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be kept open as short a time as possible in order to prevent the general arrangement the destructor differs considerably from admission of cold air into the furnace at the back end, since this those previously described. The grates are placed side by side leads to the lowering of the temperature of the cells and main without separation except by dead plates, but, in order to flue, and also to paper and other sight refuse being carried into localize the forced draught, the ash-pit is divided into parts the flues and chimney. The flues of each furnace are provided corresponding with the different grate areas. Each ash-pit is with dampers, which are closed during the process of clinkering closed air-tight by a cast-iron plate, and is provided with an airin order to keep up the heat. The cells are each 5 feet wide and tight door for removing the fine ash. Two patent Meldrum 11 feet deep, the rearmost portion consisting of a firebrick dry- steam-jet blowers are provided for each furnace, supplying any ing hearth, and the front of rocking grate bars upon which the required pressure of blast up to 6 inches' water column, though combustion takes place. The crown of each cell is formed of a that usually employed does not exceed 14 inches. The furnaces reverberatory firebrick arch having openings for the emission of are designed for hand-feeding from the front, but hopper-feeding the products of combustion. The flap danıpers which are fitted can be applied if desirable. The products of combustion either to these openings are operated by horizontal spindles passing pass away from the back of each fire-grate into a common flue through the brickwork to the front of the cell, where they are leading to boilers and the chimney-shaft, or are conveyed sideprovided with levers or handles ; thus cach cell can be worked ways over the various grates and a common fire-bridge to the independently of the others. With the view of increasing the boilers or chimney. The heat in the gases, after passing the steani-raising capabilities of the furnace, forced draught is some boilers, is still further utilized to heat the air supplied to tho times applied and a tubular boiler is placed close to the cells. furnaces, the gases being passed through an air heater or conThe amount of refuse consumed varies from 5 tons to 8 tons per tinuous regenerator consisting of a number of cast-iron pipes cell per 24 hours. At Hornsey, where 12 cells of this type are in from which the air is delivered through the Meldrum “blowers' use, the cost of labour for burning the refuse is 9 d. per ton. at a temperature of about 300° F. That a high percentage (15

The Meldrum "Simplex” destructor (Fig. 3), a modern type to 18 per cent.) of Co, is obtained in the furnaces proves a small of furnace which yields good steam-raising results, is in success excess of free oxygen, and no doubt explains the high fuel efficiMeldrum's.

ful operation at Rochdale, Hereford, and Darwen, ency obtained by this type of destructor. High-pressure boilers

at each of which towns the production of steam of ample capacity are provided for the accumulation during is an important consideration. Cells have also been laid periods of light load of a reserve of steam, the storage being down at Burton, Hunstanton, Blackburn, and Shipley. In l obtained by utilizing the difference between the highest and

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lowest water-levels and the difference between the maximum and air-supply at the fire-bridge, and a firebrick hearth sloping working steam-pressure. Patent locking fire-bars, to prevent at an angle of about 52°. From the refuse storage platform lifting when clinkering, are used in the furnace and have a good the material is fed into a hopper mouth about 18 inches life. At Rochdale the Meldrum furnaces consume from 53 to 66 square, and slides down the firebrick hearth, supported by lbs. of refuse per square foot of grate arca per hour, as compared T-irons, to the grate bars, over which it is raked and spread with with 22:4 ID per square foot in a low-temperature destructor burning 6 tons per cell per 24 hours with a grate area of 25 square feet. The evaporative efficiency of the Rochdale furnaces varies from 1:39 Ib to 1.87 lb of water (actual) per 1 It of refuse burned, and an average steam-pressure of about 114 Ib per square inch is maintained. The cost of labour and supervision amounts to 10d. per ton of refuse dealt with. A Lancashire boiler (22 feet by 6 feet 6 inches) at the Sewage Outfall Works, Hereford, evaporates with refuse fuel 2980 lb of water per hour, equal to 149 indicated horse-power. About 51 lb of refuse are burnt per square foot of grate area per hour with an evaporation of 1.82 lb of water per pound of refuse. At Darwen a Meldrum furnace of 104.5 square feet grate area runs the present electric plant consisting of two 150 kilowatt steam dynamos (225 horsepower each), one only being in use at a time. As the dynamos run only 9 hours per day, while the refuse is burned throughout the 24 hours, there is a largo surplus of heat running

