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the flexural couple across a section normal to either axis has a vessels of 209,500 tons in 1891 to 3004 of 568,930 tons component about that axis as well as a component about the per- in 1899. There is an institute of viticulture. On this pendicular axis. Considering an element ABCD of the section at right angles to the axis of x, contained between two lines near

and the neighbouring island of Pianosa there are convict together and perpendicular to the middle plane, the action of the prisons, in which from 3000 to 4000 convicts are lodged. portion of the plate to the right upon the portion to the left, The principal towns are Portoferrajo (population, 3737 in across the element, gives rise to a couple about the middle line 1881), Marciana (5444), Portolungone (4172), and Rio (y) of amount, estimated per unit of length of that line, equal Marina (2964). Population of the island, about 27,000.

(oʻW azw) to C , =G1, say, and to a couple, similarly estimated, ofw

Elbe (the Albis of the Romans), one of the most imabout the normal (a) of amount – C(1–0)āzög

: =H, say. The portant rivers of Central Europe. Ít rises in Bohemia, in corresponding couples on an element of a section at right angles the upper gathering-grounds of the Riesengebirge, its chief to the axis of y, estimated per unit of length of the axis of x, are feeders being the Weisswasser, which originates near the

02w 0220 of amounts – como to So ), =G, say, and - H. The resultant kingly Schneekoppe, at an altitude of about 4600 feet, ay? ?

and the Elbseifen, which is formed in the same neighbourSy of the shearing stresses on the element ABCD, estimated as

hood, but at a little lower elevation. After plunging

cG, ӘНІ before, is given by the equation Si= ax - @y

(cf. $ 10), and the down the 140 feet of the Elbfall, the latter stream unites corresponding resultant S, for an element perpendicular to the with the steep torrential Weisswasser at Mädelstegbaude,

at an altitude of 2230 feet, and thereafter the united stream axis of y is given by the equation S=

ĉa Oy

If the plate of the Elbe pursues a southerly course, emerging from the is bent by pressure P per unit of area, the equation of equili- mountain glens at Hohenelbe (1495 feet), and continuing brium is

os, , ĉs,
дх
=P, or, in terms of w,

on at a soberer pace to Pardubitz, where it turns sharply to
ду
aw atw atw

the west, and at Kolin (730 feet), some 27 miles farther axt dy*

on, bends gradually towards the north-west. A little @xay?

above Brandeis it picks up the Iser, which, like itself, This equation, together with the special conditions at the rim, suflices for the determination of w, and then all the quantities

comes down from the Riesengebirge, and at Melnik it has here introduced are determined. Further, the most important its stream more than doubled in volume by the Moldau, of the stress-components are those which act across elements of a river which winds northwards through the heart of normal sections : the tension in direction ?, at a distance - from Bohemia in a sinuous, trough-like channel carved through the middle plane measured in the direction of p, is of amount 3C- (Ow c?w

the plateaux. Some miles lower down, at Leitmeritz to 213

cy

and there is a corresponding tension in direc- (133 feet), the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish tion y; the shearing stress parallel to y on planes x:=const., and Eger, a stream which drains the southern slopes of the parallel to x on planes y=const., is of amount

3C(1 - 0): O Erzgebirge. Thus augumented, and swollen into a stream

.

,

2h деду 140 yards wide, the Elbe carves a path through the these tensions and shearing stresses are equivalent to two principal basaltic mass of the Mittelgebirge, churning its way tensions, in the directions of the lines of curvature of the surface into which the middle plane is bent, and they give rise to the through a deep, narrow rocky gorge. Then the river flexural couples.

winds through the fantastically sculptured sandstone 33. In the special example of a circular plate, of radius a, sup- mountains of the “Saxon Switzerland,” washing succesported at the rim, and held bent by a uniform pressure , tho sively the feet of the lofty Lilienstein (932 feet above the value of w at a point distant r from the axis is

Elbe), the scene of one of Frederick the Great's military 5o -a2 p2

exploits in the Seven Years' War, Königstein (797 feet 0"

above the Elbe), where in times of war Saxony has more and the most important of the stress components is the radial

than once stored her national purse for security, and the tension, of which the amount at any point is 3:2 (3+0)pz(a* r2)/29; pinnacled rocky wall of the Bastei, towering 650 feet

above the surface of the stream. Shortly after crossing the maximum radial tension is about 3(a/n)p, and, when the the Bohemian-Saxon frontier, and whilst still struggling thickness is small compared with the diameter, this is a large through the sandstone defiles, the stream assumes a northmultiple of p.

westerly direction, which on the whole it preserves right AUTHORITIES.—The analysis requisite to prove most of the results away to the North Sea. At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind stated in this article is given by Love, İlathematical Theory of it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls Elasticity, Cambridge, 1892, 1893. Reference may also be made to through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, BOUSSINESQ, Application des potentiels, Paris, 1885; CLEBSCH, Theorie der Elasticität fester Körper, Leipzig, 1862 (Saint-Venant's edition, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the Paris, 1883) ; THOMSON and Tait, Natural Philosophy, Cambridge, North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magde1879, 1883 ; TODHUNTER and Pearson, History of the Theory of burg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg, and Altona on the Elasticity, Cambridge, 1886–93 ; POCHHAMMER, Gleichgewicht des elastischen Stabes, Kiel, 1879 ; Curee, "Changes in the Dimensions way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and of Elastic Solids due to given Systems of Forces," Trans. Camb. Phil. Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Soc. xv., 1892 ; “On Thin Rotating Isotropic Disks,Proc. Camb. Havel, and Elde from the right. Eight miles above Phil. Soc

