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On the other hand, the results of recent criticism are at any definite written code of laws by which they are conpresent felt to be less destructive than the criticism of tent to abide; but the broad and popular maxims, which two generations ago. (6) The Christian ministry is a expressed the Christianized feeling of mankind, became the severer test of religious earnestness to-day than it was in basis of various erudite and influential works which may, the days of our fathers. The increase of luxury has set broadly speaking, be called treatises on international law. the scale of living higher. To maintain the position of a Grotius, for example, definitely proclaimed that his book simple gentleman is more costly than it was.
De Jure, &c., was an endeavour to present in orderly and muneration of the Christian minister has not kept pace codified form the customs and maxims which had grown with the growing expenses of life, but the demands upon out of the appreciation of Christian principles. his time and resources have increased. (c) There is a It has often been stated, and arguments have been widespread feeling that there are other ways open to founded on the statement, that Christianity laid down no Christian zeal besides those of the stated ministry, and rules respecting some of the great evils of the worldthe number of those who devote their lives in independent such as the status of women, slavery, and war. This is fashion to works of Christian benevolence has greatly true, for Christianity is not a religion of rules, but a increased of late years.
religion of principles; it is the introduction into human On the whole, the argument that Christianity has lost, life of a new spirit, and that spirit is love. The improveor is losing, influence ends probably in the conclusion that ments in the condition of the world, the spreading abroad certain formal aspects of Christianity have less hold upon of humaner principles of conduct, including humaner men than formerly, but the increase of the influence of the methods of war, are little more than the apprehension of Christian spirit is great and growing. Whether the the principles laid down by Christ and expressed by the present tendencies will end in a fatal relaxation of apostolic declaration—“Love worketh no ill to his neighChristian ordinances, or in a better-proportioned estimate bour.” The width of the application of the principle was of their value; whether the decline of attachment to made plain by Christ when He answered the question, certain formal aspects of Christianity will lead to a “Who is my neighbour ?” by the parable of the good renunciation of some of its essential principles, or will Samaritan. The indications of the recognition of these bring about a federation or union of Christian churches, principles mark stages in the history of civilization. are questions of deep interest, but are outside the scope of Alcuin noted the influence of Christian principles in the the present inquiry. It is enough for us to indicate our treatment of slaves. Under the sceptre of Charlemagne belief that, however much there may be to deplore in an abhorrence of needless bloodshed gained hold upon the modern life, there is no real ground for believing that the public mind, while in more modern times the Red Cross social and ethical influence of Christianity has declined or Society and the Geneva Convention have assuaged the is declining in the world.
horrors of the battlefield. The substitution of arbitration (ii.) Christianity and Morals.-Chiefest among those for war belongs to the future, but great progress has been signs of progress is the influence of Christian ideas upon made in the direction of peaceful solutions of international the principles, whether of law or custom, which now govern difficulties. The subject enlists Christian and humane the world. It will no doubt always be a matter of con- sympathy in an increasing degree. The conference of troversy how much of the humane principles now accepted bishops of the Anglican Church in 1897 directed attention among civilized nations is due to education, experience, to it, and issued a report which showed how largely both and evolution, and how much to direct Christian influence. the idea and practice of arbitration had become familiar to Results are complex, and we must seek their ancestry in the civilized world. more than one line, but no reasonable person who reads The changed conditions of modern life present, no doubt, the story of modern civilization can doubt that the slow new problems and new difficulties. There are some who acceptance of the principles taught by Christ has power- despair of the application of Christian principles to the fully affected its development. “The great characteristic political and social questions which confront our times ; of Christianity,” says Mr Lecky, "and the proof of its but such persons overlook both the progress which has divinity, is that it has been the main source of the moral already been made, and also the fact that many of the development of Europe.” Only by degrees, indeed, have problems which confront us to-day —e.g., the industrial the principles of Christianity been accepted or, indeed, problems—are problems of recent growth, which owe their understood.
