between 19.5 in 1891 and 15.1 in 1898 the increase which should have followed from the excess of (17:4 in 1900). The annual number of suicides, which used to births over deaths by nearly one-half. The actual annual average 555, declined towards the close of the 19th century, and increase during these years varied only from 0:54 per


was 523 for the period 1896–1900. to 0:68 per cent. In 1901 the average density of the popu

Emigration, which for some time seriously affected the popula

tion of Denmark, diminished in the ’nineties. In 1892 the number lation of Denmark was at the rate of 165.2 to the square of emigrants to Transatlantic places rose to 10,422, but in 1900 it mile, but varied much in the different parts. Jutland, was only 3570. The great bulk of them go to the United States; which represents three-fifths of the total area of Denmark,

next in favour is Canada. In 1890 there were 70,900 persons, and in 1901 had a population of 1,063,792, showed an

foreigners, living in Denmark, of whom 33,802 were born in Sweden,

20,824 were Schleswigers, 10,823 were natives of other parts of average of only 109 inhabitants per square mile, whilst on


and 3385 were Norwegians. From 1891 to 1900 2525 the islands, which had a total population of 1,385,537, foreigners were naturalized.

S. III. 52







General labour


No certain livelihood

0.8 1.8 2.0 1.79






The Danish Parliament, called the “Rigsdag," consists The National or State Church of Denmark is officially styled of two chambers, the Folkething and the Landsthing, but 'Evangelically Reformed,” but is popularly described as Lutheran.

In 1890 its members numbered 2, 136,329, or 98-44 per Religion. the constitution contains no indication of any Govern

cent. of the total population. 10,624 belonged to difference in their attributes. The Landsthing,

free extra-parochial congregations of Lutherans. The members however, is evidently intended to form the con of other Christian communities numbered 14,502, of which servative element in the constitutional machinery. Whilst 1252 were Calvinists, 137 Anglicans, 2301 Methodists, 4556 the 114 members of the Folkething are elected in the usual

Baptists, 2609 Irvingites, and 3647 Roman Catholics. There were

4080 Jews, mostly in Copenhagen. 941 were returned as Mormons, way by universal suffrage, 12 out of the 66 members of the

and 2560 as not professing any positive religion. There are seven Landsthing are life members nominated by the Crown.

dioceses, the Primate being the Bishop of Sealand, who resides at The remaining 54 members of the Landsthing are returned Copenhagen, but his cathedral is at Roeskilde. There are 72 according to a method of proportionate representation by

rural deaneries, and 988 pastorates, of which the greater part

comprise more than one parish ; the number of parish churches is a body of deputy electors. Of these latter one-half are

1721. The benefices are almost without exception provided with elected in the same way as members of the Folkething, good residences and glebes, and the tithes, &c., generally afford a without any property qualification for the voters; the comfortable income. The bishops have fixed salaries in lieu of other half of the deputy electors are chosen in the towns

tithes appropriated by the State.

Every child is bound to attend the parish school at least from the by those who during the last preceding year were assessed

7th to the 13th year, unless the parents can prove that it receives on a certain minimum of income, or paid at least a certain suitable instruction in other ways. The schools are amount in rates and taxes. In the rural districts the under the immediate control of school boards appointed

Education. deputy electors returned by election are supplemented by by the parish councils, but of which the incumbent of the parish is an equal number of those who have paid the highest

cx-oficio member ; superior control is exercised by the Amtmand,

the rural dean, and the bishop, under the Minister for Church and amounts in taxes and county rates together. In this Education. The instruction in primary schools is gratuitous. manner a representation is secured for fairly large min Secondary public schools are provided in towns, in which moderate orities, and what is considered a fair share of influence school fees are paid. There are 13 public grammar schools. Nearly

all schools are day-schools. on public affairs given to those who contribute the most

There are only two public schools

which, though on a much smaller scale, resemble the great English to the needs of the State. The Faröes, which form an

schools, namely, those of Sorö and Herlufsholm, both founded integral part of the kingdom of Denmark in the wider by private munificence. Private schools are mostly more or less sense, are represented in the Danish Parliament, but under public control. The number of children in Danish schools not the other dependencies of the Danish Crown. For

was, in 1898, 364,091, of whom 307,633 were in municipal schools,

6838 in grammar schools, and 49,620 in other schools, including administrative purposes the country is divided into 18

infant schools, &c. The University, Copenhagen, which was so-called “ Amts,” or counties. The principal civil officer founded in 1479, has 53 professors, besides a varying number of in each of them is the “Amtmand.” Local affairs are lecturers. Connected with it are an observatory, museums of managed by "Amtsraad” and “Sogneraad,” corresponding

national history, a botanical garden, various collections and labora

tories, as well as a good library. The matriculations average 350 to the English county council and parish council. These

a year.

