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also, or plane geometry in the upper grades), geography, 351 private secondary schools for boys only, 537 for girls
history of the United States, and elementary natural only, and 1212 which were co-educational.
science, including human physiology and hygiene. Physical The American college, although it is the outgrowth of the
training, vocal music, drawing, and manual training are English colleges of Oxford and of Cambridge, has developed
often taught. Sometimes a foreign language (Latin, into an institution which has no counterpart in
German, or French) and the study of general history are Europe. The college course of study, at first

colleges.
begun. Formal instruction in manners and morals is not three years in length, was soon extended to four
often found, but the discipline of the school offers the best years, and the classes are uniformly known as the fresh-

possible training in the habits of truthfulness, honesty, man, the sophomore, the junior, and the senior. Whether
· Obedience, regularity, punctuality, and conformity to order. or not, in view of changed educational and social con-

Religious teaching is not permitted, although the exercises ditions, a college course of four years is not too long is a
of the day are often opened with reading from the Bible, question now under serious discussion. The traditional
the repetition of the Lord's Prayer, and the singing of a degree which crowns the college course is that of Bachelor
hymn. Corporal punishment is not infrequent, but is of Arts (A.B.). The studies ordinarily insisted on in the
forbidden by law in New Jersey, and in many States case of candidates for this degree are Latin, Greek,
may be used only under restrictions. Text-books are mathematics, English, philosophy, political economy,
used as the basis of the instruction given, and the pupils history, at least one modern European language (French or
“recite ” in class to the teacher, who, by use of illustration German), and at least one natural science. The degrees of
and comment, makes clear the subject matter of the pre Bachelor of Science (B.S.), Bachelor of Philosophy (Ph.B.),
scribed lesson.

The purpose of the recitation method is and Bachelor of Letters (B.L.) are often conferred by to make the work of each pupil help that of his companion. colleges upon students who have pursued systematic Skilfully used, it is the most effectual instrument yet devised courses of study which do not include Greek or the for elementary school instruction. In 1897–98 there were amount of Latin required for the degree of Bachelor of 14,589,036 pupils enrolled in the public elementary schools. Arts. The best colleges give instruction which is similar The average length of the school term was 143•1 days. in character to that given in Germany in the three upper There were about 380,000 teachers engaged in the element classes of the gymnasium and in the introductory courses ary schools. About 1,250,000 pupils were at the same at the universities, in France in the two upper classes of the time receiving elementary instruction in private or parochial lycée and in the first two years of university study, and in .schools.

England in the upper form of the public schools and The secondary school course is normally four years in during the years of undergraduate residence at Oxford length. The principal subjects studied are Latin, Greek, and Cambridge. Since 1870 the colleges have developed

French, German, algebra, geometry, physics, enormously. Their resources have multiplied, the number Secondary chemistry, physical geography, physiology, rhet of their students has increased by leaps and bounds,

oric, English literature, civics, and history. the programme of studies has broadened and deepened, Although but 11:36 per cent. of the students in public the standards have been raised, and the efficiency of high schools, and 25:36 per cent. of those in private the instruction has greatly increased. Rigidly prescribed secondary schools, are preparing for a college or scientific courses of study have given way to elective courses, school, yet the conditions prescribed by the colleges for and a knowledge of Greek is no longer required for admission to their courses affect powerfully both the the degree of A.B. at such influential colleges as secondary school programme and the methods of teaching. Harvard, Columbia, Cornell, and Williams.