FIG. 4.--Beaman and Deas Destructor at Leyton. to waste. This it is proposed to employ for electric tramways and then the available power will be utilized to its full extent. the assistance of long rods manipulated through clinkering doors

The Beaman and Deas destructor 1 (Fig. 4) has attracted much placed at the sides of the cells. A secondary door in the rear of attention from public authorities, and successful installations are the cell facilitates the operation. The fire-bars, spaced only

in operation at Warrington, Dewsbury, Leyton, Canter inch apart, are of the ordinary stationary type. Vertically, Beaman

bury, Llandudno, Colne, Streatham, Rotherhithe, and under the fire-bridge, is an air-conduit, from the top of which

Wimbledon. Its essential features include a level fire lead air blast pipes 12 inches in diameter discharging into a grate with ordinary type bars, a high-temperature combustion hermetically closed ash-pit under the grate area. The air is chamber at the back of the cells, a closed ash - pit with supplied from fans (Schiele’s patent) at a pressure of from 1} to 2 forced draught, provision for the admission of a secondary inches of water, and is controlled by means of baffle valves

worked by handles on either side of the furnace, conveniently 1 Patents No. 15,598 (1893) and 23,712 (1893); also Bcaman placed for the attendant. The forced draught tends to keep tho and Deas Sludge Furnace, patent No. 13,029 (1894).

bars cool and lessen wear and tear. The fumes from the charge


and Deas.

drying on the hearth pass through the fire and over the red-hot | the average temperature in the combustion chamber 2000° F. by fire-bridge, which is perforated longitudinally with air-passages copper-wire test, and the average air pressure with forced draught, connected with a small flue leading from a grated opening on the 23 inches (wator gauge). At Leyton, which has a population of face of the brickwork outside ; in this way an auxiliary supply over 100,000, an eight-cell plant of this type is successfully of heated oxygen is fed into the combustion chamber. This dealing with house refuse and filter press cakes of sewage sludge chamber, in which a temperature approaching 2000°F. is attained, from the Sewage Disposal Works adjoining, and even with is fitted with large iron doors, sliding with balance weights, material of this low calorific value the total steam-power prowhich allow the introduction of infected articles, bad meat, etc., duced is considerable. Each cell burns about 16 tons of the and also give access for the periodical removal of fine ash from mixture in 24 hours and develops about 35 indicated horse-power the flues. The high temperatures attained are utilized by in- continuously, at an average steam - pressure in the boilers of stalling one boiler, preferably of the Babcock and Wilcox water 105 ib. The cost of labour at Leyton for burning the mixed tube type, for each pair of cells, so that the gases, on their way refuse is about ls. 7d. per ton ; at Llandudno, where four cells from the combustion chamber to the main flue, pass three times were laid down in connexion with the electric- light station in between the boiler tubes. A secondary furnace is provided under 1898, it is ls. 34d., and at Warrington, 94d. per ton of refuse the boiler for raising steam by coal, if required, when the cells consumed. Combustion is complete, and the destructor may be are out of use. The grate area of each cell is 25 square feet, and safely installed in populous districts without nuisance to the the consumption varies from 16 up to 20 tons of refuse per cell per inhabitants. Further patents (Wilkie's improvements) have 24 hours. In a 24-hours' test made by the superintendent of the been obtained by Meldrum Brothers (Manchester) in connexion cleansing department, Leeds, at the Warrington installation, the with this destructor. quantity of water evaporated per pound of refuse was 1.14 lb, In addition to the above-described destructors, other modern

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Fig. 5.- Leyton Destructor-Block Plan, showing general arrangement of the works forms have been introduced from time to time, but adopted to a the reverberatory arch of the cell of the width of the truck, less degree ; amongst these may be mentioned Hanson’s Utilizer, situated over the drying hearth, is formed by a firebrick arch Mason's Gasifier, the “Bennett-Phythian,” Cracknell's (Mel- fitted into a frame capable of being moved backwards and forwards bourne, Victoria), Coltman's (Loughborough), Willoughby's, and by means of a lever. The charging truck, when empty, is Healey's improved destructors. On the continent of Europe, brought under the tipping platform, and the carts tip directly systems for the treatment of refuse have also been devised. into it. When one of the cells has to be sed, the truck is moved Among these may be mentioned those of M. Defosse and M. along, so that one of the divisions is immediately over the feeding Helouis. The former has endeavoured to burn the refuse in opening, and the wheel holding up the bottom doors rests uponi large quantities by using a forced draught and only washing the the central rail, which is continued over the movable covering arch. smoke. Helouis has extended the operation by using the heat Then the movable arch is rolled back, the doors are released, and from the combustion of the refuse for drying and distilling the the contents are discharged into the cell, so that no handling of material which is brought gradually on to the grate.