existence to the rapid commercial and political changes of For example, take the matter of slavery. The habit of the 19th century. Meanwhile the remarkable widening of enslaving prisoners of war received its first check when the direction of Christian energy, of which we shall speak the sense of Christian brotherhood created a strong feeling later on, shows that Christian public opinion is not likely among Christian peoples against the enslavement of their to rest satisfied with a half-hearted application of the fellow-Christians when taken prisoners. The Crusades, teaching of Christ, and that, whether ultimately successwhen Christian nations fought side by side against a ful or not, there is not a department of public life, nor pagan foe, no doubt served to strengthen this feeling of a phase of human need or suffering, which the Christian repugnance against such enslavement. By degrees, how- conscience will allow to remain outside the reach of the ever, the sense of brotherhood extended; the family of Christian spirit. Christ were not only those who called themselves by His The widened sweep of Christian energy is evidenced in name, but all those who were sharers of His redemption. the expanded conception of missionary effort. Missionary To enslave a brother meant to enslave any man, for every societies have almost universally enlarged the sphere of man was a brother for whom Christ died. Thus the anti- their work—the elevation of woman, ministry to the sick, slavery movement arose out of a better appreciation of the the amelioration of social conditions enter into the aim of spirit of Christ; and Christian men were all along the the missionary. Time and space forbid our discussing inspiration of the movement. This example may serve as these at length, but two or three examples will make clear a type of many other humane movements which have how closely allied the introduction of gentler or humaner imposed a sort of unwritten law upon the conscience of customs are with the preaching of Christianity. The civilized nations.
Christian missionary has been influential in bringing about What is called international law, for instance, has in one the mitigation, if not the cessation, of cruel popular sense no real existence. Nations have not yet accepted I customs like suttee and infanticide.
(a) Suttee.—Among the changes for the better which the 19th | which a narrower age of science would have scorned ; there century witnessed was the abolition of suttee or sati, i.e., the
scope for the play of activities undreamed of half a cenself-destruction of the widow on the grave or funeral pyre of her husband. This was viewed in India as a virtuous or good act ; tury ago. Among the best circles of scientific and Christian hence its name, Sati, from a root signifying good or pure. thought the dogmatic temper has given place to the spirit The good or loyal wife was expected to follow her husband of the historical investigator. The statement must not beyond the grave, to minister to him in the unseen. The custom
be taken too widely. The dogmatic temper is still upperprevailed almost universally in India in the beginning of the 19th
The infallibility century. In 1817 on an average two widows were burned daily most in some questions of the Church. in Bengal alone. In 1829 Lord William Bentinck declared the which is so dear to the religionist has fostered this dogpractice criminal. The English Government, in spite of many matic temper, and alike among the unenlightened advisers petitions declaring the religious character of the custom, sup- of the Vatican and in the circles of evangelical ignorance ported Lord William Bentinck. The Christian Church led the way in this great reform. The agitation against the custom was
the voice of knowledge is refused and its messengers are begun by Carey, the missionary, in 1801. The extent of the cast out. benefit of the change may be judged when it is remembered that On the whole, however, everywhere except in such there are (1895) upwards of 22 millions of widows in India, all strongholds of idolized ignorance a calmer and more of whom would have been doomed by this cruel custom to a premature death, and more than 70,000 of these mere children equable spirit possesses Christendom. It is recognized that under ten years of age.
the so-called conflict between science and religion never (®) Infanticide. - This was, and still is, largely prevalent in truly existed; the conflict was seen to be a battle between China, but Christian influence has reduced the practice, and certain theological opinions and some conclusions of numbers of children from an early death. One missionary tells science. It was seen that in some cases the conclusions us that at Amoy there was a pond in the town known as the babies of science had been misunderstood, and in more cases the pond ; into it babies were flung by their mothers, the little bodies theological opinions were in no way parts of essential were seen floating in the water, and the inhabitants looked on
Christianity, but were rather doubtful inferences, stated in with indifference. Christian teaching rendered the practice less forms incidental to a particular epoch. The wide admixture popular; the pond is now dried up, while foundling institutions provide for some 2000 children in the district. This is one illus- of error with truth, the facility with which mistaken tration among many. Infanticide is practised in India. In the deductions were accepted as of equal authority with primary judgment of one writer, at the lowest estimate fully one-third of principles, and the diverse measures applied to language by the girls born among the natives are still secretly murdered (Houghton, Women of the Orient, p. 71; Dennis, vol. i. p. 133).
