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with the ways of the mass of the people. In July 1882 | Government passed into the hands of the Japanese. Meanwhile the legations were burned by a mob and some Japanese China had made efforts to reinforce the detachment at Asan, and

had despatched about 8000 troops to the Yalu river. The out. officers were massacred. The minister who succeeded in

break of war thus found the Japanese in military possession of reaching the sea and escaping was sent back with a Seoul and ready to send large forces to Korea, while the Chinese military escort, and an indemnity was demanded and occupied Asan (about 40 miles southward of the capital), and had obtained. The Chinese at the same time sent a small a considerable body of troops in Manchuria in addition to those force to Korea. In December 1884 a fresh outbreak despatched to the Yalu river. ToJapan the command of the sea


essential for the secure transport and supply of her troops. Without occurred at Seoul. A plot to seize the king and establish it the experience of the war of the 16th century would be repeated. a progressive government failed, and the Japanese were China, on the other hand, could utilize overland routes to Korea ; again driven out of the capital by the Koreans, assisted by but difficulties and delays would necessarily be entailed. To both Chinese. Japan sent troops and enforced the payment of Powers the naval question was thus all-important.

War was not finally declared till 1st August, by which time a second indemnity. In April 1885 a convention was collisions had occurred on sea and land. On 25th July Majorsigned at Tientsin by Count Ito and Li Hung-Chang, by General Oshima, with about 2500 men, started for Asan and found which both Powers undertook to withdraw their mili- the Chinese entrenched at Sung-hwan. The position was suctary forces from Korea, each being pledged to inform the cessfully attacked on the 29th, with a loss of about 90 killed

and wounded ; but Yeh, the Chinese commander, escaped with other of any decision to despatch troops in the event of the greater part of his force, and reached Phyong-yang by a future disturbances. This convention secured compara- wide detour. Meanwhile the Japanese squadron was proceeding tive tranquillity in Korea for nine years.

The murder at to Chemulpo, the cruisers Akitsushima, Yoshino, and Naniwa Shanghai, on 28th March 1894, of Kim-ok-kim, one of the being sent on in advance. On the morning of 25th July these

vessels met the Tsi-yuen and the Kuang-yi near Phung Island. leaders of the abortive revolution of 1884, created much

An engagement occurred, in which the Kuang-yi was disabled excitement in Seoul, where the Tong-Hak rebellion was and run ashore, the Tsi-yuen escaping to Wei-hai-wei, chased beginning to cause alarm. At the end of May the Tong- by the Yoshino. The Chinese vessels

, hopelessly overmatched, Haks defeated the Korean forces, and early in June the despatch boat Tsao-kiang approached from the south-east, and was

seem to have been well fought. At this juncture the wooden Government appealed to China for military assistance. A captured by the Akitsushima, while the British steamer Kowsmall Chinese force was at once sent to Asan; and the shing, carrying 1200 Chinese troops from Taku to Asan, also Japan Government being informed, according to the terms arrived, and was ordered by the Naniwa to bring-to and anchor. of the convention of Tientsin, promptly ordered its Taniwa, the Chinese threatened to kill the officers if Kevidening

The to minister, Otori, who was on leave, to return to Seoul. they complied or attempted to leave the ship. The Warships were sent to Chemulpo, and Otori with an escort Nani wa then opened fire and sank the Koushing in less than half of marines reached Seoul on 10th June.

The Japanese an hour. More than 1000 of the Chinese troops were drowned. rapidly followed up this step by the despatch of about Japanese success at Sung-hwan, and the intention of the Chinese

The destruction of the Koushing undoubtedly contributed to the 5000 troops under Major-General Oshima, who relieved the

to crush their enemies at Seoul between forces moving from the marines by the middle of June. A complicated situation north and south was frustrated. Henceforth the Japanese had to thus arose.

Chinese troops were present in Korea by the deaì only with the forces north of the capital. request of the Government with a view to put down an

It was now of vital importance to the Chinese to prevent the armed rebellion. The Japanese controlled the capital, and transport of Japanese troops to Chemulpo, which was carried on

with the greatest energy.