the refuse is required from tipping to feeding. This apparatus Boulnois and Brodie's improved charging tank is a labour is in operation at Liverpool, Shoreditch, Cambridge, and elsesaving apparatus consisting of a wrought-iron truck, 5 ft. wide where. Destructor

by 3 ft. deep, and of sufficient length to hold not less Various forms of patent movable fire-bars have been employed

than 12 hours' supply for the two cells which it in destructor furnaces. Among these may be mentioned Settle's,? ories.

The truck, which moves along a pair of rails Vicar's,3 Riddle's rocking bars, 4 Horsfall's self-feeding appalaid across the top of the destructor, may be worked by ratus, 5 and Healey's movable bars ; 6, but complicated movable

It is divided into compartments holding a charge of arrangements are not to be recommended, and experience greatly refuse in each, and is provided with a pair of doors in the bottom, favours the use of a simple stationary type of fire-bar. opening downwards, which are supported by a series of small wheels running on a central rail. A special feeding opening in 2 Patent No. 15,482 (1885).

3 Patents No. 1955 (1867) and No. 378 (1879). Compte Rendu des Traraux de la Société des Ingénieurs Civils de 4 Patent No. 4896 (1891).

5 Patent No. 20,207 (1892). France, folio 775 (June 1897).

6 Patents No. 18,398 (1892) and No. 12,990 (1892).



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A dust-catching apparatus has been designed and erected at the temperature in main flues, &c. (g) The chimney draught Edinburgh, by the Horsfall Furnace Syndicate, in order to over must be assisted with forced draught from fans or steam jet to come difficulties in regard to the escape of flue dust, &c., from a pressure of 1} inches to 2 inches under grates by water-gauge. the destructor chimney. Externally, it appears a large circular (1) Where a destructor is required to work without risk of block of brickwork, 18 ft. in diameter and 13 ft. 7 in. high, nuisance to the neighbouring inhabitants, its efficiency as a refuse connected with the main flue, and situated between the destructor plant must be primarily kept in view in designing the destructor cells and the boiler. Internally it consists of a spiral works, steam-raising being regarded as a secondary consideration. flue traversing the entire circumference and winding upwards to Boilers should not be placed immediately over a furnace so as to : the top of the chamber. There is an interior well or chamber present a large cooling surface, whereby the temperature of the 6 ft. diameter by 12 ft. high, having a domed top, and com gases is reduced before the organic matter has been thoroughly municating with the outer spiral flue by four ports at the top, of burned. (i) Where steam-power and a high fuel efficiency are: the chamber. Dust traps, baffle walls, and cleaning doors are also desired a large percentage of CO, should be sought in the furnaces provided for the retention and subsequent weekly removal of the with as little excess of air as possible, and the flue gases should ilue dust. The apparatus forms a large reservoir of heat main. be utilized in heating the air-supply to the grates, and the feedtained at a steady temperature of from 1500° to 1800° F., and is water to the boilers. () Ample boiler capacity and hot-water useful in keeping up steam in the boiler at an equable pressure storage feed-tanks should be included in the design where steamfor a long period. It requires no attention, and has proved power is required. successful for its purpose.

