« EelmineJätka »
conclusively proved at Grimsby that cholera can be spread | and Singhbhum. The total area is 26,966 square miles, by sewage-fed shell-fish. Several of the local outbreaks in and in 1891 the population was 4,628,792, giving an England were traced to the ingestion of oysters obtained average density of 172 persons per square mile, compared from the Grimsby beds. In short, it may be said that all with 471 for Bengal generally. Christian missions have insanitary conditions favour the prevalence of cholera in been specially active in this tract. In 1891 the number some degree. Preventive inoculation with an attenuated of native converts was 88,897, mostly in Lohardaga, being virus was introduced by M. Haffkine, and has been more than half the total for all Bengal. In 1896-97 five extensively used in India, with considerable appearance of missions maintained 203 schools, attended by 5063 boys success so far as the statistical evidence goes.
and 1208 girls. The nine tributary states of Chota Nagpur As already remarked, the latest manifestations of are Sirguja, Gangpur, Udaipur, Jashpur, Bonai, Korea, cholera show that it has lost none of its former virulence Changbhakar, Kharsawan, and Seraikella. The two last are
and fatality. The symptoms, about which tiny areas within the British district of Singhbhum, on the Treatment.
nothing need be said, are now regarded as the line of the Bengal-Nagpur railway. The others stretch effects of the toxic action of the poison formed by the over a large tract of hills separating Bengal from the micro-organisms upon the tissues and especially upon the Central Provinces. The total area comprises 16,054 square nervous system. But this theory has not led to any miles. The population in 1891 was 883,359, giving an effective treatment. Drugs in great variety were tried in average density of 55 persons per square mile, ranging the Continental hospitals in 1892, but without any distinct from 238 in Kharsawan to 20 in Changbhakar. In 1901
The old controversy between the aperient and the total population was 982,439, showing an increase of the astringent treatment reappeared. In Russia the 11 per cent. The total gross revenue of the chiefs is former, which aims at evacuating the poison, was more estimated at Rs.2,40,000; the number of schools is 79, generally adopted; in Germany the latter, which tries to with 1626 pupils. The Bengal-Nagpur railway touches conserve strength by stopping the flux, found more favour. on Udaipur, and runs through a considerable part of Two methods of treatment were invariably found to give Gangpur. In this last state there were serious disturbances great relief, if not to prolong life and promote recovery- in 1896, but the administration is improving under closer the hot bath and the injection of salted water into the British supervision. veins or the subcutaneous tissue. These two should always be tried in the cold and collapsed stages of cholera.
Christadelphians (Xplotoù ädelpoi), a comCholera Nostras.—The word nostras, which is good munity founded by John Thomas (1848), who studied Latin, and used by Cicero, means ' belonging to our
medicine in London and then migrated to America. country.” It is applied to the original form of cholera, There he at first joined the “Campbellites,” but known from time immemorial, in order to distinguish it afterwards struck out independently, preaching largely from the Asiatic variety, which was unknown until the upon the application of Hebrew prophecy and of 19th century. The relations between the two are very
the language of the Apocalypse to current and future
In America and in Great Britain he obscure. Clinically they may exactly resemble cach other, political events. and bacteriology has not been able to draw an absolute gathered a number of adherents, and formed a comline between them. The real difference is epidemiological.munity which is said to have extended to most EnglishCholera—that is, cholera nostras—was described by speaking countries. It consists of exclusive “Ecclesias,”
The members Sydenham two centuries ago as sometimes epidemic, but with neither ministry nor organization. only the Asiatic variety has been known to behave as a
meet on Sundays to “break bread” and discuss the Bible. destructive pestilence; by cholera nostras is generally Their theology is strongly millenarian, centring in the meant a disease which may be violent in individual cases, hope of a world-wide theocracy, with its seat at Jerusalem. but possesses no epidemic significance.
They believe that they alone have the true exegesis of
Scripture, and that the “faith of Christendom” is “comSee Local Government Board Reports, 1892-93-94-95.—CLEMOW. The Cholera Epidemic of 1892 in the Russian Empire.-WALT: pounded of the fables predicted by Paul.” No statistics “ Asiatic Cholera.”—NOTTET. Epidemiological Society's Transac
are published tions, vol. xvii.