scientific and theological thinkers were recognized; and with In Formosa and in the Pacific Islands the same custom prevails ; this recognition the most potent factors of dispute disin the latter not less than two-thirds of the children were put to appeared and a happier epoch alike for science and theology death. Against this cruel custom the missionary exercises a was inaugurated. As marks of the changes we have spoken restraining influence.. Our churches, said an agent, are practically of we may notice the totally different way in which the anti-infanticide societies.
(v) General Beneficence.—But Christian energy has not confined essays in Lux Mundi were received from the way in which its influence to the mitigation of great evils. It has become Essays and Reviews were met by an earlier generation, the minister of active benevolence. Orphanages and asylums and the significant difference between the titles of two spring up in missionary stations as well as hospitals and dispens- books—one published in 1860 and the other in 1889— aries, and on the staff of missionary societies are now found a certain proportion of medical missionaries. These are, if we
both dealing with the relations of science and Christianity. mistake not, the product of the 19th century. It is safe to say Mr Draper called his book the Conflict between Science and that not a single medical missionary existed in any part of the Religion.
Dr Andrew White called his far abler and more heathen world a century ago; now there are no fewer than 217 in China alone. Evidence of the widespread humanizing influence of judicious work, The Conflict of Science and Theology. such agencies may be gathered from the fact that in a single year
One reason for the happier spirit which now prevails in the province of Shantung 200,000 cases were treated (Niethodist probably lies in the conviction that the battle for intellecNew Connexion Missionary Report, 1900, p. 34). Much prejudice tual freedom has been finally won. No investigator now existed at first in the minds of Christian people. The undertaking
needs to veil his conclusions in a demoralizing ambiguity of medical work appeared to them likely to interfere with the more distinctively religious aims of the missionary, but this
or to apologize for pursuing truth. Simultaneously feeling has almost entirely disappeared ; and since Dr S. F. with this secured position of the scientific inquirer there Green, a young American Presbyterian, went out (1847) to Ceylon, came faster to the world—and the fact is most signifithe value of the medical missionary has been recognized, and
cant-treatises on behalf of faith from the studies and there are few missionary societies who have not some fully qualified doctors upon their staff. To take an example, the Church
laboratories of men of science. Missionary Society employs more than 50 medical missionaries, The prevalence of this happier spirit has brought about and the number of patients treated in one year (1900) was—of a more wholesome and benevolent view of non-Christian in-patients, 11,557 ; and of out-patients, 641,006.