As to the initial cost of the erection of refuse destructors, few Travelling cranes for transporting refuse and feeding cells are trustworthy data can be given. The outlay necessarily depends, sometimes employed at destructor stations, as, for example, at amongst other things, upon the difficulty of preparing Hamburg. Here the transportation of the refuse is effected by


the site, upon the nature of the foundations required, means of specially constructed water-tight iron waggons, con the height of the chimney-shaft, the length of the inclined or taining detachable boxes provided with two double-flap doors at approach roadway, and the varying prices of labour and materials the top for loading, and one flap-door at the back for unloading. in different localities. As an example may be mentioned the case There are thirty-six furnaces of the Horsfall type placed in two of Bristol, where, in 1892, the total cost of constructing a 16-cell ranks, each arranged in three blocks of six in the large furnace Fryer destructor was £11,418, of which £2909 was expended on. hall. An electric crane running above each rank lifts the boxes foundations, and £1689 on the chimney-shaft; the cost of the off the waggons and carries them to the feeding-hole of each cell. destructor proper, buildings, and approach road was therefore. Here the box is tipped up by an electric pulley and emptied on £6820, or about £426 per cell. The cost per ton of burning reto the furnace platform. Where the travelling crane is used, fuse in destructors depends mainly upon-a) The price of labour the carts (four-wheeled) bringing the refuse may be constructed in the locality, and the number of 't shifts” or changes of workso that the body of the carriage can be taken off the wheels, men per day; (b) the type of furnace adopted ; (c) the nature of lifted up and tipped direct over the furnace as required, and the material to be consumed ; (d) the interest on and repayment returned again to its frame. The adoption of the travelling of capital outlay. The cost of burning, ton for ton consumed, in crane admits of the reduction in size of the main building, as less high-temperature furnaces, including labour and repairs, is not platform space for unloading refuse carts is required ; the inclined greater than in slow-combustion destructors. The average cost roadway may also be dispensed with. Where a destructor site of burning refuse at twenty-four different towns throughout Eng. will not admit of an inclined roadway and platform, the refuse land, exclusive of interest on the cost of the works, is ls. 1}d. may be discharged from the collecting carts into a lift, and thence per ton burned ; the minimum cost is 6d. per ton at Bradford, and elevated into the feeding-bins.

the maximum cost 2s. 10d. per ton at Battersea. At Shoreditch

the cost per ton for the year ending 25th March 1899, including The general arrangement of a battery of refuse cells at labour, supervision, stores, repairs, &c. (but exclusive of interest a destructor station is illustrated by Fig. 5. The cells on cost of works), was 25. 6.9d. The quantity of refuse burned per are arranged either side by side, with a common

cell per day of 24 hours varies from about 4 tons up to 20 tons. Working main flue in the rear, or back to back with the

The ordinary low-temperature destructor, with 25 square feet

grate area, burns about 20 fb of refuse per square foot of grate main flue placed in the centre and leading to a

area per hour, or between 5 and 6 tons per cell per 24 hours. The tall chimney-shaft. The heated gases on leaving Meldrum destructor furnaces at Rochdale burn as much as 66 ft. the cells pass through the combustion chamber into the per square foot of grate area per hour, and the Beaman and Deas main flue, and thence go forward to the boilers, where destructor at Llandudno 71:7 it per square foot per hour. The their heat is absorbed and utilized. Forced draught is in stoking, the nature of the material, the frequency of removal

amount, however, always depends materially on the care observed supplied from fans through a conduit commanding the of clinker, and on the question whether the whole of the refuse whole of the cells. An inclined roadway of as easy passed into the furnace is thoroughly cremated. gradient as circumstances will admit, is provided for the

The amount of residue in the shape of clinker and fine ash

varies from 22 to 37 per cent. of the bulk dealt with. From 25 to. conveyance of the refuse to the tipping platform, from 30 per cent. is a very usual amount. At Shoreditcli,

Residues. which it is fed through feed-holes into the furnaces. In where the refuse consists of about 8 per cent. of straw, the installation of a destructor, the choice of suitable plant paper, shavings, &c., the residue contains about 29 per cent. clinker, and the general design of the works must be largely de- 2:7 per cent. fine ash, '5 per cent. flue dust, and •6 per cent. old

tins, making a total residue of 32-8 per cent. As the residuum pendent upon local requirements, and should be entrusted

amounts to from 7th to 3rd of the total bulk of the refuse dealt. to an engineer experienced in these matters. The following with, it is a question of the utmost importance that some proprimary considerations, however, may be enumerated as fitable, or at least inexpensive, means should be devised for its materially affecting the design of such works :

regular disposal. Among other purposes, it has been used for

bottoming for macadamized roads, for the manufacture of con(a) The plant must be simple, easily worked without stoppages, crete, for making paving slabs, for forming suburban footpaths or and without mechanical complications upon which stokers may