(A. SL.) See Roberts. Dr. Thomas : IIis Life and IVork, and A DeclaraChorley, municipal borough, parish, and market tion of the Truth, &c. Birmingham. town, England, in the Chorley division of Lancashire, 22
Christchurch, town in Selwyn county, New miles N.W. from Manchester by rail. Recent public Zealand, next to Dunedin the most populous town in buildings include St George's church institute and a South Ísland. Its manufactures are of importance, cottage hospital and public dispensary. There is a public though its position is still due mainly to the large free library. Cotton-spinning and the manufacture of agricultural district round it. Its cathedral church, cotton and muslin are extensively carried on, and there muscum, public library, public gardens, agricultural are also iron and brass foundries and boiler factories. show-ground, and chief cricket-grounds are the best Area of municipal borough, 3614 acres. Population of their kind in the colony. Three hundred students (1881), 19,478 ; (1891), 23,087; (1901), 26,850. attend lectures at Canterbury College. Steam tramways
Chórum, ancient Euchaita, altitude 2300 feet, a connect the town with the sca-side, and though flat, it is town of Asia Minor, in the Yuzgat sanjak of the Angora well drained and healthy. Its fine public park has been viláyet, situated at the edge of a wide plain. Euchaita well planted and improved. Its suburbs are noted for was attacked by the Huns A.D. 508, and became a centre the number and taste of their private gardens. Mean of religious enthusiasm. Population, 12,500, including a temperature for the year, 52° ; average yearly rainfall, 26 few Christians.
inches. Population (1901), 17,537; including suburbs,
57,041. Chota (or CHUTIA) Nagpur, a division of British India in Bengal, consisting of five British districts and nine Christian IX., KING OF DENMARK (1818-—- ), tributary states. It is a hilly, forest-clad plateau, inhabited fourth son of Duke Wilhelm of Schleswig-Holstein-Sondermostly by aboriginal races, between the basins of the burg Glücksburg, was born 8th April 1818, and succeeded Sone, the Ganges, and the Mahanadi. The five British to the throne on the death of King Frederick VII., 15th districts are Hazaribagh, Lohardaga, Palamau, Manbhum, November 1863, in accordance with the provisions of the
Treaty of London of 8th May 1852, and the Danish law in the Danish Parliament, which from 1873-95 regularly of succession of 31st July 1853. On 26th August 1842 refused to vote the budgets presented by his majesty's he married Louise, daughter of Landgrave Wilhelm of ministers. On 29th September 1898 the king lost his Hesse-Cassel. In 1846, when the whole house of Schles-consort Louise, who died at the age of eighty-one. Their wig-Holstein signed the famous “Protest,” Christian held numerous children made brilliant marriages : (1) Frederick, back, and he was the only prince of that house who born 3rd June 1843; married, 26th April 1898, to Princess remained in the military service of Denmark from Alexandra of Mecklenburg; (2) Alexandra, born 1st Decem1848-50. He was therefore clearly indicated as the ber 1844; married, 10th March 1863, to the Prince of proper person to fill the vacant place of heir to the Wales, now King Edward VII. ; (3) Wilhelm, born 24th Danish throne, to which he had a claim in right of his December 1845, elected King of the Hellenes, under the wife, the cousin and heiress of Frederick VII., and he was title of Georgios, by the Greek National Assembly, 31st so recognized by the Treaty of Warsaw of 5th January March 1863 ; married, 27th October 1867, to Olga 1851. Upon coming to the throne his first act was to Constantinowna, grand duchess of Russia ; (4) Marie ratify the Eider Danish constitution, by which the Duchy Dagmar, born 26th November 1817; married, 9th of Schleswig was incorporated with Denmark. This led November 1866, to Alexander III., Czar of Russia ; (5) to a war with Prussia and Austria, which ended with the Thyra, born 29th September 1853; married, 21st December Peace of Vienna, 30th October 1864, Christian ceding 1878, to Prince Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland ;. Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg to Germany. The (6) Waldemar, born 27th October 1858; married, 22nd king's pronounced conservatism has led to serious collision October 1885, to Princess Marie d'Orléans.
