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folio volumes, appeared in 1755, was in many respects | philology, is that the dictionary shall be not merely a admirable, but it was inadequate even as a standard of record, but also an historical record of words and their the then existing literary usage. Johnson himself did From the literary point of view the most important not long entertain the belief that the natural development thing is present usage. To that alone the idea of a of a language can be arrested in that or in any other “standard” has any application. Dictionaries of the older way. His work was, however, generally accepted as a type, therefore, usually make the common, or “proper,” or final authority, and the ideas upon which it was founded “root” meaning of a word the starting point of its definition, dominated English lexicography for more than a century. and arrange its other senses in a logical or accidental order, The first effective protest, in England, against the supremacy commonly ignoring the historical order in which the various of this literary view was made by Dean (later Archbishop) meanings arose. Still less do they attempt to give data Trench, in a paper on “Some Deficiencies in Existing from which the vocabulary of the language at any previous English Dictionaries” read before the Philological Society period may be determined. The philologist, however, for in 1857. “A dictionary,” he said, “according to that whom the growth, or progressive alteration, of a language idea of it which seems to me alone capable of being is a fact of central importance, regards no record of a lanlogically maintained, is an inventory of the language; guage as complete which does not exhibit this growth in its much more, but this primarily. . . . It is no task of the successive stages. He desires to know when and where maker of it to select the good words of the language. each word, and each form and sense of it, are first found in The business which he has undertaken is to collect and the language; if the word or sense is obsolete, when it arrange all words, whether good or bad, whether they died; and any other fact that throws light upon its history. commend themselves to his judgment or otherwise. He requires, accordingly, of the lexicographer that, having He is an historian of [the language), not a critic.” That ascertained these data, he shall make them the foundation is, for the literary view of the chief end of the general of his exposition in particular, of the division and arrangedictionary should be substituted the philological or scientific. ment of his definitions, that sense being placed first which In Germany this substitution had already been effected appeared first in order of time. In other words, each by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in their dictionary of the article in the dictionary should furnish an orderly biography German language, the first volume of which appeared in of the word of which it treats, each word and sense being 1854. In brief, then, the modern view is that the general so dated that the exact time of its appearance and the dictionary of a language should be a record of all the words duration of its use may as nearly as possible be determined. —current or obsolete—of that language, with all their This, in principle, is the method of the new lexicography. meanings and uses, but should not attempt to be, except In practice it is subject to limitations similar to those of secondarily, or indirectly, a guide to “good” usage. the vocabulary mentioned above. Incompleteness of the A “standard” dictionary has, in fact, been recognized to early record is here an even greater obstacle; and there be an impossibility, if not an absurdity.
are many words whose history is, for one reason or another, This theoretical requirement must, of course, be modi so unimportant that to treat it elaborately would be a fied considerably in practice. The date at which a modern waste of labour and space. language is to be regarded by the lexicographer as “be The adoption of the historical principle involves a further ginning” must, as a rule, be somewhat arbitrarily chosen ; noteworthy modification of older methods, namely, an while considerable portions of its earlier vocabulary cannot important extension of the use of quotations. To Dr be recovered because of the incompleteness of the literary Johnson belongs the credit of showing how useful, when record. Moreover, not even the most complete dictionary properly chosen, they may be, not only in corroborating can include all the words which the records—earlier and the lexicographer's statements, but also in revealing special later—actually contain. Many words, that is to say, shades of meaning or variations of use which his definitions which are found in the literature of a language cannot be cannot well express. No part of Johnson's work is more regarded as, for lexicographic purposes, belonging to that valuable than this. This idea was more fully developed language; while many more may or may not be held and applied by Dr Charles Richardson, whose New to belong to it, according