cinder footwalks, and for the manufacture of mortar. The last is lay the blame for bad results. (b) It must be strong, must with a very general, and in many places profitable, mode of disposal. stand variations of temperature, must not be liable to get out of Through defects in the design and management of many of the order, and should admit of being readily repaired. (c) It must early destructors complaints of nuisance frequently arose, and be such as can be easily understood by stokers or firemen of these have, to some extent, brought destructor installations into average intelligence, so that the continuous working of the plant disrepute. Although some of the older furnaces were decided may not be disorganized by change of workmen. (d) A sufficiently offenders in this respect, that is by no means the case with high temperature must be attained in the cells to reduce the the modern improved type of high-temperature furnace; and refuse to an entirely innocuous clinker, and all fumes or gases often, were it not for the great prominence in the landscape of should pass either through an adjoining red-hot cell or through tall chimney-shaft, the existence of a refuse destructor in a a chamber whose temperature is maintained by the ordinary neighbourhood would not be generally known to the inhabitants. working of the destructor itself at a degree sufficient to exclude A modern furnace, properly designed and worked, will give rise the possibility of the escape of any unconsumed gases, vapours, to no nuisance, and may be safely erected in the midst of a popuor particles. The temperature may vary between 1500° and 2000°. lous neighbourhood. To ensure the perfect cremation of the (e) The plant must be so worked that while some of the cells are refuse and of the gases given off, forced draught is essential. being recharged, others are at a glowing red heat, in order that a This is supplied either as air draught delivered from

Forced high temperature may be uniformly maintained. (f) The design a rapidly revolving fan, or as steam blast, as in the

draught. of the furnaces must admit of clinkering and recharging being Horsfall steam jet or the Meldrum blower. With a easily and quickly performed, the furnace doors being open for a forced blast less air is required to obtain complete combustion minimum of time so as to obviate the inrush of cold air to lower than by chimney draught. The forced draught grate requires

of destructors.


little more than the quantity theoretically necessary, while with per ton burned, and the total indicated horse-power hours per chimney draught more than double the theoretical amount of air annum would be must be supplied. With forced draught, too, a much higher 70,000 x 5 cwt. temperature is attained, and if it is properly worked, little or

x 112=1,960,000 I.H.P. hours annually. no cold air will enter the furnaces during stoking operations. As far as possible a balance of pressure in the cells during clinkering trical horse-power hours would be (with a dynamo efficiency of 90

If this were applied to the production of electric energy,

the elecshould be maintained just sufficient to prevent an inrush of cold air through the flues. The forced draught pressure should not

per cent.) exceed 2 inches' water-gauge. The efficiency of the combustion in

1,960,000 x 90

=1,764,000 E.H.P. hours per annum ; the furnaces is conveniently measured by the “Econometer,”

100 which registers continuously and automatically the proportion of and the watt-hours per annum at the central station would be CO2 passing away in the waste gases; the higher the percentage of CO, the more efficient the furnace, provided there is no forma

1,764,000 x 746=1,315,944,000. tion of CO, the presence of which would indicate incomplete com Allowing for a loss of 10 per cent. in distribution, this would bustion. The theoretical maximum of CO2 for refuse burning is give 1,184,349,600 watt - hours available in lamps, or with 8 about 20 per cent. ; and, by maintaining an even clean fire, by candle-power lamps taking 30 watts of current per lamp, we admitting secondary air over the fire, and by regulating the should have dampers or the air-pressure in the ash-pit, an amount approximating to this percentage may be attained in a well-designed furnace

1,184,349,600 watt - hours

= 39,478,320 8-c.p. lamp - hours per if properly worked. If the proportion of free oxygen (i.c., excess

30 watts

annum ; of air) is large, more air is passed through the furnace than is re

39,478,320 quired for complete combustion, and the heating of this excess is that is,

= 563 8-c.p. lamp-hours per annum per clearly a waste of heat. The position of the econometer in testing.

70,000 population head of population. should be as near the furnace as possible, as there may be con Taking the loss due to the storage which would be necessary at siderable air leakage through the brickwork of the flues.