CHRISTIAN CHURCH, THE. NHE present article does not deal with the state, con- take an example of a period of reaction, it seems well
church. The recent history of various Christian communions Christian population in the Roman empire declined. will be found under their special and appropriate titles ; Persecution diminished the numbers of the Church. In but, in addition to those articles which treat of the present the 18th century Voltaire felt justified in predicting that position and prospects of particular churches, it has been Christianity was about to disappear from among men. thought well to devote some space to a wider purpose, and He spoke more from his wishes than his judgment, perhaps; to endeavour to measure the progress of what may for but he was too shrewd an observer of his times to have comconvenience sake be called the Christian Church at large. mitted himself to prophecy without some real or apparent The object, therefore, of this article is to deal with the justification. He saw that to a large extent the intellectual advance of the Church of Christ generally; it aims at classes of his countrymen had been alienated or seduced putting before its readers the present position of Christen- from their faith. He did not perceive the religious forces dom in relation to the moving forces and influences of the which were even then at work preparing for the rejuvenaworld ; in brief, it is an attempt to answer the question, tion of Christian energy. As there have been epochs of How far has the Christian idea advanced among men? arrested progress in Christian history, so there have been Naturally and necessarily the question suggests a wide places where Christianity has made progress, but where the range of inquiry, and, to be fully answered, would require a promise of earlier successes has not been sustained. Readers treatise rather than a brief article; but while it will be need- of Christian history have asked, What became of the halfful, from time to time, to take a backward glance at other million converts in South India who owed their faith to and earlier ages, we shall, as far as is possible, restrict our- Xavier, or of the 300,000 in Ceylon who were the fruits selves to the movements of recent years, and the period of Dutch missionary effort ? Still more, readers will recall which we wish to keep specially in mind will be the last the story of Christianity in North Africa, and the vigorous generation. Roughly speaking, our sketch will be mainly churches in Carthage, Alexandria, and Hippo. Few facts occupied with the period covered by the latter half of the mark more eloquently the temporary ebb of Christian 19th century. We shall endeavour to measure the progress influence than the decay of the churches which were once of Christianity in various ways, by reference to statistical the churches of Cyprian, Augustine, and Origen. facts, to influences in matters not reducible to statistics, Christianity—it is well to realize the fact—has been and, lastly, by reference to certain changes in the direction subject to certain human influences, or, to speak more of Christian energy and methods observable in recent years. correctly, the Christian Church numbered among
adherents multitudes who were swayed by the ordinary I. THE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY emotions and passions of mankind, and were open to the AS EXPRESSED BY STATISTICS.
influences of fear or gain. There were favourable as well Statistics are proverbially misleading; but while we as unfavourable times. This was frankly recognized by may well use them with caution, and exercise careful self- the earliest Christian historian, when he noted the fact restraint in making hasty inferences from them, they are that when persecution ceased the Church was multiplied valuable within their measure and scope. The individual (Acts ix. 31). There were, in fact, periods which tested items must not be unduly pressed ; we must even bear in the stability of men's faith, and which enabled men to mind that the apparent significance of their details may distinguish between the transitory wave, whose size and be readily misunderstood; but they furnish the basis of bulk was due to some favourable wind, and the rising tide, judging the general direction of a given movement; they which owed its strength to more heavenly influence. The enable us to discriminate between the inrush of the wave table which we present below reflects these fluctuating and the incoming of the tide. Thus we note in the history conditions, but, on the whole, witnesses to a steady and of Christianity certain periods of reaction; the rapid continuous advance. progress in one age is checked in another. There were (i.) The proportion of the Christian population to the times when the very life of Christianity seemed to be population of the world is the subject of our first statistical threatened ; there are places where flourishing Christian inquiry. Gibbon estimated that on the most favourable churches existed, and from which they have vanished. To estimate the Christian population of the empire before
the days of Constantine was one-twentieth of the whole | been rapid progress in the spread of Christianity. We can (Hist., Milman's edit., 1846, vol. i. p. 520). Bishop only indicate this advance by the general figures we have Ìightfoot so far agreed with Gibbon that he regarded cited; but it may serve to illustrate the general character (Historical Essays, pp. 79, 80) the estimate as too
of the progress in non-Christian lands if we set down favourable, but he accepted it as a sufficiently just here the figures which relate to India. The number of one for purposes of comparison. He reckoned that the Christians in India between 1841-51 was estimated at empire of Rome ruled over from one-seventh to one-tenth 91,000; between 1851-61 at 138,000; and between 1861of the then population of the world ; thus the Christian 71 at 224,000; between 1871-81 at 897,216 ; and between population in the close of the 3rd century could only claim 1881-91 at 2, 284,380. These figures represent a growth at the most one-twentieth of one-seventh of the human of 50 per cent. for each decade.