A strong Of late year's no educational topic has been more widely effort is being made to have the leading colleges give but discussed than that as to the proper relations of secondary one degree, that of Bachelor of Arts, and to confer that schools and colleges. As a result, special examinations for upon those who complete any substantial course of college admission to college are either greatly simplified or en studies. A marked change has taken place in the attitude tirely abolished, and the secondary studies are much more of the college authorities toward the students. substantial and better taught than formerly. An increas tion ago the college president was a paterfamilias. He ing proportion of secondary school teachers are college knew each student and came into direct personal contact graduates. In 1897–98 there were 5315 public secondary with him. The president and the faculty had supervision schools and 1990 private secondary schools, or 7305 in all. not only of the studies of the students, but of their moral In these schools 27,298 teachers were employed, 14,681 of and religious life as well. The older type of college them being women. The secondary school students num professor was not always a great scholar, but he was bered 554,825, of whom 419,600 were in public high a student of human nature, with keen intuitions and schools. The boys numbered 241,359 and the girls shrewd insight. The new type is more scholarly in some 313,466. The most extraordinary characteristic of second special direction, often regards teaching as a check upon ary education in recent years is the rapid increase in the opportunities for investigation, and disdains troubling number of students taking Latin as a school subject. In himself with a student's personal concerns or intellectual nine years the number of such students has increased from and moral difficulties. The change has not been 100,144 (33•62 per cent. of the total) to 274,293 (49:41 altogether for the better, and a desirable reaction is per cent.). Meanwhile the proportion of those studying now under way. Each college, however small or illphysics and chemistry has fallen off slightly. The rate of equipped, exercises a helpful local influence! Ninety per increase in the number of pupils who study Latin is fully cent. of all college students attend an institution not twice as great as the rate of increase in the number of more than one hundred miles from their own homes. Few secondary school students. Between 1890 and 1896, while colleges have a national tonstituency, and even in these the number of students in private secondary schools in cases an overwhelming preponderance of the students come creased 12 per cent., the number of students in public from the immediate neighbourhood. This explains, in a secondary schools increased 87 per cent. Since 1894 the measure, the powerful influence which the college has number of students in private secondary schools has exercised in the life of the nation. While hardly more steadily declined. In 1897–98 there were 34 public high than one in a hundred of the white male youth of the schools for boys only, 29 for girls only, and the remainder country has had a college education, yet the college (5252) were co-educational. In the same year there were graduates have furnished one-half of all the Presidents of

S. III. — 86

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the United States, most of the justices of the Supreme from the German universities. The degree of Master of Court, about one-half of the Cabinet officers and United Arts is conferred upon students who, after one year States senators, and nearly one-third of the House of of university residence and study, pass certain preRepresentatives. Before the Revolution eleven colleges scribed examinations. This degree, like those of D.D., were founded. From 1776 to 1800, twelve more were S.T.D., and LL.D., is often conferred by colleges and added ; from 1800 to 1830, thirty-three; from 1830 to universities as a purely honorary distinction. The degree 1865, one hundred and eighty; from 1865 to 1898, two of Ph.D. is not so conferred any longer by the best hundred and thirty-six. The present total is 472. Their universities. Not a few of the universities maintain standards, efficiency, and equipment are very diverse, schools of law and medicine. Harvard and Yale univermany of the so-called colleges being less effective than sities maintain schools of theology as well. The learned some of the better organized secondary schools. Except publications issued by the universities, or under the in New York and Pennsylvania, there is no statutory direction of university professors, are of great importance, restriction upon the use of the name college. This is an and constitute an imposing body of scientific literature. abuse which is beginning to attract public attention. The The national and State governments make increasing use number of undergraduate collegiate and technical school of university officials for public service requiring special students has increased from 573 to each million of inhabit training or expert knowledge. In 1871-72 there were ants in 1872, to 1193 in 1898. In 1897 the whole number only 198 resident graduate (or university) students in the of professedly collegiate students enrolled in colleges for United States. In 1887 this number had risen to 1237, men, for women, and for both sexes was 84,955, of whom and in 1897 to 4392. These figures are exclusive of 52,439 were men. There was, therefore, one college professional students, and include only those who student to each 831 of population. There 114 studying in what would be called, in Germany, the colleges, exclusive of those for women, enrolling 31,941 philosophical faculty. (See also UNIVERSITIES.) Most students, and as a rule possessing the largest endowments, extensive provision is made for professional, technical, and which are under no ecclesiastical control. Fifty-nine special education of all kinds, and for the care and colleges, enrolling 5954 students, are Roman Catholic. training of the dependent and defective classes, as well as Two hundred and eighty-four, enrolling 29,104 students, for the education of the Indian and—in the Southern are under the control of some one of the Protestant

states—of the negro. denominations.

The most complete exposition of education as it now exists will In the United States the title “university” is used be found in Butler, Education in the United States, Albany, N.Y., indiscriminately of institutions which are in reality 1900, a series of nineteen monographs which, taken together, cover universities, of institutions which are colleges,

the whole educational activity of the United States, prepared for The and of institutions which are so ill-equipped as not

the Government educational exhibit at the Paris Exposition of

1900. The oflicial Reports, issued annually, of the Commissioner sities.

to take rank with good secondary schools. Only of Education, at Washington, contain the latest and most authori

time and a greatly increased capacity to dis tative educational statistics of every sort. They also include tinguish the various types of higher schools will remedy

treatises on special topics, and are indispensable works of reference. this error.