20 per cent. on three-quarters of the total or 15 per cent. upon the The modern high-temperature destructor, to render the refuse whole, there would be 478 8-c.p. lamp-hours per annum per head and gases perfectly innocuous and harmless, is worked at a tem of the population; i.e., if the power developed from the refuse were Calorific

perature varying from 1250° to 2000° F., and the fully utilized, it would supply electric light at the rate of one value.

maintenance of such temperatures has very naturally 8-c.p. lamp per head of the population for about 1} hours for every

suggested the possibility of utilizing this heat-energy night of the year. for the production of steam - power. Successful steam-raising In actual practice, when the electric energy is for the purposes destructor stations have been in operation during recent years in of lighting only, difficulty has been experienced in fully utilizing England, and experience shows that a considerable amount of the thermal energy from a destructor plant owing to

Difficulties. energy may be derived therefrom, amply justifying a reasonable the want of adequate means of storage either of the increase of expenditure on plant and labour. The actual calorific thermal or of the electric energy. A destructor station usually value of the refuse material necessarily varies, but, as a general yields a fairly definite amount of thermal energy uniformly average, experience shows that, with suitably-designed and pro- throughout the twenty-four hours, while the consumption of perly-managed plant, an evaporation of 1 lb of water per pound electric-lighting current is extremely irregular, the maximum of refuse burned is a result which may be readily attained, and demand being about four times the mean demand. The period affords a basis of calculation which engineers may safely adopt in during which the demand exceeds the mean is comparatively practice. Many destructor steam-raising plants, however, give short, and does not exceed about six hours out of the twenty-four, considerably higher results, as will be seen from the following while for a portion of the time the demand may not exceed both table :

of the maximum. This difficulty, at first regarded as somewhat

grave, is now substantially minimized by the provision of ample Average porated per


boiler capacity, or by the introduction of feed thermal storage porated Type of

developed per vessels in which hot feed-water may be stored during the hours of

hour (based on

pressure fuse, from

light load (say eighteen out of the twenty-four), so that at the and at 212° per square 20 lb of steam inch.

time of maximum load the boilers may be filled directly from per I.I.P. per hour). these vessels, which work at the same pressure and temperature

as the boiler. Further, the difficulty above mentioned will disRochdale. Meldrum 1.64 lb 1.97 lb 113 It

350 appear entirely at stations where there is a fair day load which Bros.

practically ceases at about the hour when the illuminating load (4 cells)

comes on, thus equalizing the demand upon both destructor and Hereford . Meldrum 1:51 1.82 70.92 , 236 electric plant throughout the twenty-four hours. This arises in Bros.

cases where current is consumed during the day for motors, fans, (4 cells)

lifts, electric tramways, and other like purposes, and, as the emDarwen Meldrum 1:48 1:55 183

275 ployment of electric energy for these services is rapidly becoming Bros.

general, no difficulty need be anticipated in the successful working (4 cells)

of combined destructor and electric plants where these conditions Oldham, Horsfall (1.11 , 1.33


200 prevail. The more uniform the electrical demand becomes, the (10 cells)

more fully may the power from a destructor station be utilized. Canterbury Beaman 1.41 1:59 132

236 In the case above cited of a town of 70,000 population, the horse& Deas

power to be derived from the refuse, calculated upon the basis of (2 cells)

2 lb of coal per brake horse - power hour, which is the utmost

efficiency practicable even for very good steam-engines, will cost From actual experience it may be accepted, therefore, that the £1750 per annum for fuel with coal at 20s. per ton, and, in praccalorific value of unscreened house refuse varies from 1 to 2 lb tice, the actual cost would doubtless be nearly double. At Shoreof water evaporated per pound of refuse burned, the exact ditch during the year ending March 1899, a total of 1,031,348 proportion depending upon the quality and condition of the Board of Trade units of electric energy was supplied to consumers; material dealt with. Taking the evaporative power of coal at of this about seven-tenths were generated from the refuse of the 10 lb of water per round of coal, this gives for domestic house district, and on many occasions a load of 400 kilowatts (i.e., refuse a value of from 1 to } that of coal; or, with coal at 400 kilo. x 1000 100 20s. per ton, refuse has a commercial value of from 2s. to 4s. per