Beside this we may race—i.e., only one in every 140. Bishop Lightfoot, in place two very remarkable results of the missionary work conclusion, adopted to as the proportion of Christians to in West Africa. In Sierra Leone, where missionary work the world population at that time. He claimed that the can scarcely be said to have commenced till 1815, there is proportion in the present day was one in five. But there now a self-supporting, self-governing, self-extending church, is reason to think that this is below the true proportion. and seven out of eight of the inhabitants are Christian. The Christian Church to-day can, it is believed, claim one (ii.) The measure of Christian progress may also be given third of the population of the world.
by statistics indicating world influence or ascendancy. The following tables can only be accepted as rough and (a) More remarkable than the growth in the number of approximate estimates. We have very few data for deter-adherents is the increase of the influence and power of the mining either the population of the world or the Christian Christian nations. Thus it has been reckoned
Political population from century to century, but on the whole the that three hundred years ago 3,480,900 square
influence. proportions set out here are probably sufficiently near the miles of the world's surface were under the fact for general purposes of comparison.
government of the Christian nations, and 45,619,100 square The accompanying table exhibits at a glance the general miles were under the government of non-Christian peoples progress of Christianity :
—i.e., one mile out of every thirteen was under Christian World Population, Christian Population.
governing influence. Now, however, the figures are altered : 5,000,000
the number of square miles under Christian government 2,000,000
is 40,317,200, that under non-Christian influence is 5,000,000
8,782,300—i.e., the Christian nations rule between four and 10,000,000
square miles for every one governed by non-Christian 900
peoples, or 82 per cent. of the governed area of the world. 1000
(6) The supremacy of Christian governing power is 1500
shown in the statistics of the populations now dependent 1600
upon the Christian nations. In 1500 only 100,000,000 1800 1,000,000,000 200,000,000
of people were under Christian rule, now there are 1875 1,396,842,000 394,000,000
(c) It may be interesting to note the relative ascendancy 1890
493,000,000 1896 1,500,000,000 500,000,000
of the different forms of Christianity in this world-influence.
For convenience' sake we may take the three broad The diminution between A.D. 100 and A.D. 200 is divisions, viz. : the Greek, the Roman Catholic, and the accounted for by persecution ; the rapid increase between Protestant nations respectively. The area of the world A.D. 300 and A.D. 400 to the patronage of the Emperor ruled by Christian and non-Christian people is between Constantine. The Christian reader will note, however, 49,000,000 and 50,000,000 square miles. Of these the rule with satisfaction that the increase within the last hundred | is distributed follows: Non - Christian nations, years has been more rapid than in any similar period, and 8,782,000; Greek (Christian), 8,752,000; Roman that the ratio of increase has been augmented since 1880. Catholic (Christian), 14,147,000"; Protestant (Christian), The Protestant reader will observe that the increase within 17,417,000; or in percentages, non-Christian, 18 per cent.; the last three or four hundred years has been more rapid Greek, 18 per cent.; Roman Catholic, 28 per cent. ; than in the period preceding the Reformation.
Protestant, 36 per cent. If we examine the populations The increase in the 19th century is represented by the under these governments respectively, we have the followfollowing figures. The percentage of the Christian popu- ing results Under Christian rule, 890,000,000; dislation to the world population, which was 20 in 1800, was tributed as follows: under Greek, 128,000,000 ; under 28.5 in 1875 and was 33:3 in 1896; and whereas the Roman Catholic, 242,000,000; under Protestant, average yearly increment between 1800 and 1875 was 520,000,000. The result may be exhibited by the followsomething over 2,500,000, it was over 5,000,000 between ing table, which compares the populations under these 1875 and 1896 ; or, to put the result in quarter-century governments in 1700 and in 1900 respectively :periods, whereas the average gain for each of the first three quarters of the 19th century was 65,000,000, the average gain of the last quarter of the century was 106,000,000.
