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the centre of the town; whilst at the entrance to the large commerce of the Great Lakes passes through it. How park on the south is the New Palace (1708–18), enlarged much this amounts to it is impossible to ascertain, but in 1850, used as the dower-house. Detmold possesses a certainly twice as much as passes the famous Sault Ste natural history museum, theatre, high school, library, the Marie Canal, 25,255,810 tons. The shipments of grain house in which the poet Freiligrath (1810–76) was born, from Detroit for 1899 were as follow :—Wheat 1,567,132 and that in which the dramatist Grabbe (1801–36), also bushels, corn 2,304,105 bushels, oats 266,133 bushels, a native, died. Population (1885), 8916; (1900), 11,971. rye 261,869 bushels, and flour 137,000 barrels. There are

23 banks, with an aggregate capital of $7,850,000, deDetroit, a city of the United States, the county posits amounting to $67,744,955, and total resources of seat of Wayne county, and metropolis of the state of $91,020,715. The bank clearances for the year 1899 Michigan, is situated on the Detroit river in lat. 42° 20' N. were $415,073,499. The assessed valuation of the city, and long. 83° 3' W. It is generally level, and has an on a basis estimated at 70 per cent. of full value, is extent along the river of 7 miles and a depth of 3 miles, $237,799,250, and the entire tax - levy for general except that at the centre of the city it extends towards the

purposes about 2 per cent. The total public debt, exclunorth more than 5 miles. Its area is 291, square miles. sive of water bonds, is $3,617,165. There is also a debt The streets are very wide, and are kept scrupulously clean. of the county, for the new county building, of about There are three lines of electric street railways, aggregating $1,500,000. The property belonging to the city is 160 miles of track, and ten lines of suburban electric cars, valued at $20,430,985.

(C. M. B.) carrying both passengers and freight. Sixteen lines of railways connect the city with all parts of the United Deus, João de(1830-1896),the greatest Portuguese States and Canada. Ferries connect the city with poet of his generation, and perhaps of the 19th century, Windsor and Walkerville in Canada, directly opposite, and was born at San Bartholomeu de Messines in the province with the island park and the various summer resorts along of Algarbe on 8th March 1830. Matriculating in the the river front. The foot of each street reaching to the faculty of law at the university of Coimbra, he did not river is converted into a public wharf. There are 28 proceed to his degree but settled in the city, dedicating parks and parkways, aggregating 912 acres, besides the himself wholly to the composition of verses, which circuGrand Boulevard, which is a drive 11 miles long, around lated among professors and undergraduates in manuscript the city. The largest park is Belle Isle, an island within copies. In the volume of his art, as in the conduct of life, the city limits, at its eastern extremity, and connected he practised a rigorous self-control. Though it is by no with the mainland by a bridge over the American means uncommon for Portuguese poets to publish books channel of the Detroit river.

of verse before they are of age, and though João de Deus The population in 1890 was 205,876, and in 1900 it was the idol of an academic circle from a very early date, had increased to 285,704, of whom 96,503 were foreign- he printed nothing previous to 1855, and the first of his born and 4111 negroes. Out of 78,855 males 21 years poems to appear in a separate form was La Lata, which of age and over, 3587 (of whom 3262 were foreign- was issued in 1860. In 1862 he left Coimbra for Beja, born) were illiterate (unable to write). The birth-rate per where he was appointed editor of O Bejense, the chief thousand averages 14. The death-rate in 1900 was 17:1; newspaper in the province of Alemtejo, and four years in 1890 it was 18.7. There are 69 public schools (3 of later he edited the Folha do Sul. As the pungent satirical which are high schools) and 59 private and parochial verses entitled Eleições prove, he was not an ardent polischools, employing 1187 teachers. In 1900 there were tician, and, though he was returned as Liberal deputy for 91,777 persons of school age (5 to 20 years inclusive). the constituency of Silves in 1869, he acted independThere is one literary college (Jesuit), three colleges of ently of all political parties and promptly resigned his medicine, one of dentistry, and one of law. The State mandate. The renunciation implied in the act, which cut University at Ann Arbor is within easy reach (37 miles). him off from all advancement, is in accord with nearly all There are four public libraries, the largest of which con- that is known of his lofty character. In the year of his tains 157,934 volumes. Branches of this library are election as deputy, his friend, José Antonio Garcia Blanco, established in the public schools. The Museum of Art collected from local journals the series of poems, Flores do is supported in part by taxation. The building cost Campo, which is supplemented by the Ramo de Flores $127,000, and the contents, paintings, and articles of (1869). This is João de Deus's masterpiece. Pires de vertu are valued at $150,000. There are 80 news- Marmalada (1869) is an improvisation of no great merit. papers and periodicals published in the city, of which The four theatrical pieces-Amemos o nosso proximo, Ser 7 are dailies. There are 30 asylums, hospitals, and apresentado, Ensaio de Casamento, and A Viúva inconcharitable homes. There are 183 churches, of which solavelare prose translations from Méry, cleverly done 30 are Roman Catholic, 28 Methodist, 25 Lutheran, 24 but not worth the doing. Horacio e Lydia (1872), a Episcopal, 17 Baptist.