The Chinese flect, however, remained were determined to carry out reforms by force if necessary. in port, and the Japanese made no attempt to obtain and keep An interesting diplomatic correspondence led only to a

touch with it. During August and September the Japanese deadlock. Japan absolutely declined to recognize Korea

were busied in landing troops and stores at Chemulpo and as a tributary state of China,” to limit her military the Yalu river. On Sth August the Japanese began to move

Gensan, while the Chinese forces in Manchuria moved slowly to forces in the peninsula, or to place any restrictions upon northwards. By 12th September about 14,000 men had contheir movements; but she proposed that the two Powers verged upon Phyong-yang in three columns from Gensan, Sakshould " unite their efforts for the speedy suppression riong, and Chung-hua, and the main body under Lieutenant

General Nodzu from Huang-ju. A general attack was made on of the disturbance," and should subsequently send com

15th September, and the strongly entrenched position was missioners to inaugurate jointly certain specified measures captured, with a loss of about 650 killed and wounded. The of reform. The Tsung-Li-Yamen considered that “the idea Chinese, numbering about 12,000, suffered heavily, and retreated may be excellent, but the measures of reform must be left northwards over the river Valu. Korea being thus cleared, the to Korea herself. Even China herself would not interfere

war entered upon another phase.

Two days after the capture of Phyong-yang the hostile fleets with the internal administration of Korea, and Japan came in contact. Admiral Ito scems to have taken no direct having from the very first recognized the independence of measures to prevent the landing of troops in the Yalu, Korea, cannot have the right to interfere." The Japanese

and five Chinese transports left Taku on 11th Septemforeign minister replied that “the Imperial Government, ber with a cruiser

escort, picking up the Pei-yang


, . About 4000 men were much to their regret, cannot share the hopeful views” disembarked on the 16th, and the Chinese warships weighed thus expressed, and considered that the government of carly on the 17th for the return voyage. They were sighted at Korea “is lacking in some of the elements which are

about half-past eleven in the forenoon by the Japanese squadron, essential to responsible independence.". Ultimately-on Hai-yang.

which was reconnoitring in the neighbourhood of the island of 16th July—the Tsung-Li-Yamen was informed that as the Trio Tables on the following page give a detail of the fleets, Chinese Government appeared “disposed to precipitate which were not unevenly matched, the Japanese having the complications," Japan was relieved of all responsibility advantages of more modern ships, quick-firing guns, speed, and for any eventuality that may in future arise."

War was

homogeneity, while the Chinese fleet contained two second-class

battleships, the Ting-Yuen and the Chen-Yuen. now inevitable unless the Peking Government was willing Admiral Ting attempted to form his force in quarter-lino to abdicate all claims over Korea. The claims were abreast, but the evolution was not accomplished, and the Chinese valueless ; but Chinese troops were already in the country fleet bore down in a somewhat irregular line, the two battleships by invitation, and in these circumstances it was not to be being in the centre and the weakest vessels—the Chav- Yung and

the Yang-Ilci—on the wings. Admiral Ito divided his squadron expected that the shadowy suzerainty would be aban- into two parts

, which were separately handled throughout the doned.

action, moving always in single column line ahead. The flying

squadron, consisting of the fast vessels Yoshino, Naniwa, TakaAt Seoul the issue was forced by the Japanese minister, who chiho, and Akitsushima, was ordered to pass round the Chinese delivered an ultimatum to the Korean Government on 20th July. right wing and attack the rear. In place of turning to starboard On the 23rd the palace was forcibly occupied ; and the pro- as intended, the squadron bore away to attack two detached Chinese party being removed from power, the control of the Chinese vessels, which with some torpedo boats appeared to be

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Q.F., 8 M.
Two 84-in., two 6-in., 8 M.
Two 8.4-in., one 6-in., 10 M.
Three 8.1-in., two 6-in., 16 M.
Two 10-in., four 40-pdr., 7 M.
| Threo 4:7-in. Q.F., three 6-pdr.
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r?One 13-in. ; twelve 5-in. Q.F., 1 Itsukushima 1889 5277

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1891 Armoured cruiser Chiyoda

s Ten 5-in. Q. F., fourteen 3-pdr. 1890 2-150 43 0. 19

3 1 Q.F., and 3 M.

Four 6-in., cight 5-in., twenty-
Yoshino 1892 4150 0
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two 3-pılr., all Q.F. Naniwa Cruisers-2nd class, protected

Two 10-in., six 6-in. ; two 61885 3650 0

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Is Four 6-in., six 5-in., six 3-pdr., 1892 3150 0

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í all Q.F. Battleship—3rd class

1877 3718 7

9 13
Four 92-in., two 7-in., 8 M.