to the judgment—almost the Dictionary of the English Language . . . Illustrated by whim—of the individual lexicographer. This is especially Quotations from the Best Authors (1835–36), still remains true of the English tongue. “That vast aggregate of a most valuable collection of literary illustrations. Lexiwords and phrases which constitutes the vocabulary of cographers, however, have, with few exceptions, until a English-speaking men presents, to the mind that endeav recent date, employed quotations chiefly for the ends just ours to grasp it as a definite whole, the aspect of one of mentioned -as instances of use or as illustrations of corthose nebulous masses familiar to the astronomer, in which rect usage—with scarcely any recognition of their value a clear and unmistakable nucleus shades off on all sides, as historical evidence; and they have taken them almost through zones of decreasing brightness, to a dim marginal exclusively from the works of the “ best ” authors. But film that seems to end nowhere, but to lose itself imper since all the data upon which conclusions with regard to ceptibly in the surrounding darkness” (Dr J. A. H. the history of a word can be based must be collected from Murray, Oxford Dict., General Explanations, p. xvii). This the literature of the language, it is evident that, in so far “marginal film of words with more or less doubtful as the lexicographer is required to furnish evidence for an claims to recognition includes thousands of the terms of historical inference, a quotation is the best form in which the natural sciences (the New-Latin classificatory names he can give it. In fact, extracts, properly selected and of zoology and botany, names of chemical compounds and grouped, are generally sufficient to show the entire meanof minerals, and the like); half-naturalized foreign words; ing and biography of a word without the aid of elaborate dialectal words ; slang terms; trade names (many of which definitions. The latter simply save the reader the trouble have passed or are passing into common use); proper of drawing the proper conclusions for himself. A further names and many more. Many of these even the most rule of the new lexicography, accordingly, is that quotacomplete dictionary should exclude; others it should in tions should be used, primarily, as historical evidence, and clude ; but where the line shall be drawn will always that the history of words and meanings should be exhibited remain a vexed question.
by means of them. The earliest instance of use that can Another important principle upon which Trench insisted, be found, and (if the word or sense is obsolete) the latest, are and which also expresses a requirement of modern scientific as a rule to be given; while in the case of an important
word or sense, instances taken from successive periods of the necessary bulk of the dictionary too great. When, its currency also should be cited. Moreover, a quotation however, a language is recorded in one such dictionary, which contains an important bit of historical evidence those of smaller size and more modest pretensions can rest. must be used, whether its source is “good,” from the upon it as an authority and conform to it as a model so literary point of view, or not—whether it is a classic of the far as their special limitations permit. language or from a daily newspaper; though where choice is The ideal thus developed is primarily that of the general. possible, preference should, of course, be given to quotations dictionary of the purely philological type, but it applies. extracted from the works of the best writers. This rule also to the encyclopædic dictionary. In so far as the does not do away with the illustrative use of quotations, latter is strictly lexicographic—deals with words as words, which is still recognized as highly important, but it sub and not with the things they denote—it should be made ordinates it to their historical use. It is necessary to add after the model of the former, and is defective to the that it implies that the extracts must be given exactly and extent in which it deviates from it. The addition of in the original spelling and capitalization, accurately dated, encyclopædic matter to the philological in no way affects: and furnished with a precise reference to author, book, the general principles involved. It may, however, for volume, page, and edition ; for insistence upon
these practical reasons, modify their application in various ways. requirements—which are obviously important, whatever For example, the number of obsolete and dialectal words. the use of the quotation may be—is one of the most note included may be much diminished and the number of worthy of modern innovations. Johnson usually gave scientific terms (for instance, New-Latin botanical and. simply the author's name, and often quoted from memory zoological names) be increased; and the relative amount, and inaccurately ; and many of his successors to this day of space devoted to etymologies and quotations may be have followed—altogether or to some extent—his example. lessened. In general, since books of this kind are designed.