1700 33,000,000 90,000,000 32,000,000 155,000,000 It is worthy of note that this coincides with the period 1900 128,000,000 212,000,000 520,000,000 890,000,000 during which intercession for missions became a recognized duty on the part of the Church. Dr Dorchester (d) Alongside these figures we may place another fact. speaking of the United States, says in his Problems of There has been a marked change in the diffusion of Religious Progress that whereas in the beginning of the European languages during the last 100 years, and it will century the proportion of communicants to the population be readily seen that the diffusion of language is, if not a was one in fourteen or fifteen, in 1890 it was one in four or diffusion of influence, yet a measure of its diffusion. In five; or, in other words, while the population had grown 1800 French was spoken by 31,000,000 of people; German 11.8-fold, the communicants had increased 38-fold.
and Russian tongue each by 30,000,000; the Spanish by Thus it would seem that simultaneously with the deepen 26,000,000; and English by 20,000,000. In 1890 the ing of the religious spirit in the Christian churches there has figures stood thus: French, 51,000,000; German and
Russian, each 75,000,000; Spanish, 42,000,000 ; and tion now under Christian rule. So far then as political English, 111,000,000. In other words, English, which and administrative influence is concerned, the ascendancy was the least influential of European languages, now holds of the Christian nations is beyond all doubt. the leading place, while French has fallen from the first to In this influence wealth counts as an important factor, the fourth place; or, to put this fact into percentages, the and the accumulations of that class of power which belongs increase of the diffusion of these languages has been in to what is called wealth are chiefly in the hands ninety years as follows :
of Christian lands. They make the markets of Economic French
64.5 per cent.
the world; they direct by far the largest portion German)
of its commerce. And when wealth is measured as so
much per head of the population, the non-Christian peoples Spanish English
scarcely enter into the calculation of the political econoIt will be seen that the increase of the Teutonic races is mists. It is no doubt true that in countries not yet far in excess of that of the Latin races; and when we keep to base a calculation, but it is also true that in a sense
commercially organized there are no materials on which in mind the greater birth-rate in the Teutonic races, we it is only when the means of production are organized can realize that, unless some great and unexpected change that wealth in any economic sense may be said to exist ; takes place, the future influence of the Christian nations and it is in the Christian countries that these means of will be increasingly in the hand of the Teutonic or Protestant division of Christendom.
power are practically concentrated. The wealth per head
of the Christian nations varies from £60 in Russia to (e) The importance and significance of the ascendancy £302 in England; France stands here at the head of the of Christian nations will be best realized by placing side Latin nations with £253 per head, as England does at the by side the population and area of a selected number of head of the Teutonic nations. The average wealth of the the Christian nations and the native or colonial popula- Teutonic nations is £226 per head, that of the Latin tions and areas now under their rule. We draw our statistics from an interesting monograph carefully brought £140, and that of the Slav about £6.
(iii.) As a statistical measure of Christian energy, it up to date by Lieut.-Colonel V. Murari Brá, instructor in
will be convenient to notice some phases of Christian geography in the Scuola di Guerra in Italy.
activity which have marked recent years. Mother Country.
(a) There has been a very marked development of
missionary enterprise (see Missions). It is difficult Population.
to present a statistical estimate of the force of this Great Britain 314,950 41,220,000 27,861,000. 318,496,000 development. It will be best to point out a few Germany 540,658 56,000,000 2,605,100 9,230,000 salient facts. We shall first confine ourselves to Holland
33,000 5,200,000 2,045,700 35,500,000 that which is popularly called missionary work, viz., Denmark
38,830 2,175,000 194,580 130,000 United States 9,450,000 78,500,000
Christian labours carried on among heathen or
443,060 9,636,000 France. 536,408 38,800,000 8,812,710 50,310,000
The number of separate societies Italy
286,648 32,000,000 477,300 600,000 for that purpose has largely increased during the last Spain 497,244 18,100,000 709,450 310,000
century. It has been estimated that in 1790 there Russia . 22,430,000 135,000,000 310,000 3,000,000
were in Great Britain only two societies which con34, 127,738 406,995,000 43,458,900 457,272,000 templated missionary work as within the scope of
their operations, viz., the Society for the Promotion of If we group the nations according to kinship, arranging Christian Knowledge and the Society for the Propagation them under the classes of Teutonic, Latin, and Slav races of the Gospel. Neither of these societies, however, respectively, we get the following results :
directed its work solely towards the heathen world : the Dependencies.
former aimed at circulating Christian literature in all
quarters; the latter paid, and rightly paid, special Population.