Armoured cruiser

1878 2200 41 com- 413 Three 7-in., six 6-in., 8 M.


posite. Gun-vessel. Akagi . 1889 615 0


s One 93-in., one 6-in. ; six 3-pdr. 1 12


1 Q.F. Armoured transport Sakio-Maru . 1888 2913 0

0 14 Four Q.F., probably 6-pdrs. 0

2 Aft in Matsushima; forward in her two sister-ships. attempting to join the fleet. Meanwhile the main squadron, led | army under Marshal Yamagata, and to embark a second army, by the flagship Matsushima, followed, and circling round the consisting of the 1st division and a brigade of the 6th division Chinese line passed its left wing. The flying squadron, recalled with siege artillery, under Marshal Oyama, for the capture of Port by signal, again engaged the right wing. The courses became Arthur, and subsequently to move up the Liao-Tung peninsula somewhat complicated ; but, broadly speaking, the two Japanese and join hands with the northern force. The Japanese crossed squadrons continued to steam independently round the Chinese the Yalu on 24th and 25th of October, meeting little resistance, vessels, concentrating their fire upon individual groups. On the and successfully occupied Antung, Chin-lien-cheng, and Fengother hand, the Chinese almost from the first lost all order and huang. Thence on the 9th November General Tachimi, with the attempted no maneuvring ; but the two battleships Ting-Yuen 5th division, advanced along the road to Mukden, and reconand Chen-Yucn supported each other, and their arniour proved a noitred the Mo-tien-ling Pass on the 12th, while the 3rd division match for the Japanese ordnance, which was unable to disable under General Oseko, operating to the south, occupied Ta-tungthem. Before sunset the Yang-Wei, Chao-Yung, King-Yuen, and kau on the 5th. By a combined attack of General Oseko's force Chi-Yuen had been sunk by shells, and the Matsushima and and a battalion of infantry under Colonel Mihara moving from Hi-Yei were niuch damaged. The crews of both fleets were much Fung-huang, Hsin-yen, on the route to Hai-cheng, was taken on exhausted. The Japanese pursuit seems to have been half- the 18th. Leaving a garrison at Hsin-yen, General Oseko's main hearted, and contact was lost during the night. The total force returned to Ta-ku-shan. A pause in the general advance of Japanese loss amounted to 115 killed and 103 wounded, of which the first army now occurred, and holding their advanced positions, nearly half occurred on board the Matsushima. The Chinese lost the Japanese explored the country by means of reconnoitring about 600 men in the sunken ships, in addition to about 100 parties. killed and between 200 and 300 wounded. The action was The detached brigade of the second army disembarked on 24th decided solely by gun fire, although the Chinese discharged two October about 38 miles to the north-cast of Ta-lien-wan, and its torpedoes against the armed transport Sakio-Maru without effect. advanced guard occupied Pi-tzu-wo on the following The result of the action was to confer upon the Japanese the full


day. The landing of the whole force, with its horses command of the sea, and to enable them to prosecute the land


and stores, required twelve days. On 6th November campaign without hindrance. The surviving Chinese ships, the important town of Chin-chau was attacked and taken, and with the exception of one which went aground near Ta-lien-wan on the 7th Ta-lien-wan, with its three modern coast forts, was and was destroyed, reached Port Arthur, and subsequently occupied without resistance, the fleet arriving in the bay on the steamed to Wei-hai-wei.

same day. The Japanese were now in possession of a good harThe Japanese now determined to invade Manchuria with the bour, where their siege train could be landed, 10 miles from Port




Arthur. Here the Chinese possessed a strongly fortified position | General Sung retreating across the Liao river. The Japanese held by about 9000 men. The attack was delivered on 21st forces at Ying-kau and New-chwang now combined in attacking November after a bombardment of the forts by 36 siege and 60 Tien-chwang-tai, which was taken on 9th March. field and mountain guns. The resistance was contemptible, and The Chinese forces in Manchuria being thoroughly broken and Port Arthur was captured with a loss of only 270 killed and dispersed, there was nothing to prevent the Japanese from proceedwounded.