The only historical sketch is Boone's History of Education in Putting aside tentative and unsuccessful

the United States, New York, 1889. Martin, Evolution of the attempts to develop genuine university instruction much Massachusetts School System, New York, 1894, is accurate and earlier, it may safely be said that the opening of the Johns valuable. Contemporary discussions of educational topics of interHopkins University at Baltimore in 1876 began the est are provided from year to year in the published Proceedings

of the National Educational Association, a voluntary organization present movement to organize carefully advanced study

of teachers of every grade. and research, requiring a college education of those who

(N. M. B.) wish to enter upon it. This is university instruction Edward VII. (ALBERT EDWARD), King of Great properly so-called, and though found elsewhere, it is Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond given chiefly at fourteen institutions : California Univer the Seas, Emperor of India, (1841- —), the eldest son sity, Catholic University of America, Chicago University, and second child of Queen Victoria and of Albert, Prince Clark University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Consort, was born at Buckingham Palace on 9th November Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Michigan 1841. He was created prince of Wales and earl of University, Pennsylvania University, Princeton Univer Chester on 4th December following, and was baptized sity, Stanford University, Wisconsin University, and by the archbishop of Canterbury on 25th January 1842. Yale University. All of these institutions, except the In his childhood he was carefully educated, under the Catholic University and Clark University, are also immediate supervision of the Queen, by the Dowager colleges. The combination of collegiate and university Lady Lyttelton, governess of the royal children ; and in instruction under one corporation and one executive his boyhood successively by the Rev. Henry Mildred Birch, administration is distinctive of higher education in the formerly an assistant master at Eton, and by Mr F. W. United States, and its chief source of strength. The Gibbs, assisted by the Rev. C. F. Tarver and Mr Herbert W. crowning honour of the university student is the degree of Fisher. He afterwards resided successively at Edinburgh, Ph.D., although that of A.M. -obtainable in less time studying chemistry in its industrial applications under and much easier conditions—is also sought. The minimum Professor (afterwards Lord) Playfair at the University; period of study accepted for the degree of Ph.D. is two at Christ Church college, Oxford ; and at the University of years after obtaining the bachelor's degree; but in practice, Cambridge, where he was a student at Trinity under Dr three, and even four, years of study are found necessary. In Whewell. In November 1858 he was made a Knight of addition to carrying on an investigation in the field of his the Garter, and received a commission as colonel in the main subject of study, the candidate for the degree of army, ascending in due time to the rank of field-marshal. Ph.D. is usually required to pass examinations on one or In 1859 he travelled in Italy and Spain, returning to two subordinate subjects, to possess a reading knowledge pursue his studies at the universities, and availed himself of French and German (often of Latin as well), and to of the long vacation of 1860 to pay a visit, under the submit-usually in printed form—the dissertation which incognito of “Lord Renfrew," to the United States, where embodies the results of his researches. The methods of he was received with cordiality, and to Canada, which instruction in the universities are the lecture, discussion, welcomed him with enthusiasm. The duke of Newcastle, and work in laboratory or seminary—the latter transplanted secretary of state for the colonies, acted as his guide and

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mentor upon this occasion. Upon the completion of his attack. It soon appeared that the malady was typhoid, , Cambridge course in June 1861 he joined the camp at the contracted, as was supposed, on a visit to Scarborough. Curragh, where he acquainted himself with the details of The case became so serious that on 29th November the military duty. While thus engaged he was, in common Queen and Princess Alice hurried to Sandringham, where with the entire nation, overwhelmed by the unexpected the prince had repaired on feeling the first symptoms of death of his father, 13th December 1861, after a very illness. On 1st December there was a slight rally, but on brief illness. For long the prince remained in absolute 8th December so serious a relapse occurred that all the seclusion, but in 1862 fulfilled a wish of the deceased royal family came to Sandringham, and for some days the Prince Consort by undertaking a tour in the Holy Land prince's life was despaired of. Under the skilful treatunder the guidance of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, afterwards ment of Sir William Jenner, Sir William Gull, and Sir dean of Westminster, who had already travelled in the James Paget, however, the crisis was surmounted by 16th East and written Sinai and Palestine, The travellers December, and by Christmas Day the danger was regarded departed in February and returned in June. Stanley's as virtually over. On 27th February 1872 a public Sermons preached in the East was among the fruits of thanksgiving was held at St Paul's, amid the most imtheir expedition. Early in 1863 the prince was sworn of posing and most affecting demonstrations of public joy the Privy Council, and took his seat in the House of Lords and gratitude throughout the empire. The importance as duke of Cornwall. About the same time the estate of attaching to the life of the heir to the Throne was Sandringham, in Norfolk, was purchased for him out of emphasized by the consciousness of his danger and his the savings of his minority. His town residence was escape. A republican agitation, indeed, which had fixed at Marlborough House. His impending marriage to seemed to be gathering strength throughout the year the Princess Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX., king in connexion with labour disputes, collapsed entirely, and of Denmark (born 1st December 1844), had already been has never been revived. announced, and took place on 10th March in St George's In January 1874 the prince of Wales attended the marriage Chapel, Windsor. From her first appearance on British at St Petersburg of his brother, the duke of Edinburgh, soil the princess captivated the heart of the nation, and with the Grand Duchess Marie of Russia. In the same Tennyson uttered the public sentiment when he sang, in year he paid a historic visit to Birmingham, where Mr his ode as poet-laureate, “We are all of us Danes in Joseph Chamberlain, not yet a member of Parliament, our welcome of thee.” Parliament granted the prince an received him officially as mayor.