beliefs. The science of comparative religion has been of (iii.) The IIappier Relations between Scientific and service here. The faiths of the world have been investiReligious Thought.—There has been a marked change in gated in a calm and impartial spirit. No thoughtful the general feeling of the Church towards what is loosely Christian man would use the language which was common called Science. Broadly speaking, we may say that the fifty or sixty years ago when speaking of the creeds of attitude of irreconcilable hostility on the part of the other lands. The elements of truth in other creeds are Church has almost entirely disappeared. The intelligent now sought for; crude forms of worship are no longer part of the Church has now consented to give to science looked upon as half hypocritical ; Mahommed is no longer the things which are science's. It is recognized that there denounced as an impostor. This more temperate view of is no part of the world of phenomena on which science has other men's creeds has naturally been followed by a great not a right to speak and to be heard. We must, however, tenderness of spirit, and in some quarters the fear has remember that this is only a rough general estimate, been expressed that this tenderness may give rise to a and represents rather the existence of an altered feeling kind of indifference in matters of faith. It is probable than an exact measurement of results. The improved that, in their effort to do justice to heathen religions, some feeling, it must be allowed, is due both to the larger and writers have overlooked or minimized the grave moral and more scientific spirit which has pervaded Christendom, and social evils which are inextricably woven up with low also to the more reverent spirit which has characterized theological ideas; but, nevertheless, on the whole it is scientific inquiry. The contemptuous spirit of arrogant remarkable that the generation which has learned to look unbelief has passed away from scientific circles; the with kindlier eyes upon other ns coincides with the widening range of knowledge has left room for wonders generation which has shown the most ardent missionary
enthusiasm.' The truth seems to be that the result of of primary importance. Questions which former ages
change has mainly been in the very strong preference for (iv.) The Question of Reunion.—The progress of Chris- work which, for distinction's sake, we may call practical. tianity has, in the view of many, been hindered by the It is needful, perhaps, to explain what is meant: the numberless parties and organizations into which it has energies of Christian bodies were in the main directed been divided. It is possible, however, that those who in former years to work which was almost exclusively regard the divisions of Christendom with dismay may ecclesiastical and controversial - i.e., the members of have overlooked the possible advantages of the conditions different Christian societies or churches endeavoured to which they deplore. Apart from the energy which rivalry enlarge the borders of these societies by bringing in those may stimulate, it must not be forgotten that only by the who were careless in life or hostile in creed. There was, recognition of such divisions could some of the most if we may use the phrase, a certain egotistic flavour about precious of human inheritances have been preserved. their work; and they were satisfied if they could maintain Religious freedom, the shield and guardian of intellectual their own services, and bring in some aliens into their integrity in matters of faith, was purchased at the price fold. Of recent years men have been desirous of wider of division. The endeavour to preserve union by external and more practical benevolence; they have not merely pressure failed, and it is now realized that the outward wished to bring men into their church; they sought to union of Christendom must begin with the promotion of carry the power of Christian influence and of the Christian an inward harmony. The prospects of a great external spirit among men. They have looked at the great world, reunion of Christendom involve questions too large to be and they have been filled with the practical compassion discussed here. It may, however, be well to notice that which has prompted the inquiry, "What can we do for there are in recent times features, unfavourable as well as them ?” The result has been the development of a vast favourable, to the hopes of reunion. The stiffening of the amount of practical activity, more or less unrelated to attitude of the Roman Catholic Church which has been the dogmatic restraints of former times. This spirit of noticeable since the declaration of infallibility; exagger- practical Christianity has found expression in a variety of ated or mistaken ecclesiastical conceptions favoured by organizations—in societies, guilds, brigades, institutes, and certain schools of thought; the tendency to treat varia what are known as settlements. The “settlement” means tions of custom as transgressions of an imaginary divine the residence in the very centre of the poorer quarters of law; the creation of new sins, of which denominationalism great cities of men and women who are ready to labouris only too fruitful: these and other features of modern not always on distinctly or distinctively religious linesChristianity are unfavourable to reunion. On the other among the needy and uncultivated classes. The aim is to hand, the development of a passionate yearning for re- bring culture, knowledge, harmless recreation, and above union which has found voice all the world over; the frank all, personal influence, to the very doors of the neglected. recognition of the disastrous results of division, especially The watchword of such settlements is personal service. A in the modern mission field ; the growth of the practical, young Oxford man, brilliant and devoted, Arnold Toynbee and the decay of the dogmatic spirit, are all favourable. by name, has the credit of leading the way in this class of Meanwhile the desire for reunion has not been confined beneficent work; at all events, it was his name that was given to empty wishes. Practical steps have not been wanting to the Hall in Whitechapel which, under the fostering care The fusion of two important bodies in Scotland—the Free and influence of the Rev. S. A. Barnett, was the first material Church and the United Presbyterian Church—is perhaps embodiment of the movement.