The chief difficulty in the way of this use of quotations to serve more or less as works of general reference, the-after the difficulty of collection—is that of finding space making of them must be governed by considerations of for them in a dictionary of reasonable size. Preference practical utility which the compilers of a purely philomust be given to those which are essential, the number logical dictionary are not obliged to regard. The encyof those which are cited merely on methodical grounds clopædic type itself, although it has often been criticized being made as small as possible. It is hardly necessary as hybrid—as a mixture of two things which should be: to add that the negative evidence furnished by quotations | kept distinct—is entirely defensible. Between the dictionis generally of little value; one can seldom, that is, be ary and the encyclopædia the dividing-line cannot sharply certain that the lexicographer has actually found the be drawn. There are words the meaning of which earliest or the latest use, or that the word or sense has cannot be explained fully without some description of not been current during some intermediate period from things, and, on the other hand, the description of thingswhich he has no quotations.
and processes often involves the definition of names. Το. Lastly, a much more important place in the scheme of the combination of the two objection cannot justly be the ideal dictionary is now assigned to the etymology of made, so long as it is effected in a way—with a selection. words. This may be attributed, in part, to the recent of material—that leaves the dictionary essentially a dicrapid development of etymology as a science, and to the tionary and not an encyclopædia. Moreover, the largegreater abundance of trustworthy data ; but it is chiefly vocabulary of the general dictionary makes it possible to due to the fact that from the historical point of view the present certain kinds of encyclopædic matter with a degree connexion between that section of the biography of a of fulness and a convenience of arrangement which are word which lies within the language—subsequent, that is, possible in no single work of any other class. In fact, it to the time when the language may, for lexicographical may be said that if the encyclopædic dictionary did not. purposes, be assumed to have begun, or to the time when exist it would have to be invented; that its justification the word was adopted or invented—and its antecedent is its indispensableness. Not the least of its advantages. history has become more vital and interesting. Etymology, is that it makes legitimate the use of diagrams and in other words, is essentially the history of the form of a pictorial illustrations, which, if properly selected and exeword up to the time when it became a part of the language, cuted, are often valuable aids to definition. and is, in a measure, an extension of the history of the On its practical side the advance in lexicography has development of the word in the language. Moreover, it consisted in the elaboration of methods long in use rather is the only means by which the exact relations of allied than in the invention of new ones. The only way to words can be ascertained, and the separation of words of collect the data upon which the vocabulary, the definithe same form but of diverse origin (homonyms) can be tions, and the history are to be based is, of course, to effected, and is thus, for the dictionary, the foundation of search for them in the written monuments of the language, all family history and correct genealogy. In fact, the as all lexicographers who have not merely bor
Practical attention that has been paid to these two points in the rowed from their predecessors have done. But methods of best recent lexicography is one of its distinguishing and the wider scope and special aims of the new modern most important characteristics. Related to the etymology lexicography demand that the investigation shall lexicogof words are the changes in their form which may have be vastly more comprehensive, systematic, and raphy. occurred while they have been in use as parts of the lan-precise. It is necessary, in brief, that, as far as may be guage—modifications of their pronunciation, corruptions possible, the literature (of all kinds) of every period of the by popular etymology or false associations, and the like. language shall be examined systematically, in order that all The facts with regard to these things which the wide the words, and senses and forms of words, which have research necessitated by the historical method furnishes existed during any period may be found, and that enough abundantly to the modern lexicographer are often among excerpts (carefully verified, credited, and dated) to cover all the most novel and interesting of his acquisitions.