In March 1875 it income of £40,000 a year, exclusive of the revenues of was officially announced that he would make a visit to the duchy of Cornwall, and he relinquished his right of India, carrying out an idea originally conceived by the succession to the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Prince first Indian viceroy, Earl Canning. He was supposed Albert Victor, afterwards duke of Clarence, was the first to travel as heir-apparent, not as representative of the offspring of the marriage, being born on 17th January 1864. Queen; but the characters could not be kept apart, and The births followed of Prince George Frederick Ernest in fact the prince's visit was a political event of great Albert, duke of York, born 3rd June 1865; Princess importance. Leaving England on 11th October, he was Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar, by marriage duchess received at Bombay by the viceroy, Lord Northbrook. of Fife, born 20th February 1867; Princess Victoria Here he met a very large number of Indian feudatory Alexandra Olga Mary, born 6th July 1868; and princes, whose acquaintance he subsequently improved by Princess Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria, born 26th visiting at their courts during the seventeen weeks which November 1869, married to Prince Charles, second son he spent in the country. During these four months the of the Crown Prince of Denmark. From the time of their prince travelled nearly 8000 miles by land and 2500 marriage the prince and princess were more conspicuously miles by sea, became acquainted with more rajahs than before the country than had ever before been the case with had all the viceroys who had reigned over India, and any princely pair of the same position. The deep affliction saw more of the country than any living Englishman. of the widowed sovereign, and the burden of public care The rajahs were enchanted by his tact and urbanity. The which she was now compelled to undertake, unrelieved visit, moreover, led up, as was probably intended, to the by the participation of her mainstay and chief adviser, in Queen's assumption of the title of empress of India in the capacitated her for the performance of most of the social following year. functions of Royalty. The prince and princess of Wales The prince's life after this date was full of conspicuous stepped forward to fill her place, and by their tact and the public appearances. In 1885 he visited Ireland at a time affability of their bearing, and their diligence and punctuality of much political excitement, and was received enthusiin satisfying every public claim, frequently at great in astically in many quarters and without symptoms of ill-will convenience to themselves, contributed not a little to that in any. In 1886 he filled the presidency of the Indian and general popularity of the British monarchy among all classes Colonial Exhibition, opened the Mersey Tunnel, and laid the which has proved so important a factor in national politics. first stone of the Tower Bridge. In 1887 a large share The prince's readiness to promote every worthy cause was of the arrangements for the Queen's Jubilee devolved upon most marked ; no one was a more constant attendant at him. On 27th July 1889 his eldest daughter, Princess the meetings and gatherings for objects of public utility Louise, was married to the duke of Fife. In the autumn in which his position as a prince of the blood royal he paid a semi-incognito visit to Paris, where he has would permit him to take part, and his speeches were always been highly popular, viewed the Exhibition, and always most effective from their excellent sense and clear ascended the Eiffel Tower. In 1890 he opened the Forth enunciation. The most important external event of these Bridge. On 14th January 1892, however, a heavy blow fell years was a tour to Egypt, undertaken in 1869 in company upon him and his house by the death of his eldest son, with the duke of Sutherland, Sir Samuel Baker, and others, Prince Albert Victor, duke of Clarence and Avondale, after an account of which was published by Mrs William Grey. only five days' illness. The young prince, who with his The prince also visited Ireland more than once, and opened brother had made the tour of the world in H.M.S. the International Exhibition of 1871.

Bacchante, and after a short career at Oxford and CamOn 23rd November 1871 it was announced that the bridge was just settling down to play his part in public prince would be prevented from paying a visit which had | life, had recently become engaged to Princess Victoria Mary been arranged to the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh by a feverish of Teck (born 26th May 1867), and the popularity of the

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