Since his time many the most remarkable example of successful negotiation. settlements of the same or similar nature have sprung up Other negotiations are in process, and in Scotland devout in Great Britain and America. Young men at the unimen are working for a better understanding between the versities were found to sympathize with this class of moveChurch of Scotland and the Scottish Episcopal Church. ment; and now there is in London an Oxford house, a Complete reunion is as yet far off, but some concordat Cambridge, an Eton, and a Harrow mission, besides many or federation among the churches of the Reformation is a others, which act as channels for the guidance and employvision which many good and wise men cherish as neither ment of Christian or philanthropic energy. Some of these unreasonable nor impossible. In the view of many the ex-—indeed, many—are now in connexion with some one or istence of common work carried on by interdenominational other of the kindred bodies ; but the general features of societies is calculated to show that some such federation all these settlements is the recognition of any practical may be legitimately and hopefully desired, if not expected. work calculated to minister to the cultivation and
The strength of the practical and individual movements happiness of the too long neglected classes. The practical in Christendom is illustrated in what follows:
spirit shows itself also in the formation of guilds, camps,
and institutes. Lads and girls, and even children are III. THE MEASURE OF CHRISTIAN PROGRESS IN THE
gathered together; efforts are made to organize for them LIGHT OF CERTAIN ALTERED CONDITIONS.
not only educational and religious opportunities, but Modern life, and what is called the modern spirit, have harmless recreation-holidays and excursions are arranged, altered the conditions of Christendom. Men can more games are provided, and devoted men and women clearly measure the relation of Christian churches to one identify themselves in kindly and sympathetic fashion as another; they can more clearly see their duty to the partners in these recreations and sharers in these games. world. The scientific spirit has helped to reduce to their Almost universally the influence of Christian people has fitting proportion many matters which were once deemed | been drawn into channels which an earlier generation
would have regarded as somewhat too secular to be the religion which took its rise among the Semites has worthy of Christian zeal. Societies like the Kyrle become the religion of the most powerful branch of the Society have sprung up, and endeavoured to brighten Aryan family; and, lastly, the race which is possessed of the and beautify the life of the poor. The very remarkable greatest power of expression, the keenest sense of liberty, movement known as the Salvation Army (q.v.) came under which possesses the freest institutions and the most the influence of the practical spirit we are speaking of, and marked individuality, is the race which includes the the social side of its work has been in some respects its churches of the Reformation. It is in this race of strongly most successful and satisfactory achievement.
marked individuality that, as might be expected, the largest The signs of this practical spirit meet us on all sides variety of denominations is to be found. These divisions —at home in orphanages and asylums; abroad in dis- are partly a strength and partly a weakness; in the past pensaries, medical missions (of which we have spoken), they have been of service in preserving intellectual inand leper settlements. Looking at these facts, observers dependence, liberty of conscience, and religious toleration. of history have pointed out that the guiding force of It may be doubted, however, whether, now that the cause Christian life has passed through the hands of various of freedom has been won, these divisions may not be a races. The Hebrew race gave it inspiration, the Greek source of growing weakness, but against any possible ill gave it intellectual expression, the Roman gave it oppor- results must be set the unifying influences now at work, tunity of.world ascendancy, the Teutonic intensified its the desire for reunion, the pressure of political circumspiritual individualism, and the Anglo-Saxon race is now stances, and the experiences of missionary enterprise. The giving to it wide and varied practical application. How- modern spirit, moreover, if we may use a vague but useful ever this may be, the practical work is now multitudinous term, tends to treat ecclesiastical and dogmatic differences and its development rapid. Toynbee Hall, the first of the as matters of lessening importance. The value of denomisettlements, was started in 1885; and there are now more national barriers is depreciated in public esteem. With than 70 such establishments in existence - 35 in the larger views of life and nature, of the world's history and United States; the resident workers in these are reckoned of human interests, the minds of men are seeking the to be at least 300. It would be impossible to chronicle common principles on which the denominations are united, all the forms in which the practical energy displays itself. and are willing to minimize matters of difference. There It is enough to notice that it includes reformatories, homes is arising a powerful religious movement which is bent on for waifs and strays, rescue societies, inebriates' homes, service and not on controversial theology. Vast organizacharity organizations, nursing institutions for the sick tions on this basis are appearing in all parts of the world. poor, holiday funds, boys' brigades, working men's clubs, In the view of some these non-denominational organizareading rooms, athletic associations, homes for working tions are the seminal principles of the future Christian girls, newspaper boys, bootblacks, drift children's missions, brotherhood—the church of the latter days—destined to and others too numerous to mention. The work, though grow larger and more vigorous while the more formal mainly directed towards the poor, does not overlook the ecclesiastical systems slowly wither away. These are conwealthier classes : the sea-side camps and public schooljectures. The simple and striking fact which meets our view missions are evidence of this fact.