translation from Ponsard, is a good example of artifice in The basis of the government is the city charter, granted manipulating that dangerously monotonous measure, the by the State Legislature. The mayor is elected every two Portuguese couplet. As an indication of a strong spiritual years by popular vote; and the council is composed of reaction three prose fragments (1873)—Anna, Mãe de two members from each of the 17 wards of the city, one Maria, A Virgem Maria and À Mulher do Levita de from each being elected every year. The waterworks Ephrain-translated from Darboy's Femmes de la Bible, are owned by the city, and are maintained by water rates are full of significance. The Folhas soltas (1876) is a and an annual tax of $75,000. The supply is taken from collection of verse in the manner of Flores do Campo, Lake St Clair, immediately above the city. The public brilliantly effective and exquisitely refined. Within the lighting is entirely electric, and the plant is owned by the next few years the writer turned his attention to educacity. Much of the lighting is by arc lights on towers 100 tional problems, and in his Cartilha maternal (1876) first to 150 feet high.

expressed the conclusions to which his study of Pestalozzi and Detroit river is so deep at the foot of the streets that Fröbel had led him. This patriotic, pedagogical apostolate any vessel can approach the wharf. It is never so affected was a misfortune for Portuguese literature; his educational by storms that vessels are in danger, and the most severe mission absorbed João de us completely, and is responrains never perceptibly raise its waters. The main | sible for numerous controversial letters, for a translation



Ꭰ V of Théodore-Henri Barrau's treatise, Des devoirs des enfants | formed it, might have been done no less well by a much envers leurs parents, for a prosodic dictionary, and for lesser man, there is scarcely any height to which he might many other publications of no literary value. A copy of not have risen.

(J. F. - K.) verses in Antonio Vieira's Grinalda de Maria (1877), the

Deutsch-Brod (Czech, Německý Brod), the chief Loas á Virgem (1878), and the Proverbios de Salomão, town of a government district of the same name in Eastern are evidence of a complete return to orthodoxy during the Bohemia, on the Sazawa river, north-west of the Iglau poet's last years. By a lamentable error of judgment German enclave. It was the scene of a victory by Ziska some worthless pornographic verses entitled Cryptinas in 1422 over the Emperor Sigismund, when it was destroyed have been inserted in the completest edition of João de by the Hussites, and in the preceding century had been a Deus's poems—Campo de Flores (Lisbon, 1893); He died flourishing mining town. It was found impossible

, howat Lisbon on 11th January 1896, was accorded a public ever, to restore the old mines. Deutsch-Brod is now a funeral, and was buried next to the traditional grave of manufacturing town, producing starch, cloth, glass, spodium, Camoens in the Jeromite church. His scattered minor flour, beer, and it has a number of saw-mills. Population, prose writings and correspondence have been posthumously almost exclusively Czech (1890), 5735 ; (1900), 6526. published by Dr Theophilo Braga (Lisbon, 1898). His last resting place corresponds to his position in the history

Deutz, a town of Prussia, incorporated with COLOGNE of Portuguese literature. Next to Camoens, no Portuguese (q.v.) in 1888. poet has been more widely read, more profoundly admired

Déva, a corporate town of South-East Hungary, than João de Deus; yet no poet in any country has been near the river Maros, 82 miles east by north of Temesvár; more indifferent to public opinion and more deliberately capital of the county of Hunyad. It existed in the time careless of personal fame. He is not responsible for any of the Romans, but its oldest edifice is the Calvinist single edition of his poems, which were put together by church, dating from the epoch of the Hunyadis (15th pious but ill-informed enthusiasts, who ascribed to him century). The neighbourhood was the scene of important verses that he had not written ; he kept no copies of his events in the War of Independence, 1848–49, and the compositions, seldom troubled to write them himself, and ruins of the fortress, which was then destroyed, are still was content for the most part to dictate them to others. very imposing. Population (1891), 4657; (1900), 7089.