the essential facts shall be made. The books, pamphlets, It should be added that even approximate conformity to journals, newspapers, and so on which must thus be the theoretical requirements of modern lexicography as searched will be numbered by thousands, and the quotaabove outlined is possible only under conditions similar to tions selected may (as in the case of the Oxford Dictionary) those under which the Oxford English Dictionary was under be counted by millions. This task is beyond the powers . taken (see below). The labour demanded is too vast, and of any one man, even though he be a Johnson, or a Littré,
or a Grimm, and it is now assigned to a corps of readers and for this the dictionary is equally notable. The hiswhose number is limited only by the ability of the editor torical method of exposition, particularly by quotations, is to obtain such assistance. The modern method of editing applied, if not in all cases with entire success, yet, on the the material thus accumulated—the actual work of com whole, with a regularity and a precision which leave little pilation - also is characterized by the application of to be desired. A minor fault is that excerpts from second the principle of the division of labour. Johnson boasted or third rate authors have occasionally been used where that his dictionary was written with but little assistance better ones from writers of the first class either must have from the learned, and the same was in large measure true been at hand or could have been found. As was said of that of Littré. Such attempts on the part of one man above, the literary quality of the quotation is highly to write practically the whole of a general dictionary are important even in historical lexicography, and should not no longer possible, not merely because of the vast labour be neglected unnecessarily. Other special features of the and philological research necessitated by modern aims, but book are the completeness with which variations of promore especially because the immense development of the nunciation and orthography (with dates) are given; the vocabulary of the special sciences renders indispensable fulness and scientific excellence of the etymologies, which the assistance, in the work of definition, of persons who abound in new information and corrections of old errors; are expert in those sciences. The tendency, accordingly, the phonetic precision with which the present (British) has been to enlarge greatly the editorial staff of the pronunciation is indicated; and the elaborate subdivision dictionary, scores of sub-editors and contributors being now of meanings. The definitions as a whole are marked by employed where a dozen or fewer were formerly deemed a high degree of accuracy. Work of such magnitude and sufficient. In other words, the making of a “complete" quality is possible, practically, only when the editor of dictionary has become a co-operative enterprise, to the the dictionary can command not merely the aid of a very success of which workers in all the fields of literature and large number of scholars and men of science, but their science contribute.
gratuitous aid. In this the Oxford Dictionary has been The most complete exemplification of these principles singularly fortunate. The conditions under which it originand methods is the Oxford English Dictionary. It originated, and its aim, have interested scholars everywhere, ated in the suggestion of Trench that an attempt should and led them to contribute to the perfecting of it their be made, under the direction of the Philological Society, knowledge and time. The long list of names of such to complete the vocabulary of existing dictionaries and to helpers in Dr Murray's preface is in curious contrast with supply the historical information which they lacked. The their absence from Dr Johnson's and the few which are suggestion was adopted, considerable material was collected, given in that of Littré. Of the dictionary as a whole it and Mr Herbert Coleridge was appointed general editor. may be said that it is one of the greatest achievements, He died in 1861, and was succeeded by Mr F. J. Furnivall. whether in literature or science, of the Victorian Age. Little, however, was done, beyond the collection of quota The Oxford Dictionary furnishes for the first time data from tions—about two millions of which were gathered—until which the extent of the English word-store at any given period, in 1878 the expense of printing and publishing the pro
and the direction and rapidity of its growth, can fairly be posed dictionary was assumed by the Delegates of the
estimated. For this purpose the materials furnished by the older Clarendon Press, and the editorship was entrusted to Dr J.
dictionaries are quite insufficient, on account of their incomplete
ness and unhistorical character. For example, one hundred pages A. H. Murray. From that time the work has been carried of the Oxford Dictionary (from the letter H) contain 1002 words, on with vigour and increasing rapidity, and it will probably of which, as the dated quotations show, 585 were current in 1750 be completed about 1912. As the historical point of be
(though some, of course, were very rare, some dialectal, and so on),
191 were obsolete at that date, and 226 have since come into use. ginning, the middle of the 12th century was selected, all
But of the more than 700 words — current or obsolete — which words that were obsolete at that date being excluded, Johnson might thus have recorded, he actually did record only though the history of words that were current both before about 300. Later dictionaries give more of them, but they in no and after that date is given in its entirety; and it was