is not merely the widespread character of Christianity, but (ii.) Individualism in Work.—The practical direction of the marvellous way in which the forces and influences of Christian activity has been accompanied by a great out the world are gathered into the hands of Christian nations. burst of free and individual effort. The various Christian
LITERATURE. -Missions and Social Progress, by Dr DENNIS.— bodies have their agencies and societies for practical work, The Growth of the Kingdom of God, by Rev. S. L. GULICK. Relibut one feature of modern Christian enthusiasm is its gious Tract Society.—Ğesta Christi, by C. LORING BRACE. Hodder strong and marked individualism. Many of the most and Stoughton. — Christianity and Social Problems, by LYMAN
ABBOTT. Messrs James Clarke and Co., 1896.-Superstition and remarkable and successful efforts of practical energy have
Force, by HENRY C. LEA. Philadelphia, U.S.A., 1878.—Historical been due to individual rather than ecclesiastical initiative. Essays, by BISHOP LIGHTFOOT. Macmillan.—Industriesand Wealth Mr Müller's work at Bristol, Mr Quarrier's in Scotland, of Nations, by MULIALL. Longmans, 1896.- Practical Christian
Rev. WILBUR F. CRAFTS. Dr Barnardo's in London, the enormous and world-wide Sociology.
Funk and Wagnalls, organizations known as the Young Men's Christian Asso London and Toronto.—Civilization of Christendom, by BERNARD
BOSANQUET. Swan Sonnenschein and Co., 1893.-Influence of ciation, the Christian Endeavour Society, the St Andrew's Christianity on War, by J. F. BETHUNE-BAKER. Macmillan, Brotherhood, all owe their beginning to personal devotion. 1888. - Problems
1888. — Problems of Religious Progress, by D. DORCHESTER, D.D. (iii.) Interdenominational Movements. — There is a certain New York, Hunt and Eaton, 1895.—Influence of Christianity on
International Law, by C. M. KENNEDY. London, Macmillan, quantity of Christian energy and force which does not seem able to work through existing organizations. It is not for Movement, by Rev. G. T. Pierson.—Christianity judged by its
1856. — Social Evolution, by B. Kidd. London.—The Forward us to suggest reasons—we can only chronicle results. It Fruits, by Dr CrosleGH. S.P.C.K. - Spiritual Expansion of the may be that the advance of critical thought has made it Empire. London, S.P.G.-IIistory of Church Missionary Society, impossible for certain minds to accept the real or supposed by EUGENE STOCK. London, C.M.S.- Modern Missions and crl
ture, by Dr WARNACK. Edinburgh, Gemmell.—Christianity and theological bondage of the churches, and that, as a con
the Progress of Man, by Prof. DOUGLAS MACKENZIE. Edinburgh, sequence, a considerable portion of Christian and philan- Oliphant, Anderson, and Ferrier.-Missionary Conference, 1894. thropic earnestness has escaped into other channels; it London, S.P.C.K.-History of the S.P.C.K. London, S.P.C.K. be that the discords or jealousies of the denominations
(W. B. R.) may have alienated certain ardent natures; but however this Christian Science, a system of theosophic and may be, there is no doubt of the great increase of inde- therapeutic doctrine, which was originated in America pendent and undenominational religious and humanitarian about 1866 by Mrs Mary Baker Eddy, of Lynn, work.