) He has no great intellectual force, no philosophic doctrine, is limited in theme as in outlook, is curiously uncertain in

Deventer, an old Hanse town in the province of his touch, often marring a fine poem with a slovenly rhyme Overyssel, Netherlands, on the river Yssel, 25 miles north or with a misplaced accent; and, on the only occasion when of Arnheim. The rise of Amsterdam and the shallowing he was induced to revise a set of proofs, his alterations of the Yssel contributed to its decline, but it remains å were nearly all for the worse. And yet, though he never commercial centre of some importance, trading with the appealed to the patriotic spirit, though he wrote nothing castern parts of Guelderland and Overyssel. Connexion at all comparable in force or majesty to the restrained with Borculo by steam tram has been established; also an splendour of Os Lusiadas, the popular instinct which links institution to carry out agricultural experiments. A new his name with that of his great predecessor is eminently theatre was built in 1875. Population (1900), 26,212. just. For Camoens was his model ; not the Camoens of De Vere, Aubrey Thomas (1814–1902), the epic, but the Camoens of the lyrics and the sonnets, Irish poet and critic, was born at Curragh Chase, county where the passion of tenderness finds its supreme utter- Limerick, on 10th January 1814, being the third son of

Braga has noted five stages of development in Sir Aubrey de Vere Hunt. In 1832 his father dropped João de Deus's artistic life—the imitative, the idyllic, the the final name by royal license. Aubrey de Vere was lyric, the pessimistic, and the devout phases. Under educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and in his twentyeach of these divisions is included much that is of extreme eighth year began his literary career with The Waldenses

, interest, especially to contemporaries who have passed which he followed up in the next year by The Search after through the same succession of emotional experience, and Proserpine. Thenceforward he was continually engaged, it is highly probable that Caturras and Gaspar, pieces as till his death on 20th January 1902, in the production of witty as anything in Bocage but free from Bocage's coarse poetry and criticism, devoting a long and industrious life impiety, will always interest literary students. But it is

But it is to his enthusiasm for literature. His best known works as the singer of love that João de Deus will delight pos- are: in verse, The Sisters, 1861; The Infant Bridal, 1864; ; terity as he delighted his own generation. The elegiac Irish Odes, 1869; Legends of St Patrick, 1872; and Legends music of Rachel and of Marina, the melancholy of Adeus of the Saxon Saints, 1879; and in prose, Essays chiefly on and of Remoinho, the tenderness and sincerity of Meu Poetry, 1887; and Essays chiefly Literary and Ethical, casto lirio, of Lagrima celeste, of Descalça, and a score 1889. He also wrote a picturesque volume of travelmore songs are distinguished by the large, vital simplicity sketches, and two dramas in verse, Alexander the Great, which withstands time. It is precisely in the quality of 1874; and St Thomas of Canterbury, 1876; both of which, unstudied simplicity that João de Deus is incomparably though they contain fine passages, suffer from diffuseness and strong. The temptations to a display of virtuosity are a lack of dramatic spirit. The characteristics of Aubrey almost irresistible for a Portuguese poet; he has the de Vere's poetry are "high seriousness” and a fine religious tradition of virtuosity in his blood, he has before him the enthusiasm. His research in questions of faith led him to example of all contemporaries, and he has at hand an the Roman Church; and in many of his poems, notably in instrument of wonderful sonority and compass. Yet not the volume of sonnets called St Peter's Chains, 1888, he once is João de Deus clamorous or rhetorical, not once made rich additions to devotional verse. He was a disciple of does he indulge in idle ornament. His prevailing note is Wordsworth, whose calm meditative serenity he often echoed that of exquisite sweetness and of reverent purity; yet with great felicity; and his affection for Greek poetry, with all his caressing softness he is never sentimental, and, truly felt and understood, gave dignity and weight to his though he has not the strength for a long flight, emotion own versions of mythological idylls. But perhaps he has seldom been set to more delicate music. Had he will be chiefly remembered for the impulse which he gave included among his other gifts the gift of selection, had to the study of Celtic legend and literature. In this he continued the poetic discipline of his youth instead of direction he has had many followers, who have sometimes dedicating his powers to a task which, well as he per- I assumed the appearance of pioneers; but after Matthew