=596 horse - power) has been carried by 746

90 ton. In London the quantity of house refuse amounts to about refuse fuel only. Some 200 municipalities in England have 14 million tons per annum, which is equivalent to from 4 cwt. to laid down destructor plants, but although the great majority are 5 cwt. per head per annum. If it be burned in furnaces giving an utilizing some of the surplus heat generated by the furnaces, at evaporation of 1 lb of water per pound of refuse, it would yield a comparatively few stations is the full thermal energy of the total power annually of about 138 million brake horse - power refuse turned to commercial utility owing to the fact that the hours, and equivalent cost of coal at 20s. per ton for this amount plants were installed before the value of refuse for steam-raising of power, even when calculated upon the very low estimate of

was properly understood. During recent years, however, new 2 tl of coal per brake horse - power hour, works out at over and improved plant has been introduced, and in the laying down £123,000. On the same basis, the refuse of a medium-sized town,

of all new installations this phase of the question has been kept with, say, a population of 70,000 yielding refuse at the rate of most prominently in view. 5 cwt. per head per annum, would afford 112 indicated horse-power

For further information on the subject, reference should be 1 With medium-sized steam plant, a consumption of 4 lb of coal made to WILLIAM H. MAXWELL, Assoc. M. Inst.C.E., on the per brake horse-power per hour is a very usual performancc.

Removal and Disposal of Town Refuse, with an cxhaustive treat

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ment of Refuse Destructor Plants, London, 1899, which is a compre- | 1895, the year of his death. The genuine interest with hensive work of reference dealing fully with details of construction and results of practical experience. See also the Proceedings of the last years of a somewhat sombre and solitary life.

which these volumes were welcomed did much to lighten the Incorporated Association of Municipal and County Engineers, vols. xiii. p. 216, xxii. p. 211, xxiv. p. 214, and xxv. p. 138; His posthumous poems were collected in 1902. The also the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vols. characteristics of De Tabley's poetry are pre-eminently cxxii. p. 443, cxxiv. p. 469, cxxxi. p. 413, cxxxviii. P; 508, magnificence of style, derived from close study of Milton, cxxix. p. 434, cxxx. pp. 213 and 347, cxxiii. pp. 369 and 498, cxxviii. p. 293, and cxxxv. p. 300.

(W. H. Ma.)

sonority, dignity, weight, and colour. His passion for

detail was both a strength and a weakness: it lent a lovDe Tabley, John Byrne Leicester ing fidelity to his description of natural objects, but it Warren, 3rd BARON (1835–1895), English poet, was sometimes involved him in a loss of simple effect from born at Tabley House, Cheshire, 26th April 1835. He was over-elaboration of treatment.

over-elaboration of treatment. He was always a student educated at Eton and Christ Church, where he took his of the classic poets, and drew much of his inspiration degree in 1856 with second classes in Classics and in Law directly from them. He was a true and a whole-hearted and Modern History. In the autumn of 1858 he went to artist, who, as a brother-poet well said, “still climbed the Turkey as unpaid attaché to Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, clear cold altitudes of song." His ambition was always and two years later was called to the bar. He became an for the heights, a region naturally ice-bound at periods, officer in the Cheshire Yeomanry, and unsuccessfully con- but always a country of clear atmosphere and bright, vivid tested Mid-Cheshire in 1868 as a Liberal. After his father's outlines.

(A. WA) second marriage in 1871 he removed to London, where

Detaille, Jean Baptiste Edouard (1848– he became a close friend of Tennyson for several years.

-), French painter, was born in Paris, 5th October 1848. From 1877 till his succession to the title in 1887 he was

After working as a pupil of Meissonier's, he first exhibited, lost to his friends, assuming the life of a recluse.

It was not till 1892 that he returned to London life, and enjoyed Meissonier's Studio." Military life was from the first a

in the Salon of 1867, a picture representing “A Corner of a sort of renaissance of reputation and friendship. During principal attraction to the young painter, and he gained his the later years of his life Lord De Tabley made many new friends, besides reopening old associations, and he almost reputation by depicting the scenes of a soldier's life with

every detail truthfully rendered. He exhibited “A Halt” seemed to be gathering around him a small literary com- (1868); “Soldiers at rest, during the Maneuvres at the 1895 at Ryde, in his sixty-first year. He was buried

Camp of Saint Maur” (1869); “Engagement between at Little Peover in Cheshire. Although his reputation