ing to the occupation of Peking, since the melting of the ice which Meanwhile in Manchuria the Chinese assumed the offensive. forms along the northern shores of the Gulf of Pe-chi-li would perOn 25th November the Japanese outpost at Tsao-ho-kau, 5 miles mit them to land and supply large forces at Shan-hai-kwan, within from the Mo-tien-ling Pass, was attacked in force. The attack 170 miles of the capital. Negotiations were therefore opened, and was repulsed, and a flying column under Colonel Tachimi, leaving Li Hung-Chang proceeded to Shimonoseki, where a treaty was. Fung-huang on the following day, reached Tsao-ho-kau by a signed on 17th April. The terms included the "full and complete mountain road, defeating a Chinese force in the neighbourhood. independence and autonomy of Korea,” and the cession of the The difficulties of supplying an advanced party, which was now southern portion of the province of Shin-king (with a frontier confronted by superior forces, caused the Japanese to withdraw extending from the Yalu river to Ying-kau), of Formosa and from Tsao-ho-kau, and to concentrate nearer Fung-huang, to- adjacent islands, and of the Pescadores group. Article IV, fixed wards which the Chinese moved in three columns. On 14th an indemnity of 200 millions of taels. By Article VI. four December the Chinese were defeated. Meanwhile on 10th Decem- additional cities and ports were opened to Japanese trade, and ber the 3rd division began its advance from Hsin-yen upon rights of navigation on Chinese rivers were extended. Wei-haiHai-cheng, which was taken on the 13th. The Japanese now wei was to be occupied as a guarantee of performance. The occupied a somewhat exposed position, threatened by consider- cession of territory in the province of Shin-king was subsequently able Chinese forces at Ying-kau and Liao-Yang. General Sung, cancelled by the joint action of Russia, France, and Germany. advancing from the former with about 9000 men, was attacked and defeated on 19th December ; but the Japanese, who had about

The China-Japan war presents little interest from the 4500 men present, lost nearly 400, the Chinese offering a com- military point of view. The proved excellence of the paratively stubborn resistance. On 17th January the Liao-Yang Japanese organization was, however, a revelation. The force, estimated at 14,000 strong, appeared in front of Hai-cheng operations were carried through to complete success in a and opened an ineffective long-range fire, dispersing in disorder when the Japanese advanced against them. A similarly futile

most difficult country during all the severity of a northern attack was made on 22nd January, the Japanese loss being winter. The Japanese commanders were not only able to trifling.

move and supply their troops, but they showed exact The

advance of the second army northward was long delayed by knowledge of the liberties which could be taken in face of difficulties of transport, aggravated by the rigours of the climate. Chinese forces. At length, on 1st January, a brigade of infantry and a regiment

No European army could have accomof cavalry, with three batteries of artillery, started from Chin-chau plished so much in so short a time. In all that relates to under General Nogi and attacked a Chinese force strongly posted the despatch of troops over-sea the Japanese organization at Kai-ping on the 10th. The position was carried after three fulfilled every requirement. Their navy showed itself to hours' fighting, with a loss of more than 300 killed and wounded, be a formidable weapon of war, well capable of holding its the Chinese showing some steadiness. Communication with thé force occupying Hai-cheng was at once established.

own among the fleets of the world. Politically the main The situation in Manchuria being thus secured, the Japanese results of the war were two: 1st, the raising of Japan proceeded to attack Wei-hai-wei, where lay the surviving vessels to the position of a great naval and military power; and,

of the Pei-yang squadron. On 18th January a naval 2nd, the hastening by some years of the accomplishment Wei-hai

demonstration was made at Teng-chau, 70 miles wei.

west of Wei-hai-wei, and on the 19th the Japanese of the plans of Russia for the absorption of Manchuria and began their disembarkation at Yung-cheng Bay, about 12 miles

the Liao-Tung peninsula.

(G. S. c.) from Wei - hai - wei. The force employed consisted of the 2nd division, newly mobilized, and a brigade from the second army,

Chinandega, or CHINENDEGA, capital of a deunder Marshal Oyama. The Chinese made no attempt to oppose partment of the same name in the republic of Nicaragua, the landing, and on the 26th the troops advanced. The eastern Central America, situated on the Managna railway, 18 forts were captured on the 30th, the only effective opposition miles N.W. of Leon and 12 E. of Corinto. It has conbeing that offered by the Chinese ships, which, steaming near to the land, inflicted some loss upon the Japanese. The guns in

siderable trade in cotton and sugar, and is surrounded by the western defences were disabled by a landing party on 1st banana plantations. In 1819 it was the temporary capital February, and these defences were occupied by the Japanese on of the three united republics of Nicaragua, Honduras, and the following day. On the night of 4th February the Chinese Salvador. Population, about 12,000. squadron in harbour was attacked by ten torpedo boats. Two boats were lost, but the armour-clad Ting-Yuen was sunk. On Chindwin,-This river, like the Irrawaddy, of which the following night a second attack was made by four boats, and

it is the largest tributary, has its entire course in Burmese the Wei-Yuen, Lai-Yuen, and a gunboat were sunk. On 9th February the Ching-Yuen was sunk by the guns in one of the territory. It is called Ningthi by the Manipuris. The eastern forts manned by Japanese sailors. It was now seen that Chindwin is formed by the junction of the Tanai, the the remaining vessels were at the mercy of the Japanese, and on Tawan, and the Tarôn or Turông, but it is still uncertain the 12th Admiral Ting wrote to Admiral Ito offering to surrender, which is the main stream. The Tanai has hitherto and then took poison, other officers following his example. On

been looked on as the chief source. It rises in about the 16th the Japanese occupied Lien-kung island, and the remnant of the Chinese squadron passed into their hands.