way show their status at the date in question. It is worth noting decided that the search for quotations—which, according
that the figures given seem to indicate that not very many more
words have been added to the vocabulary of the language during to the original design, was to cover the entire literature the past one hundred and fifty years than had been lost by 1750. down to the beginning of the 16th century and as much The pages selected, however, contain comparatively few recent scienof the subsequent literature (especially the works of the
tific terms. A broader comparison would probably show that the more important writers and works on special subjects)
gain has been more than twice as great as the loss. as might be possible—should be made more thorough. In the Deutsches Wörterbuch of Jacob and Wilhelm More than 800 readers, in all parts of the world, offered Grimm the scientific spirit, as was said above, first found their aid; and when the preface to the first volume appeared expression in general lexicography. The desirability of a in 1888, the editor was able to announce that the readers complete inventory and investigation of German words had increased to 1300, and that three and one-half millions was recognized by Leibnitz and by various 18th-cenof quotations, taken from the writings of more than five tury scholars, but the plan and methods of the Grimms thousand authors, had been amassed : numbers which must were the direct product of the then new scientific philology. now be very greatly enlarged. The first part was issued Their design, in brief, was to give an exhaustive account in 1884, and up to April 1901 somewhat less, probably, of the words of the literary language (New High German) than one-half of the work had appeared (to the word Lap, from about the end of the 15th century, including their with the exception of the letter K; in five volumes and earlier etymological and later history, with references the first part of the sixth). The number of “main words," to important dialectal words and forms; and to illustrate “subordinate words,” and “special combinations” (the their use and history abundantly by quotations. The first last term including a very large number of ordinary com volume appeared in 1854. At the present time seven pounds, loose compounds, and phrases) defined in these others have been completed, and one has nearly been published portions is given as 148,413, á figure which indi- finished, while parts of the remaining three (there are to cates a total for the whole dictionary of considerably more
Jacob Grimm (died than 300,000. When this is compared with the 40,000 1863) edited the first, second (with his brother, who died words (about) registered by Johnson, the progress made in in 1859), third, and a part of the fourth volumes; the the direction of completeness will be evident. Com others have been edited by various distinguished scholars. pleteness, however, is less important than quality of work, The scope and methods of this dictionary have been
S. III. — 56
to twelverine ay have been issuedi
broadened somewhat as the work has advanced. In descriptive and other details which may legitimately be general it may be said that it differs from the Oxford added to the definitions. Its pictorial illustrations are Dictionary chiefly in its omission of pronunciations and very numerous and well executed. In the manner of its other pedagogic matter; its irregular treatment of dates; compilation it is a good example of modern co-operative its much less systematic and less lucid statement of ety dictionary-making, being the joint product of a large mologies; its less systematic and less fruitful use of number of specialists. Next to the Oxford Dictionary it quotations; and its less convenient and less intelligible is the most complete and scholarly of English lexicons. arrangement of material and typography,
Among the more important dictionaries of European languages These general principles lie also at the foundation of that have appeared since the list given in the 9th ed. of the Ency. the scholarly Dictionnaire de la langue française of E.
Brit. vol. vii. (pp. 183–193) was written are the following:
ANNANDALE. Littré, though they are there carried out less systematically
The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language,
by John Ogilvie, LL.D. ; new edition by Charles Annandale, and less completely. In the arrangement of the definitions
M.A., London, 1882 ; 4 volumes. An encyclopædic dictionary, the first place is given to the most primitive meaning of which served in a manner as the foundation of the Century the word instead of to the most common one, as in the Dictionary.—STORMONTH and W. BAYNE. A Dictionary of the dictionary of the Academy; but the other meanings
English Language. 1885.—MURRAY and BRADLEY. The Oxford
English Dictionary: A New English Dictionary on Historical follow in an order that is often logical rather than his
Principles; founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philotorical. Quotations also are frequently used merely as logical Society. Oxford, 1888 [1884).—WHITNEY. The Century literary illustrations, or are entirely omitted; in the special Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language. paragraphs on the history of words before the 16th
New York, 1889–91. See above. — PORTER. Webster's Inter
national Dictionary of the English Language. Springfield, Mass., century, however, they are put to a strictly historical use.