Massachusetts, and has in recent years obtained a IV. CONCLUSION.
number of adherents both in the United States and in The present force of Christianity in the world is the European countries. Mrs Eddy based her teaching on result of a steady growth in numbers and influence. The the Bible, and on the principles that man's essential religion which was the religion of an obscure handful nature is spiritual, and that the Spirit of God being Love of men is now, after a lapse of nineteer hundred years, and Good, moral and physical evil are contrary to that the religion of a third of the human race and by far Spirit, and represent an abse the True Spirit which the most vigorous and influential nations. Further, was in Jesus Christ. There is but one Mind, one God,
one Christ, and nothing real but Mind. Matter and of Oscarshal (1847-52), on the peninsula Bygdö (Ladusickness are subjective states of error, delusions which can gaard) to the west of the city, with a historical museum be dispelled by the mental process of a true knowledge (1881), and some ancient churches and houses brought of God and Christ, or Christian science. Jesus himself there from different parts of the country. On Hovedo healed by those means, which were therefore natural and (Head Island) in the fjord, immediately opposite to not miraculous, and promised that those who believed Akershus (not Agershus), are the ruins of a Cistercian should do curative works like his. About the year 1867 monastery, founded in 1147 by monks from Kirkstead Mrs Eddy came forward as a healer by Mind-cure, and (Lincolnshire), and burnt down in 1532. Then there rapidly obtained fellow-workers and students. In 1876 a are the pleasure resorts of St Hans Haugen (150 ft.), Christian Scientist Association was organized. Mrs Eddy Frognersæter (1362 ft.), Holmenkollen sanatorium (1116 had published in the preceding year a book entitled ft.), where the famous ski (snow-shoe) races are held in Science and Health, with Key to the Scriptures. In 1879 February, and Voksenkollen sanatorium (1650 ft.), opened she became the pastor of a “Church of Christ, Scientist” in 1900. in Boston, and also founded there her “Massachusetts Christiania is a place of considerable industrial activity, Metaphysical College” for the purpose of medical instruc- which developed rapidly in the last two decades of the tion. In 1883 she started an official organ of her teaching, 19th century. Except for two large shipbuilding yards, The Christian Science Journal. The first denominational one with a floating dock, the other with a dry dock, most chapel was built at Oconto, Wisconsin, in 1886 ; and in of the manufactories are concentrated in the suburb of 1894 a great memorial church was erected in Boston. Sagene, on the north side of the city, deriving their Mrs Eddy's publications also include Retrospection and motive power from the numerous falls of the river Introspection (1891), Unity of Good and Unreality of Aker. They embrace factories for cotton and woollen Evil (1887), Rudimental Divine Science (1891), Christian spinning and weaving, paper, flour, soap and oil, bricks Healing (1886).