Population. attention to the needs of Britons in the colonies European
and in foreign parts. A century has seen the establishTeutonic only 927,438 104,595,000 32,706,380 393,356,000
ment of numerous societies for direct and exclusive 88,900,000 9,999,460 51,280,000 22,430,000 135,000,000
3,000,000 missionary work. It has been estimated that the number
of missionary societies is little short of 300; some of Thus the governing power of the Teutonic, Latin, and
these are small and comparatively poor, but others are Slav races in Europe may be represented by the following large and important organizations, resembling great State figures For every square kilometre or square mile of departments, commanding and distributing large revenues, mother country, the Teutonic races govern 35, the Latin and entailing upon their committees of management wide races govern 7.5, and the Slav 00.13 square miles; and and varied responsibility and an almost statesmanlike for every inhabitant in the mother country there are in judgment in the handling of difficult and delicate problems. the dependencies of the Teutonic nations 3:7 inhabitants, in the Latin •057, and in the Slav .002. It is no flight foreign missionary societies.
(5) There are in Great Britain alone twenty-nine
Four or five of these of rhetoric to say that almost two-thirds of the world's administer cach an income of over £100,000 a year. population and four-fifths of its area are now under the They occupy nearly 10,000 stations and sub-stations ; government of Christian nations, and by far the largest they employ 2739 European missionaries, upwards of share of this has fallen into the guardianship of the 1800 women workers, and more than 27,000 native Teutonic nations, who govern not far short of 600,000,000 helpers. In the article on Missions a full survey of the of people, or more than two-thirds of the whole popula- condition and prospects of various missionary societies is
1 The birth-rate of all European countries declined between 1875 given. Here it may be enough to notice that the United and 1900, but the statement in the text is still substantially true, States missionary societies employ about half the number inasmuch as the birth-rate in Germany is still greatly in excess of of male missionaries sent out by Great Britain, while their the birth-rate in the Latin kingdoms. The decline in the birth-rate in Great Britain is serious, but it is nothing like the decline in France, 1700; their native agents are about 13,000 ; and the
women missionaries nearly equal the British, being over though all English-speaking population question as it affects their own race.
estimated missionary contributions (Protestant) of the
English-speaking world amount to nearly £3,000,000 | to a liberal scale, and after an easeful fashion, has stimuannually.
lated a passionate eagerness for wealth, and the determin(c) In this connexion may be instanced the diffusion of ation to have it has led to a disregard of the code of the Bible in the world. The British and Foreign Bible honour, while the possession of the good things of life, as Society was founded in 1804; the American Bible Society they are called, has produced enervation of character; twelve years later ; in 1891 these two societies were but restlessness, born of ease, has destroyed steadiness of two out of 80 Bible societies in the world. In 1800 the habit; and impatience of toil has driven men to seek translations of the Bible were 47 in number; there are riches in doubtful rather than in diligent methods. In now 90 complete and 230 partial versions, making a total these ways, it is said, the claims of the Christian life are of 320 translations more or less complete.
subordinated to the interests of the moment. (d) Evidence of the continuous growth of aggressive Against this must be set the fact that the apprehensions. Christian energy may be found in the rapid increase of which here find expression have been common in all ages; inissionary bishoprics which has taken place of recent they cannot be accepted as evidence of the declining years. In the first half of the 19th century 23 new influence of Christianity without some more tangible bishoprics were founded ; in the latter half there were 69; evidence. Earnestness, ambitious of greater Christian the rate of increase was trebled in the second period. consistency, is always alive to contemporary evils. “The The same feature is shown in the Protestant Episcopal Lord's day is become the devil's market day” was the Church of America. During the 19th century it has complaint of a bishop in 1724. Immorality at the added 73 new bishoprics, and 52 of these belong to the same time was considered to be so rampant that men said, latter half of it. The two churches added to their “Our light looks like the evening of the world.” It is organization 165 new sees in the same century, and no thus that men who measure public manners by the fewer than 73 of these have come into existence since measure of their philanthrophic desires will ever speak. 1870.