25° 30' N. lat. and 97° E. long., on the Shwedaung-gyi peak While the Wei-hai-wei campaign was in progress the Chinese of the Kumôn range, 12 miles N. of Mogaung, and flows despatched a great peace mission to Japan, which arrived at

due north for the first part of its course until it reaches Hiroshima on 31st January with credentials which were pronounced by Count Ito to be “fatally defective.”. The original

the Hukawng valley, when it turns to the west and flows draft made by the United States minister at Peking had been through the middle of the plain to the end of the valley replaced by another of Chinese composition, and the idea of the proper. There it curves round to the south, passes through Tsung-Li-Yamen seems to have been to ascertain the views of the

the Tarôn or Turông valley, takes the name of the ChindJapanese Government without themselves being committed. The Japanese declined to treat in these circumstances, and the mission win, and maintains a general southerly course until it returned to China.

enters the Irrawaddy, after flowing through the entire In February the Chinese made two feeble attacks on Hai-cheng length of the Upper and Lower Chindwin districts, in which were easily repulsed, and the Japanese at Kai-ping having about 21° 30' N. lat. and 95° 15' E. long. Its extreme been reinforced, advanced along the coast road, and after occupying outlets are 22 miles apart, the interval forming a succesTai - ping - shan dislodged a considerable Chinese force under General Sung from an entrenched position. The Chinese were

sion of long, low, partially populated islands. The most. now concentrated in three groups at Ying-kau, New-chwang, and southerly mouth of the Chindwin is, according to tradition, Liao-Yang; and General Katsura at Hai-cheng having been rein. an artificial channel, cut by one of the kings of Pagān. It forced, advanced on 28th February with the 3rd division, and

was choked up for many centuries until in 1824 it was captured New-chwang on 4th March. The Chinese suffered heavy loss. Two days later, Marshal Yamagi with the western column opened out by an exceptional flood. The Tanai (it is moved towarás Ying-kau, which was occupied on 7th March, I frequently called Tanaikha, but kha is merely the Kachin.

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word for river), as long as it retains that name, is a swift, centre of both districts, and the plain to the east of the clear river, from 50 to 300 yards wide and from 3 to 15 river in Lower Chindwin is very extensive and fertile. feet deep. In the Hukawng valley it has steep banks, The western portion of both districts is hilly, and the fringed to a depth of a mile or more inland with wild greater part of Upper Chindwin is of the same character. plantain-trees. The river is navigated by native boats in In Upper Chindwin, out of 12,199,680 acres, only 112,388 the Hukawng valley, but launches cannot come up from were cultivated in 1899; in Lower Chindwin 296,326 the Chindwin proper because of the reefs below Taro. The acres out of a total of 2,227,584. Upper Chindwin earlier tributaries are on the right bank; they are the 1,640,823 acres more were available, and 541,085 acres in Tabye, the Tawan, and the Turông or Tarôn. The Tawan, the lower district. Both have valuable teak forests. The at its junction with the Tanai, close to the Mashi ferry, area of forest land in Lower Chindwin is 301,440 acres, measures about 400 yards from bank to bank, and the and in the upper district 1,085,120 acres.

The arca breadth of the actual stream in the dry weather is 150 of reserved forest is yearly being extended. In 1898 yards. It probably flows from the range which forms the there were 471 square miles of reserved tracts in Lower south-west boundary of Hkamti Lông, whose peaks are Chindwin. The total rainfall in 1898-99 was in Lower snow-covered during the dry season. The Tarôn, Turông, Chindwin 27.96 inches, and in Upper Chindwin 60-94. or Towang river seems to be the real main source of the Both registered a highest temperature in May of 106° F., Chindwin. It flows into the Hukawng valley from the and the lowest reading in December was 54° at Mônywa, north, and has a swift current with a succession of rapids. and 52° at Kinday in Upper Chindwin. In Lower ChindAt Ningpyen it is 300 to 400 yards wide, and has well- win the population was made up of 232,158 Buddhists defined banks. Its sources are in the hills to the south of and Jains, 426 Mahommedans, 374 Hindus, 320 Chins and Sadiya, rising from 10,000 to 11,000 feet above sea level. other hill races, and 38 Christians. In Upper Chindwin For the first portion of its course the river flows through a there were 108,816 Buddhists and Jains, 1112 Hindus, deep valley, with a general east and west direction, as far 1048 Chins and other hill races, 481 Mahommedans, and as its junction with the Loglai. It then turns south, and 76 Christians. Coal exists in extensive fields, but these after draining an intricate system of hills, breaks into the are not very accessible.