and tiles, matches, nails (especially horse-shoe nails),
margarine, foundries and engineering shops, wood-pulp, Christiania, the capital of Norway, forming a tobacco, matches, linen, glass, sail-cloth, hardware, guncounty (amt) to itself
, and situated on the Aker river, at powder, chemicals, with sawmills, breweries, and distilleries. the head of Christiania Fjord, in 59° 54' 44" N. lat. and In 1898 there were 375 factories at work in Chris10° 43' 28" E. long. During the second half of the 19th tiania, and they employed 17,383 hands. There is also a century the city grew rapidly, many buildings of wood busy trade in the preparation of granite paving-stones, giving place to structures of brick or stone. New suburbs, and in the storing and packing of ice. From about the spread over a wide area, were built on the rising ground middle of the 19th century Christiania has been the to the west and north-west, around and beyond the royal principal emporium of South Norway, and has long since park. This rapid expansion was due for the most part to far outstripped Bergen in the volume of its commerce. the increase in the population. It was also due in part to The total value of the trade of the port increased from the advance which the people made in material prosperity. £4,958,600 (imports, £3,862,000 ; exports, £1,096,600) For instance, in the ten years ending with 1898 it was in 1872, to £5,492,000 in 1882, to £7,738,000 in 1892, estimated that the gross value of the property owned in and to £8,567,200 in 1898. The imports are more than Christiania had increased by 68 per cent, and the gross four times the exports in respect of value, the figures for value of the incomes of the inhabitants by 83 per cent. In 1898 being £7,987,600 and £1,579,600 respectively. The the year 1898 alone the gross value of the property was former consist principally of grain and flour (£550,000 estimated to have risen from 174 millions sterling to to £650,000), woollens (£450,000 to £550,000), coffee nearly 201 millions sterling, and the gross value of the (£425,000 to £175,000), iron-raw and manufactured incomes from 4 millions to over 4} millions sterling-re- (£750,000 in 1898; £367,000 in 1894), cottons markable figures for a place of only 200,000 inhabitants. (£350,000 to £400,000), coal (£250,000 to £275,000), The university, which had in 1897 some 60 professors bacon and salt meat (£250,000 to £275,000), oils and 1200 students (1600 in 1889), embraces five faculties (£175,000 over £250,000), sugar (£185,500 to (theology, law, medicine, history and philology, mathe- £230,000), machinery (£362,000 in 1898; £149,000 in matics and natural sciences), and possesses several 1894), flax, jute, and hemp, paper-hangings, paints, valuable collections—a library of 350,000 vols.; museum colours, &c., wines and spirits, raw tobacco, copper, zinc, of Norse antiquities, especially rich in objects of the lead, and tin, silk, molasses, and other commodities. The Viking age, including two ancient viking ships; an principal exports are wood-pulp (£225,000 to £325,000), ethnographical museum, a numismatic collection, a timber (£155,000), nails, paper, butter and margarine cabinet of minerals, a botanical collection, and a zoologi-(£103,000), matches, condensed milk, fish, leather and cal collection. In 1899-1900 a large historical museum hides, ice, sealskins, &c. Of the imports, Great Britain was built to shelter the Norwegian National Museum, supplies the greater part of the cotton and woollen yarn, the museum of northern antiquities, and certain of the the machinery (including ships), and the raw metals; the university collections. Other buildings deserving mention United States about one-half of the oils and fats, and a large are the national theatre (1899); the sculpture museum proportion of the food-stuffs, and skins, feathers, &c. Of (1882), an Italian Renaissance building; the industrial | the exports, almost the whole of the timber goes to Great arts museum (1876); the new Freemasons' lodge (1894), Britain, together with the larger portion of the paper
and one of the handsomest structures in the city; and a food-stuffs (butter, &c.). In 1872 the port was entered by conservatory of music (1883). The city is tolerably 1787 vessels of 393,600 tons burden; in 1891 by 2078 well adorned with monuments to distinguished Norwegians vessels of 817,800 tons; and in 1899 by 2710 vessels of
- Wergeland, Asbjörnsen, Eilert Sundt, Schweigaard, 1,000,740 tons. Although Christiania owns a smaller Kjerulf, besides King Christian IV. and others.
merchant fleet than Bergen, her shipping increased from On the east side of the river Aker is the suburb of 264 vessels of 104,000 tons in 1881 to 401 vessels of Oslo, with the existing episcopal palace, and an old 206,150 tons in 1892, and to 398 vessels of 380,525 tons in bishop's Palace, in which James VI. of Scotland (I. of 1900. Early in 1899 the municipality voted £47,000 for England) was betrothed to Princess Anne of Denmark. the construction of a pier, a harbour for fishing boats, In the environs of the city are the royal pleasure castle protected by a mole and a quay, 345 ft. long, on the shore