1890.-FUNK. A Standard Dictionary of the English Language. This dictionary—perhaps the greatest ever compiled by one New York, 1894. HUNTER. The Encyclopedic Dictionary. man-was published 1863-72. (Supplement, 1878.) London and New York, 1879–88.-FENNELL. The Stanford The Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, prepared under the
Dictionary of Anglicized Words and Phrases. Cambridge, 1892. auspices of the German Academies of Berlin, Göttingen,
– TOLLER. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary based on Manuscript Col
lections of the late Joseph Bosworth, D.D. Oxford, 1882-98.Leipzig, Munich, and Vienna, is a notable application of SKEAT. An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. the principles and practical co-operative method of modern Oxford, 1881.-WRIGHT. The English Dialect Dictionary. Lonlexicography to the classical tongues. The plan of the
don. Vol. 1, A-C, 1898 ; vol. 2, D-G, 1900.-BRADLEY. A work is to collect quotations which shall register, with its
Middle-English Dictionary by Francis Henry Stratman; a new
edition by Henry Bradley. Oxford, 1891.-MÄTZNER and BIELING. full context, every word (except the most familiar particles)
Altenglische Sprachproben, nebst einem Wörterbuch. Berlin, in the text of each Latin author down to the middle 1878–. This dictionary had been advanced as far as Misteleven of the 2nd century A.D., and to extract all important
in 1900. - BESCHERELLE. Nouveau dictionnaire national, ou
dictionnaire universel de la langue française. Paris, 1887.passages from all writers of the following centuries down
GODEFROY. Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française, et de tous to the 7th; and upon these materials to found a com ses dialectes du IX° au XVe siècle. Paris, 1881-95; Complément, plete historical dictionary of the Latin language. The 1895—:-HATZFELD, DARMESTETER, and THOMAS, Dictionnaire work of collecting quotations was begun in 1894, and the général de la langue française. Paris, 1890–1900.–LARIVE et first part of the first volume has been published.
FLEURY. Dictionnaire français illustré des mots et des choses.
Paris, 1884–91.—PETROCCHI. Novo dizionario universale della In the making of all of these great dictionaries (except,
lingua italiana. Milan, 1884-91.-CUERVO. Diccionario de of course, the last) the needs of the general public as well construccion y regimen de la lengua castellana. A-B (1886): C-D as those of scholars have been kept in view. But the (1894).—MONLAU. Diccionario etimológico de la lengua castellana. type to which the general dictionary designed for popular
Madrid, 1881.—ZEROLA, TORO Y GOMES, and ISAZA. Diccionario
enciclopédico de la lengua castellana. Paris, 1895.-SERRANO. use has tended more and more to conform is the encyclo
Diccionario universal de la lengua castellana, ciencias, y artes : paedic. This combination of lexicon and encyclopaedia is enciclopedia de los conocimientos humanos. Madrid, 1876–81. — exhibited in an extreme—and theoretically objectionable BARCIA. Primer diccionario general etimológico de la lengua form in the Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle
española. Madrid, 1881-83.—SANDERS. Ergänzungs-Wörterbuch
der deutschen Sprache. Berlin, 1885.—KLUGE. Etymologisches of Pierre Larousse. Besides common words and their
Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Strassburg, 1883.- HEYNE. definitions, it contains a great many proper names, with a Deutsches Wörterbuch. Leipzig, 1890–95. DIEFENBACH and correspondingly large number of biographical, geographical, WÜLCHER. Hoch-und niederdeutsches Wörterbuch der mittleren und historical, and other articles, the connexion of which with neueren Zeit. In Ergänzung der vorhandenen Wörterbucher, ins
besondere das der Brüder Grimm. Basel, 1885. – WEIGAND. the strictly lexicographical part is purely mechanical. Its
Deutsches Wörterbuch. Giessen, 1873.-SCHADE. Altdeutsches utility, which notwithstanding its many defects—is very Wörterbuch. Halle, 1872–82.-KALKAR. Ordbog til det ældre great, makes it, however, a model which will be copied in Danske Sprog. Copenhagen. (Incomplete.)
Groot the future. Fifteen volumes were published 1866–76, and
Woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal. s Gravenhage, 1898 (4th
ed.).— VRIES and WINKEL. Woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal. a much improved new edition (Nouveau Larousse Illustré)
s'Gravenhage, 1882-:-VERWIJS and Verdam. Middelnederwas being published during 1901–2.