Rice forms the great crop, Hukawng valley a few miles to the north of Saraw, and but a certain amount of til-seed and of indigo is also joins or receives the Tanai about 10 miles above Kintaw cultivated. Kinday, with a population of 2423, is the village. Except the Tanai, the chief branches of the Upper headquarters of the upper district, and Mônywa, with Chindwin rise in mountains that are covered at least with a population of 6316, of the lower. Both are on the winter snows. Below the Hukawng valley the Chindwin Chindwin river, and are served by the steamers of the is interrupted at several places by falls or transverse reefs. Irrawaddy Flotilla Company. Alôn, close to Mônywa, At the village of Haksa there is a fall, which necessitates and formerly the headquarters, is the terminus of the trapshipment from the large boats which ply below to railway from Sagaing westwards, which was opened in Not far below this the Uyu river comes in on the 1900.

(J. G. Sc.) left bank at Homalin, and from this point downwards the

Chingleput, or CHENGALPAT, a town and district of steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company ply for the greater part of the year.

British India, in the Madras Presidency. The town, situated The Uyu flows through a fertile and well-cultivated valley, and during the rainy season it 36 miles by rail from Madras, had a population in 1881 of is navigable for a distance of 150 miles from its mouth by district of CHINGLEPUT surrounds the city of Madras,

5617; in 1891 of 9763. It has two high schools. The steamers of light draught. Ordinarily regular steam com

The munication with Homalin ceases in the dry weather, but stretching along the coast for about 115°miles. from Kindat, nearly 150 miles below it, there are regular

administrative headquarters are at Saidapet. It contains weekly steamers all the year round. Below Kindat the

an area of 2812 square miles and a population in 1891

In only considerable affluent of the Chindwin is the Myit-tha, 1901 the population was 1,312,723, showing an increase

of 1,136,928, being 400 persons per square mile. which receives the Chin hills drainage. As far as Mingin

The land revenue and rates were the general course of the Chindwin is south-westerly; Rs.20,07,908, the incidence of assessment being Rs.2:2:6

of 9 per cent. below that town it curves eastwards towards the Irrawaddy. The Chindwin rises very considerably during the rains, of a total cultivated area of 659,898 acres, 419,298 were

per acre; but in March and April it is here and there so shallow as to make navigation difficult even for small steam launches. irrigated. Salt is extensively manufactured all along the Whirlpools and narrows and shifting sandbanks also give 574 indigo vats, with an out-turn valued at Rs. 2,00,000 ;

coast. Cotton-weaving is also largely carried on. There are some trouble, but much has been done to improve naviga-83 tanneries, with an out-turn valued at Rs.29,00,000 ; tion since the British annexation.

(J. G. Sc.)

and an English cigar factory. In 1896-97 the number of Chindwin, UPPER and Lower, two districts in the schools was 1047, attended by 29,291 pupils. Sagaing division of Upper Burma. Upper Chindwin has Chinkiang, or CHIN-KEANG-FU, a treaty port in an area of 19,062 square miles, and a population, according China, situated on the river Yangtse above Shanghai, from to the census of 1891, of 111,533, living in 980 villages, which it is distant 160 miles. It is a place of considerand paying in 1898-99 a revenue of Rs.3,22,057. Lower able importance as a

Lower able importance as a distributing centre, but has no direct Chindwin has an area of 3481 square miles, and a popula- trade with foreign countries. It lies at the point where tion of 233,316 living in 893 villages, and paying in the Grand Canal running north and south intersects the 1898-99 a revenue of Rs.5,53,982. Upper Chindwin lies Yangtse, which runs east and west, and thus is peculiarly to the north of the lower district, and is bounded on the well situated to be a commercial entrepôt.