Cossacks and the Imperial Guard, 1814” (1870). The

war of 1870–71 furnished him with a series of subjects will live almost exclusively as that of a poet, De Tabley which gained him repeated successes. Among his more was a man of many studious tastes. He was at one time an authority on numismatics ; he wrote two novels ; pub- (1872); “The Retreat” (1873); “The Charge of the

important pictures may be named “The Conquerors” lished A Guide to the Stuly of Book Plates (1889); and the fruit of his careful researches in botany was printed 6th August 1870" (1874); “The Marching Regiment,

9th Regiment of Cuirassiers in the Village of Morsbronn, posthumously in his elaborate Flora of Cheshire (1899). Paris, December 1874” (1875); “A Reconnaissance Poetry, however, was his first and last passion, and to (1876); “Hail to the Wounded !” (1877); “Bonaparte in that he devoted the best energies of his life. Do Tabley's Egypt” (1878); the “Inauguration of the New Opera first impulse towards poetry came from his friend George House » Fortescue, with whom he shared a close companionship Faron's Division " (1879). He also worked with Alphonse

a water-colour; the “Defence of Champigny by during his Oxford days, and whom he lost, as Tennyson de Neuville on the Panorama of Rezonville. In 1884 lost Hallam, within a few years of their taking their he exhibited at the Salon the “Evening at Rezonville," degrees. Fortescue was killed by falling from the mast of Lord Drogheda's yacht in November 1859, and this

gloomy Luxemburg Gallery (see Plate). Detaille has recorded other

a panoramic study, and “The Dream” (1888), now in the event plunged De Tabley into deep depression. Between 1859 and 1862 De Tabley issued four little volumes of of the Garrison of Łuningue,” the “Vincendon Brigade,"

events in the military history of his country: the “Sortie pseudonymous verse (by G. F. Preston), in the produc- and “Bizerte,” reminiscences of the expedition to Tunis

. tion of which he had been greatly stimulated by the After a visit to Russia, Detaille exhibited “The Cossacks sympathy of Fortescue. Once more he assumed a

of the Ataman” and “The Hereditary Grand Duke at the pseudonym - his Praeterita (1863) bearing the name

Head of the Hussars of the Guard.” Other important of William Lancaster. In the next year he pub- works are: “Victims to Duty,” “The Prince of Wales lished Eclogues and Monodramas, followed in 1865 by and the Duke of Connaught,” and “Pasteur's Funeral.” Studies in Verse

. These volumes all displayed technical In his picture of “Châlons, 9th October 1896,” exhibited grace and much natural beauty; but it was not till in the Salon, 1898, Detaille has painted the Emperor and the publication of Philoctetes in 1867 that De Tabley Empress of Russia at a review, with M. Félix Faure. met with any wide recognition. initials “M. X.,” which, to the author's dismay, were in- Detaille has been a member of the French Institute since

1898, and has been awarded many medals and other terpreted as meaning Matthew Arnold.

He at once

honours. disclosed his identity, and received the congratulations of

See MARIUS VACHON. Detaille. Paris, 1898.-FRÉDÉRIC his friends, among whom were Tennyson, Browning, and

MASSON. Edouard Detaille and his Work. Paris and London, Gladstone. In 1868 he published Orestes, in 1870 1891.-J. CLARETIE. Peintres et sculpteurs contemporaires. Rehearsals, and in 1873 Searching the Net. These last Paris, 1876.-G. GOETSCHY. Les jeunes Peintres Militaires.

Paris, 1878. two bore his own name, John Leicester Warren. He was somewhat disappointed by their lukewarm reception, and Detmold, a town of Germany, capital of the prinwhen in 1876 The Soldier of Fortune, a drama on which cipality of Lippe Detmold, beautifully situated on the he had bestowed much careful labour, proved a complete east slope of the Teutoburger Wald, 25 miles south of failure, he retired altogether from the literary arena. It Minden, on the Herford Altenbeken line of the Prussian was not until 1893 that he was persuaded to return, and state railways. The residential castle of the princes of the immediate success in that year of his Poems, Dramatic Lippe Detmold (1550), in the Renaissance style, is an and Lyrical, encouraged him to publish a second series in imposing building, lying with its pretty gardens nearly in

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