landsch Woordenboek. s'Gravenhage, 1885–99 (A-N).-FRANCK. The most notable work of this class, in English, is The Etymologische Woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal. 1884-92.Century Dictionary, edited by Professor W. D. Whitney,
EVANS. Dictionary of the Welsh Language. Carmarthen, and published 1889-91 in six volumes, containing 7046
1887. (Incomplete.) —CLEASBY-VIGFUSSON. An Icelandic-English
Dictionary based on the MS. Collections of the late Richard Cleasby, pages (large quarto). It conforms to the philological
enlarged and completed by Gudbrand Vigfusson, M.A. Oxford, model in giving with great fulness the older as well as 1874.—MIKLOSICH. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Slavischen the present vocabulary of the language, and in the com Sprachen. Wien, 1886.Balg. A Comparative Glossary of the
Gothic Language. Mayville, Wisconsin, 1887–89. Thesaurus pleteness of its etymologies; but it does not attempt to
Linguae Latinae. Leipzig, 1900.
(B. E. s.) give the full history of every word within the language. ‘Among its other more noteworthy characteristics are the Didon, Henri (1840–1900), French Dominican inclusion of a great number of modern scientific and priest, was born at Touvet, Isère, on 17th March 1840. In technical words, and the abundance of its quotations. his early life he was brought into relations with Lacordaire. The quotations are for the most part provided with refer In consequence, probably, of this he became a Dominican ences, but they are not dated. In the application of the monk in 1862. He completed his theological studies at encyclopædic method this dictionary is conservative, ex the Minerva Convent at Rome, and became a great admirer cluding, with a few exceptions, proper names, and re of the theology of Aquinas. The influence of Lacordaire stricting, for the most part, the encyclopædic matter to was further shown in the zeal displayed by the young
preacher in favour of a reconciliation between philosophy Dietetics.—The term dietetics is frequently applied and science. In 1871 his fame had so much
grown that he to the science of the food and nutrition of man in health was chosen to deliver the funeral oration over the murdered and disease. This article deals mainly with that part archbishop of Paris, Monseigneur Darboy. After this he of the subject which has to do with the composition and delivered some discourses at the Church of St Jean de nutritive values of foods and their adaptation to the use Beauvais in Paris on the relations between science and of people in health. The principal topics are 1. Food religion ; but his utterances, especially on the question of and its functions. 2. Metabolism of matter and energy. divorce, were deemed suspicious by those in authority, and 3. Digestibility and availability of food materials. 4. Fuelhis intimacy with Claude Bernard the physiologist was value of food. 5. Composition of food materials. 6. Food disapproved. He was interdicted from preaching and sent consumption—studies of dietaries. 7. Hygienic economy into retirement at the Convent of Corbara in Corsica. of food. 8. Quantities of nutrients needed. 9. Pecuniary After eighteen months he emerged, and travelled in economy of food. Germany, publishing an interesting work upon that Food and its Functions. Food is that which, taken country, entitled Les Allemands, on his return to France. into the body, builds tissue or yields energy. More specificIn 1890 he produced his best-known work, a Life of ally, food supplies the wants of the body in several ways: Jesus (Jésus-Christ), for which he had qualified himself (1) it forms the tissues and fluids of the body ; (2) it repairs by travel in the Holy Land. In the same year he became the waste of tissues ; (3) it is stored in the body for future director of the College Albert-le-Grand (Albertus Magnus) consumption ; (4) it is consumed as fuel, its potential at Arcueil, and himself founded three auxiliary institu energy being transformed into heat or muscular energy or tions,
École Lacordaire, École Laplace, and École other forms of energy required by the body; and (5) in St Dominique. He wrote, in addition, several works on being consumed, it protects tissue or other food from coneducational questions, and augmented his fame as an sumption. The most healthful food is that which is best eloquent preacher by discourses preached during Lent and fitted to the needs of the user. To be adapted to his needs, Advent. He died in 1900.