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1970–79. 1880. 1880-89.

1890. 1888-97.




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Arnold's fine lecture on “ Celtic Literature,” nothing per- population in 1881 was 603,654, and in 1891 was 631,808, of whom haps has had more influence upon the return to Celtic 297,898 were males and 333,910 females, the number of

persons interests than Aubrey de Vere's tender insight into the

per square mile being 243, and of acres to a person 2:64. În 1901 Irish character, and his stirring reproductions of the early exclusive of the county boroughs, was 1,661,914 acres, with a popu

the population was 660,444. The area of the administrative county, Irish epic poetry.

(A. WA) lation of 455,353, and including the county boroughs its area was Devizes, a municipal borough and market town in changes have been made. In 1896 the parishes of Chardstock and

identical with that of the ancient county, but since 1891 certain the Devizes parliamentary division (since 1885) of Wilt- Hawkchurch were transferred from Dorset to Devon; in the same shire, England, 23 miles north-north-west of Salisbury by year the boundaries of the county borough of Plymouth were exrail. A cottage hospital has been erected. The scanty re

tended; and in 1898 the county borough of Plymouth was again

extended. The area of the registration county is 1,650,705 acres, mains of the ancient castle are mostly incorporated in a

with a population in 1891 of 636,225, of which 336,936 were urban modern residence. There are large engineering works and and 299,289 rural. Within this area the increase of population manufactures of agricultural implements; also a large between 1881 and 1891 was 4-60 per cent. The excess of births tobacco and snuff factory. Area, 907 acres; population of resident population was 27,969.

over deaths between 1881 and 1891 was 63,001, and the increase (1881), 6649; (1901), 6532. The Devizes Union District,

The following table gives the number of marriages, births, and excluding the borough of Devizes, had a population of deaths, with the number of illegitimate births, for 1880, 1890, (1891) 13,318; (1901), 13,070.

and 1898:Devonport, a municipal (extended 1898), county

Illegitimate Births.

Year. Marriages. Births. (1888), and parliamentary borough, naval arsenal, royal dockyard, and garrison town of England, on the Hamoaze or

1880 4521 18,218 12,167 436 estuary of the Tamar, 1 mile west-north-west of Plymouth,

16,893 11,903

388 248 miles by rail west-south-west of London. The borough

1898 5038 16,222 10,844 350 is divided into 15 wards under a council of 60 members, Among recent institutions are a free library (1882); the The number of marriages in 1899 was 5245, of births 16,294, Naval Engineering College (1880), enlarged in 1896 by and of deaths 11,562, the addition of a new wing costing £30,000, the only rates per 1000 of the population, with the percentage of illegiti

The following table shows the marriage, birth, and death establishment of the kind in the United Kingdom (Ports- mate births, for a series of years :mouth College having been abolished), with 200 students resident in the college; the municipal technical schools, opened in 1899, 80 per cent. of the students being con- Marriage-rate 15.3 14.8 14.9

15:1 15:4 nected with the dockyard; and the new naval barracks

29:8 28:8

Death-rate .