But for the purpose of the scientific historian, contem(e) But apart from figures, the whole position of Christianporary morals must be measured by a comparison of facts business has undergone a change in public estimation. and statistics, and not by the despondency of the good. Missionary meetings used to be duls, and missionary When, therefore, we find a steady diminution in pauperism literature flat and insipid. Now all this is changed. and crime, and a marked increase of longevity owing to a Meetings are large and enthusiastic, and missionary more careful regard for human life and its conditions of literature displays a culture and breadth of treatment health and happiness, we shall see that the advance of unknown to our fathers. The journals or magazines moral improvement is steady and sure, even if not rapid issued by societies treat of every land from Greenland to enough to satisfy the desires of the good. The most Patagonia, from Japan to the Southern Islands, and they wholesome sign, under these circumstances, is the disset forth with intelligence and learning questions of satisfaction of the good, for it is the witness that the geography, philology, sociology, art and science, native spirit of earnestness and devotion is still a powerful factor manners and customs, in addition to, or in illustration of, in social life. When we quit the warm realms of zeal and direct missionary information. The popular sympathy enter the cold sphere of statistics, we find that the progress which so often waits on popular knowledge has been of moral standards advances with slow but decisive foot. further enlisted by what are known as missionary loan The percentage of crime is strikingly lower ; the paupers exhibitions. In these vivid illustrations of native life and are proportionately fewer; greater care for the condition missionary work are given by means of costumes, curiosities, of the poor indicates a more tender public conscience. and models. To such an exhibition in Birmingham there Social ambitions among us are becoming more unselfish. were as many as 100,000 visitors; and everywhere similar The general moral sense is higher. Intemperance is now exhibitions have been crowded.
a disgrace; slavery is illegal, and would be impossible to As a witness to the changed popular feeling towards any enlightened Christian society. The ethical principles missionary enterprise, perhaps nothing can be more striking of Christianity have been planted deep among our social than the fact that there are now in England and America ideas, and have revolutionized manners. In our judgment, public monuments commemorating the zeal and devotion of whatever undesirable features remain as blemishes on our the missionary. In Washington Square in New York there civilization, the standards of moral life are gradually is a church which is a memorial to Judson the missionary; improving, and this improvement is largely due to the in Westminster Abbey there is a monument to David prevailing force of Christian ethics. Livingstone, who lies in the ancient national shrine where Secondly, it is said that everywhere men are increasingly the greatest of Englishmen are buried.
reluctant to identify themselves with the Christian II. THE MEASURE OF CHRISTIAN PROGRESS IN MATTERS worship; attendance at worship is declining; and, perhaps
religion. Many discard the outward forms of Christian NOT REDUCIBLE TO STATISTICS.
most startling of all, the number of those who join the (i.) The Alleged Decline of Christian Influence.—In ranks of the Christian ministry is steadily diminishing estimating the present position and prospects of the among all Christian denominations. This last fact is the Christian religion, it is necessary to refer to matters which one which Christian churches should face: a searching are regarded by its friends and foes as tokens of its inquiry into the causes for the decline of candidates for declining influence.
the ministry of the Church would be of the greatest First, it is said that there are signs that Christianity interest. Till such inquiry has been made we can only has lost, or is losing, its moral influence. Ordinances speculate upon causes. Among these the following have and institutions which owe their sanctity to Christian | been suggested :-(a) The unsettled condition of theoinfluence are no longer socially observed. The Sunday, logical opinion, due to the progress of historical criticism. for instance, is being slowly transformed into a day of This is probably one cause, and it has given rise to the pleasure. Still more significant, it is alleged, is the question how far the Christian churches should relax the lowering of moral standards: that which was once terms of subscription required by their ministers. There garded as harmful is now treated as legitimate; the can be no doubt that many of the dogmas to which subincrease of luxury has led many to treat indulgences as scription is required are, if not obsolete, yet expressed in though they were necessaries; the wish to live according terms which are at least incongruous with modern ideas.