Its trade, N. by the Chin Naga and Kachin hills; on the E. they however, lies mainly with the north bank, where the are bounded by the Myit Kyina, Katha, and Shwebo Grand Canal is navigable for vessels drawing 8 to 10 feet districts; Lower Chindwin is bounded on the S. by the of water. On the south bank the canal has been allowed Pakokku and Sagaing districts; and both districts are to silt up so as to be impassable during the winter months. bounded on the W. by the Chin hills, and by Pakôkku Railway communication with Shanghai on the one hand on the southern stretch. The chief flat country is along and with Nanking on the other will no doubt improve its the banks of the Chindwin river, which runs through the prospects. Chinkiang is also the proposed terminus of the


Anglo-German railway to be built from Tientsin south- | Chitral immediately informed Dr Robertson at Gilgit, and with wards through Shantung. The total value of exports and great discretion avoided all collision with the new Mihtar (the imports for 1899 was #. taels 25,691,000 (£3,854,000). from his headquarters at Mastang, and on the 1st February Dr

assassin Amir-ul-Mulk). Gurdon was soon reinforced by 50 men In 1880 the total was H. taels 14,297,000 (£3,932,000). Robertson himself arrived from Gilgit and assumed political charge. Chinkiang was the seat of a serious riot on the 5th The situation remained unchanged until Umra Khan, marching on February 1898, when the British consulate and several Chitral, captured Killa Dresh; and on Sher Afzul joining him, a joint

letter was sent to Dr Robertson, ordering his immediate withdrawal foreign houses were burned down by a native mob. The

to Mastang. The demand was ignored, and in their turn the population is estimated at 240,000. The number of Government of India ordered Umra Khan to withdraw to his own foreign residents is very small, the trade being almost territory, As he refused, the Government of India prepared for entirely in the hands of natives.

war; and, abandoning the route through Gilgit and over the snow

bound passes as impracticable, they decided on an advance from Chippenham, a municipal borough and market Nowshera (British India), less than 200 miles from Chitral, through town in the Chippenham parliamentary division (since Swat and Jhandol (Umra Khan's state). Major-General Sir R. 1885) of Wiltshire, England, on the Avon, 13 miles N.E.

Low was selected to command this relieving force, and on the 1st

April an army of some 15,000 men was concentrated beyond of Bath by rail. Works for milk-condensing, bacon- Nowshera at Moti-Mardan on the frontier. On 3rd April Sir R. curing, and making railway signals, guns, and carriages | Low stormed the Malakand Pass, and won a decisive victory over have been established. Area, 359 acres; population the Swatis, who had been induced by Umra Khan to oppose the (1881), 4495; (1901), 5074.

British. The position was considered impregnable by the enemy,

but was carried with great gallantry. After this victory the force Chippewa Falls, capital of Chippewa county, pushed on into Swat, and a few days later crossed the Swat river Wisconsin, U.S.A., situated in 44° 15' N. lat. and

in the teeth of a stubborn resistance and continued the forward

march. 91° 23' W. long., in the north-western part of the state,

Dr Robertson, on arrival at Chitral, determined to try to open on the Chippewa river, at an altitude of 831 feet. It is at

up communication with Gilgit and Mastang. Accordingly, he the intersection of three railways, and possesses a fine despatched Lieutenants Fowler and Edwardes with a small party water-power, which has given rise to extensive manufac

for this purpose.

After two marches they were attacked by the tures, largely of lumber. Population (1880), 3982 ; party under Captain Ross advanced to relieve them, but was in its

enemy, but managed to send word on to Mastang. A Mastang (1890), 8670; (1900), 8094, of whom 2357 were foreign- turn attacked by overwhelming numbers, and eventually had to born.

cut its way back, losing Captain Ross and 54 men killed. Fowler

and Edwardes held out for a week with magnificent bravery, but Chishima, the Japanese term (literally “a thousand eventually were, through treachery, overwhelmed and captured. islands ”) for the Kuriles (q.v.).

Mastang itself was now besieged, and Chitral completely cut off. Chitral.—The state of Chitral (see also HINDU

The garrison of the former place made a gallant defence, and were

able to hold out until relieved by Colonel Kelly, whose march will Kush) is somewhat larger than Wales, and supports a

be presently described. population of between 70,000 and 80,000 rough, hardy Sir R. Low's force had pushed forward to the Paingkua river, hillmen. Both the state and its capital are called Chitral, and on the 13th April Lieutenant Edwardes was released by Umra the latter being situated about 17 miles from the main Khan and sent into the British camp. The same day a third success

sul battle was fought, and on the 16th the force crossed the river, watershed of the range of the Hindu Kush, which divides finally defeated the enemy, and pushed on towards Chitral. Á the waters flowing down to India from those which take few days later Lieutenant Fowler also was sent in by Umra Khan, their way into the Oxus and on to Turkestan and Central who had brought these officers down with him from Chitral, and Asia. Chitral is an important state because of its situa- hoped, by releasing them to prevent the invasion of his country.