17.5 15.7 (1885). There is a public park (35 acres). No. 3 dock

Percentage of illeof Devonport dockyard (72 acres) has been recently en

gitimate births 5.2 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 larged to accommodate the biggest ships, and the adjoining dock southwards now admits all but the largest cruisers. The number of Scots in the county in 1891 was 3316, of Irish One of the building slips, still roofed, measures over 6000 6537, and of foreigners 1789. square yards. “shed,” converted into an open slip, into eight parliamentary divisions, and it also includes the

Constitution and Government. The ancient county is divided was built the “Ocean,” launched in 1898—Devonport's parliamentary boroughs of Devonport and Plymouth returning first battle-ship. A new slip suitable for battle-ships or two members, and the borough of Exeter returning one. The cruisers of the largest type was begun in 1900. Over 7000 a.dministrative county includes thirteen municipal boroughs : workmen are employed in the dockyard. A ropery, pro- port (69,674), Exeter (46,940), Honiton (3271), Okehampton

Barnstaple (14,137), Bideford (8754), Dartmouth (6579), Devonducing half the hempen ropes used in the navy, employs 100 (2568), Plymouth (107,509), South Molton (2848), Tiverton (10,382), women. Keyham steamyard (72 acres), to the north of Torquay (33,625), Great Torrington (3241), and Totnes (4034). Devonport, opened in 1853, comprises 3 large docks and 2 Of these, Devonport, Exeter, and Plymouth are county boroughs. basins, the Queen's Dock being 418 feet long. To the north

The following are urban districts : Ashburton (2628), Bampton

(1657), Brixham (8090), Buckfastleigh (2520), Budleigh Salterton of the docks, the factory, quadrangular in shape, includes | (1883), Crediton (3974), Dawlish (4003), East Stonehouse (15,111), an engineer students' shop, a torpedo shop, machinery shops, Exmouth (10,487), Hea vitree (7529), Isfracombe (8557), Ivybridge engine smithery, erecting shop and turnery, iron and brass (1575), Kingsbridge (3025), Lynton (1641), Newton Abbot foundries, pattern and millwrights’shops, flanging works, &c.

(12,518), Northam (5357), Ottery St Mary (3495), Paignton (8385), The Keyham extension works, begun in 1896, includes (1710), Seaton (1325), Sidmouth (4201), Tavistock (4728), and

St Mary Church (6849), St Thomas the Apostle (8245), Salcombe the reclamation of nearly 100 acres of land to the north Teignmouth (8636). "Devonshire is in the western circuit, and of Keyham and of the Naval Engineering College. The assizes are held at Exeter. The boroughs of Barnstaple, Bidescheme provides a closed basin 1550 feet long, 1000 feet ford, Dartmouth, Devonport, Exeter, Plymouth, South Molton, wide, and 55 feet deep, communicating with the Hamoaze ancient county, which is almost entirely in the diocese of Exeter,

and Tiverton have separate courts of quarter sessions. The by a spacious lock as well as a caisson entrance; another contains 506 entire ecclesiastical parishes, and parts of five others. tidal basin (10 acres); and 3 graving docks. On the com- Education. There is a residential training college (diocesan)

for schoolmasters at Exeter. pletion, some six or seven years hence, of the extension, the

At Exeter are also the West of port will command 5 basins and 10 docks, and rank as by stitution for the blind, while at Plymouth are the South Devon

England Institution for the deaf and the West of England Infar the most capacious arsenal of the world, disposing of a and Cornwall Institution for the blind and a scho board deaf continuous sea frontage, extending nearly three miles, of schvol. The number of elementary schools on 31st August 1899 docks and arsenal. Area of municipal and county borough. latter including 349 National Church of England schools, 6

was 643, of which 239 were board and 404 voluntary schools, the before extension, 1760 acres ; population (1881), 48,939; Wesleyan, 13 Roman Catholic, and 36 “ British and other.” The (1891), 54,803. The extended area is 3160 acres; popu- average attendance at board schools was 13,261, and at voluntary lation (1891), 55,981 ; (1901), 69,674.

schools 50,162. The total school board receipts for the year

ended 29th September 1898 were over £144,335. The income Devonshire, a south-western maritime county of under the Technical Instruction Act was over £602, and that England, bounded N.W. by the Bristol Channel, N.E. under the Agricultural Rates Act over £6114. and E. by Somerset and Dorset, S. by the English Channel, Agriculture.—About three-fourths of the total area of thecounty and W. by Cornwall.

is under cultivation, and of this more than a half is in permanent

pasture, a large number of cattle and sheep being raised. The Area and Population. The area of the ancient county, as given Devon breed of cattle are well adapted both for fattening and dairy in the census returns, is 1,667,097 acres, or 2605 square miles. The purposes. For sheep there are, in addition to the permanent

In a

S. III. — 55

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