Amongst the numerous other institutions for the furtherinstitutions date from 1841, but they have undergone ance of science and training of various kinds may be mentioned the several modifications since. The members of these large polytechnic schools; the High School for Agriculture and councils are elected on a system similar to that applied

Veterinary Art, with 22 professors, besides lecturers ; the Royal to the elections for the Landsthing. The same is the

Library (500,000 vols., 20,000 MSS.); the Royal Society of Sciences;

the Museum of Northern Antiquities ; the Society of Northern case with the provincial town councils. That of Copen- | Antiquaries, &c. &c. The art museums of Denmark are not hagen is elected by those who are rated on an income considerable, except the Museum of Thorvaldsen, but much is of at least 400 crowns (£22). The burgomasters are

done to provide first-rate training in the fine arts and their applicaappointed by the Crown, except in Copenhagen, where

tion to industry. The Royal Academy of Arts has 7 professors,

besides assistant teachers, and its schools are frequented by about they are elected by the town council, subject to royal 200 students annually. Finally, it may be mentioned that comapprobation.

paratively much money is available from public funds and regular For the administration of justice Denmark is divided into

parliamentary grants for furthering science and arts by temporary

subventions to students, authors, artists, and others of insufficient “Herreds ” or Hundreds; as, however, they are mostly of small ex

means, in order to enable them to carry out particular works, to Justice. tent, several are generally served by one judge, “Herreds

profit by foreign travel, &c. foged ”; the townships are likewise separate jurisdic

The following is a summary of the items of expendi- Finance. tions, each with a “Byfoged.”. There are 126 such local judges, each of whom deals with all kinds of cases arising in his district,

ture in the Danish Budget for 1900-01 :and is also at the head of the police. There are two inter

Civil List

Kr. 1,000,000 or £55,555 mediary Courts of Appeal, one in Copenhagen, another in Viborg ; Appanages to the Royal the Supreme Court of Appeal sits at Copenhagen. In the capital


203,200 11,289 the different functions are more divided. There is also a Court of

Parliament (payment of memCommerce and Navigation, on which leading members of the trading

bers, &c.)

200,000 11,111 community serve as assessors. In the country, Land Commissions Council of State (pay of Minissimilarly constituted deal with many questions affecting agricul

ters, &c.)


6,612 tural holdings. A peculiarity of the Danish system is that, with Interest on Public Debt

7,059,300 392,183 few exceptions, no civil cause can be brought before a court until Reduction of Debt

1,802,731 100,152 an attempt has been made at effecting an amicable settlement.


3,349,540 186,086 This is mostly done by so-called Committees of Conciliation, but


11,022,419 612,357 in some cases by the court itself before commencing formal judicial Navy

7,787,310 432,629 proceedings. In this manner three-fifths of all the causes are

Civil Service


» 1,497,639 settled, and many which remain unsettled are abandoned by the Iceland, annual grant.


4,254 plaintiffs. In 1897 the courts disposed of about 30,000 civil

Public Works (new railways, cases ; 3689 persons (2838 males and 851 females) were convicted


10,370,907 576,161 of various crimes ; 3573 were punished for police offences ; whilst

Loans and Advances

2,229,950 123,886 33,005 police cases were disposed of without formal judgment, on the defendant agreeing to pay a fine. Sanitary matters are under

Kr. 72,178,449 £4,009,914 the control of a Board of Health. The whole country is divided into districts, in each of which a medical man is appointed with a

The items of estimated actual revenue for 1900-01 were as follow :salary, who is under the obligation to attend to poor sick and Customs

Kr. 33,176,000 or £1,843,111 assist the authorities in medical matters, inquests, &c. The relief Excise and Beer Tax


509,444 of the poor is well organized, mostly on the system of out-door Land and House Tax 10,577,500

587,639 relief. Many workhouses have been established for indigent per Stamps


197,222 sons capable of work. There are many almshouses and similar institutions.

Carry forward Kr.56,473,500 £3,137,416

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