(J. J. L*.) the food must supply the different nutritive ingredients, or
nutrients, in the kinds and proportions required by the body Diedenhofen (in French, Thionville), a fortified for building and repair and for supplying energy. It town of Germany, in Alsace-Lorraine, dist. Lorraine, on should also be in forms which the person can easily digest the Moselle, 22 miles north from Metz by rail, a railway and which will “ agree
and which will “ agree” with him. The cheapest food is junction of some consequence, with cultivation of wine, that which furnishes the most nutriment at the least cost. fruit, and vegetables, brewing, tanning, &c. It is an The most economical food is that which is most healthful ancient Frank town (Theudonevilla, Totonisvilla), in which and cheapest. Ordinary food materials, such as meat, fish, imperial diets were held in the 8th century; was captured eggs, potatoes, wheat, &c., consist of—refuse, e.g., the bones by Condé in 1643 and fortified by Vauban ; capitulated of meat and fish, shells of shellfish, skin of potatoes, bran to the Prussians in 1870. Population (1885), 8111; of wheat, &c.; edible portion, e.g., the flesh of meat and (1900), 10,062.
fish, the white and yolk of eggs, wheat flour, &c.
edible portion consists of water and nutritive ingredients Dieppe, chief town of arrondissement, department or nutrients. of Seine Inférieure, France, 35 miles north of Rouen, with The principal kinds of nutritive ingredients are protein, terminal station on railway from Paris. The Palais de fats, carbohydrates, and mineral matters. The water, refuse Justice is a recent erection. Lace, woollen goods, and (and salt of salted meat and fish), are here regarded as nonceramic wares are now important manufactures. The nutrients and, in comparing the values of different food ivory carving has greatly declined in recent years, and materials for nourishment, are left out of account. The instead of 300 in 1866 only about 40 workmen were following are familiar examples of compounds of each of employed in it in 1898. Efforts are being made, however, the four principal classes of nutrients :to give a fresh impetus to this industry. In 1900, 1894 Protein.—The term protein is here used to include the vessels of 497,446 tons entered and cleared, of which nitrogenous nutrients of foods except the nitrogenous fat, Great Britain's share was 340,082 tons. Imports were namely, the proteids, e.g., albumen (white of egg), casein valued (1899) at £5,248,000; exports at £6,732,000. (curd) of milk, myosin of muscle (lean meat), gluten of wheat, The principal imports were textiles (chiefly silk), forming &c.; and the non-proteids, including the so-called extract50 per cent. The principal exports were textiles (silk, ives (e.g., creatin) of meats and the amides (e.g., asparagin), cotton, and woollen), amounting to 40 per cent., and hides and allied compounds of vegetables and fruits. and skins. During the summer months large quantities Fats.-Fat of meat ; fat (butter) of milk, olive oil, oil of of fruit are sent to England. The total port traffic on the corn, wheat, &c. (Here are included the nitrogenized fats, Canal de Bourgoyne amounted to 94,774 tons in 1899. as lecithin.) The number of vessels engaged in the fisheries in 1898 Carbohydrates.—Sugars, starches, cellulose (woody fibre), was 95, with 471 men. A school of fisheries, similar to &c. that which has already rendered good service at Sables Mineral Matters.—Phosphates, sulphates, and chlorides d'Olonne, has been established at Dieppe. A new harbour of potassium, sodium, calcium, &c. railway station and a landing stage were opened in 1900, Protein forms tissue (muscle, tendon, &c.) and fat, and and an esplanade mile in length is in course of construc serves as fuel. Fats form fatty tissue (not muscle, &c.) tion. The passenger traffic with England was represented and serve as fuel. Carbohydrates are transformed into fat in 1900 by 130,985 arrivals from and 139,143 departures and serve as fuel. All these nutrients yield energy in the to that country. The harbour, to which an improved form of heat and muscular power. In being themselves approach is projected, comprises an outer and an inner burned to yield energy, the nutrients protect each other port, with a total length of quayage 3772 feet. Depth from being consumed. The protein and fats of body tissue at high tide in the outer port (ordinary spring) varies in different parts from 29 to 36 feet. There are four floating 1 Unfortunately the terms applied by different writers to these docks and a dry dock. The entrance channel, cut in the
nitrogenous compounds are very conflicting. In accordance with a
common usage, erence is here given to the word protein to cover all bed of the Arques, is 1950 feet long and 246 feet wide.
the nitrogenous compounds except the nitrogenous fats, though the Population (1881), 20,408; (1901), 21,798.
word proteid is sometimes used in this signification.