But this was not General Low's view of the matter, and on the tion at the extremity of the country over which the

18th inst. his force occupied Umra Khan's deserted stronghold in Government of India exerts its influence, and for some Jhandol, the latter fleeing with his family and treasure towards years before 1895 it had been the object of the policy of Cabul. He was not overtaken, and remained at Cabul a refugee. the Government of India to control the external affairs of

Meantime the siege of Chitral had begun, and was being proseChitral in a direction friendly to British interests, to secure

cuted with the utmost vigour by Sher Afzul, Umra Khan having

proceeded south to oppose Sir R. Low. The defence of Chitral an effective guardianship over its northern passes, and to will always be counted among the finest exhibitions of British keep watch over what goes on beyond these passes. This pluck. The garrison numbered only 543, of whom 137 were nonpolicy resulted in a British agency being established combatants. On the first day of the siege a reconnaissance by the at Gilgit (Kashmir territory), with a subordinate agency being killed. This engagement was the hardest fought during the

garrison was repulsed with heavy loss, Captain Baird and 24 men in Chitral, the latter being usually stationed at Hastang whole war. The military command was in the hands of Captain (65 miles nearer to Gilgit than the Chitral capital), and Townshend, to whose skill, energy, and valour the successful occasional visits being paid to the capital.

resistance of the garrison was practically due ; Dr Robertson,

though ranking himself as a non-combatant, assisting most In December 1894 Surgeon - Major Robertson, C.S.I. , (India gallantly in the perilous duties of the defence, in the performance Medical Service)-afterwards Sir George Robertson, K.C.S.I.—the of which he was severely wounded. The siege lasted 46 days. British agent, was at Gilgit; and his assistant, Lieutenant Gurdon, One of its most brilliant features was a sortie by Lieutenant Harley with ten men of his escort, was staying on a visit to the Chitral to destroy the besiegers' mines on the 17th April. capital, the remainder of his escort of 100 men remaining at The relief of Chitral was at last accomplished by Colonel Kelly. Mastang. On the 1st January 1895 the Mihtar (or Ruler) of Chitral This officer, with his regiment, the 32nd Pioneers, was at this time was treacherously murdered at the secret instigation of Sher employed at road-making in the Gilgit district. On the 22nd Afzul, who himself was an ex- Mihtar, and had been dethroned by March (the siege of Chitral having begun on the 4th) Colonel a stronger party in the state and forced to fly for refuge to Cabui.

Kelly was ordered by the Government of India to assume military His chief ally was Umra Khan, chieftain of Jhandol, whose restless command of all the troops under the Gilgit agency. He was made ambition, not satisfied with numerous small conquests and in acquainted with what had taken place at Chitral, and was given creases of territory, had long been set on the Mihtarship of Chitral. practically a free hand to make such dispositions and movements For the time being, however, he posed as an ally of Sher Afzul ; of the troops under his command as he considered necessary. He but without waiting for the latter's arrival from Cabul, he himself, immediately decided to march over the snow passes on a relief on hearing of the Mihtar's murder, hastened with his forces to expedition, in spite of the fact that this route had been considered seize Chitral. He met with some success, capturing Killa Dresh, impracticable by the Government of India and the road through 25 miles to the south of Chitral Fort; but here he was opposed Swat, Jhandol, and Dir decided on. The troops at Colonel Kelly's and beaten by the Chitralis themselves. At this juncture ho was disposal were entirely native troops, consisting of 400 men of the joined by Sher Afzul, who quickly won over the Chitralis; and 32nd Pioneers, with 2 mountain guns, 40 sappers and miners, and the two forces amalgamated and made common cause against the some 150 ragged and undisciplined levies from the wilds of surroundBritish, whose presence at Chitral was considered likely to inter-ing native states. With this small force he had to march through fere with the return of Sher Afzul to the throne. The combined 220 miles of hostile country yielding scarcely any supplies; and force at once marched to attack Chitral Fort.

above all, he had to cross the terrible Shandur Pass, 12,230 feet On hearing of the Mihtar's assassination, Lieutenant Gurdon at high, at this time covered with deep snow. In the face of all

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