. vii., 1891 ; "Long rotating. Circular Cylinders,Proc. Hamburg the stream divides into the Norder (or Hamburg) Camb. Phil. Soc. vii., 1892 ; HERTZ, "* Über die Berührung fester Elbe and the Süder (or Harburg) Elbe, which are linked elastischer Körper,” Crelle, xcii., 1881 ; MICHELL, “On the Direct together by several cross-channels, and embrace in their Determination of Stress in an Elastic Solid . and

papers in Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. xxxi. xxxii., 1899–1900 ; PEARSON, “On arms the large island of Wilhelmsburg and some smaller the Flexure of Heavy Beams subjected to Continuous Systems of

But by the time the river reaches Blankenese, Load,” Quart. Journ. Math. xxiv., 1889 ; PEARSON and Filon, same

7 miles below Hamburg, all these anastomosing branches title, Quart. Journ. Math. xxxi., 1899.

(A. E. H. L.)

have been reunited, and the Elbe, with a noble width of Elba, an island of Italy, belonging to the province of 4 to 9 miles between bank and bank, travels on between Leghorn, miles from the nearest point of the mainland the green marshes of Holstein and Hanover until it becomes (Piombino), and 35 miles south from Leghorn. Iron is merged in the North Sea off Cuxhaven. From Dresden not only mined, but since 1900 smelted, in Elba. Iron to the sea the river has a total fall of only 123 feet, ore, wine, and salt are exported to the average (1891–98) although the distance is about 430 miles. For the 75 value of £197,250 (£244,000 in 1899). The shipping miles between Hamburg and the sea the fall is only 31 which cleared from the various ports increased from 2692 feet. One consequence of this is that the bed of the river

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just below Hamburg is obstructed by a bar, and still lower | dug, 5 to 6 feet deep and of various widths, for the purpose of down is choked with sandbanks, so that navigation is con

connecting the Elbe, through the Havel and the Spree, with the fined to a relatively narrow channel down the middle of system of the Oder. The most noteworthy of these connexions

are the Elbe Canal (144 miles long), the Reek Canal (9} miles), the stream. But Hamburg has been unremitting in her the Rüdesdorfer Gewässer (11miles), the Rheinsberger Canal efforts to maintain a sufficient fairway, and now vessels (11 miles), and the Sacrow - Paretzer Canal (10 miles), besides drawing 26 feet are able to proceed right up to her wharves, which the Spree has been canalized for a distance of 28 miles,

and the Elbe for a distance of 70 miles. Since 1896 great improvethe depth of water on the bar having been increased from

ments have been made in the Moldau and the Bohemian Elbe, 14 feet in 1830 to 241 feet in 1899. The tide advances with the view of facilitating communication between Prague and as far as Geesthacht, a little more than 100 miles from the the middle of Bohemia generally on the one hand, and the middle

The river is navigable as far as Melnik, that is, the and lower reaches of the Elbe on the other. In the year nanied confluence of the Moldau, a distance of 525 miles, of Moldau and Elbe between Prague and Aussig, at a cost estimated

a special commission was appointed for the regulation of the which 67 are in Bohemia. Its total length is 725 miles, of at about £1,000,000, of which sum two-thirds were to be borne by which 190 miles are in Bohemia, 77 miles in the kingdom the Austrian empire and one-third by the kingdom of Bohemia. of Saxony, and 350 miles in Prussia, the remaining 108

The regulation is being effected by the construction of locks and miles being in Hamburg and other states of Germany. frost they can be dropped flat on the bottom of the river.

movable dams, the latter so designed that in times of flood or

When The area of the drainage basin is estimated at 56,000 all these works are finished, the two rivers will have a minimum

depth over the distances indicated of 6 feet, and will be able to Since 1842, but more especially since 1871, improvements have

accommodate barges of 700 to 800 tons when fully laden. In

1901 the Austrian Government laid before the Reichsrath a canal been made in the navigability of the Elbe by all the states which border upon its banks. As a result of these labours, there is now

Bill, with proposals (1) for constructing a canal from the Danube in the Bohemian portion of the river a minimum depth of 2 feet (probably near Linz) to the Moldau near Budweis, a distance of 8 inches, whilst from the Bohemian frontier down to Magdeburg Prague ; (2) for constructing a canal from the Danube to the

80 miles, and for regulating the Moldau from Budweis down to the minimum depth is 3 feet, and from Magdeburg to Hamburg, 3 feet 10 inches. In 1896 and 1897 Prussia and Hamburg signed Prerau and ending at Pardubitz on the upper Elbe, and for the

Oder ; (3) for constructing a canal between this last, starting at covenants whereby two channels are to be kept open to a depth of canalization of the Elbe from Pardubitz to Melnik; and (4) for 92 feet, a width of 656 feet, and a length of 550 yards between making a navigable canal to unite the Danube-Oder section with Bunthaus and Ortkathen, just above the bifurcation of the Norder Elbe and the Süder Elbe. In 1869 the maximum burden of the

the basin of the Vistula and with the navigable portion of the

Dniester. The total cost was estimated at £31,000,000, and the vessels which were able to ply on the upper Elbe was 250 tons ; but in 1899 it was increased to 800 tons. The large towns

time the works would take at twenty years. In 1900 Lübeck was through which the river flows have vied with one another in put into direct communication with the Elbe at Lauenburg by the building harbours, providing shipping accommodation, and fur- opening of the Elbe-Trave Canal, 42 miles in length, and con

structed at a cost of £1,177,700, of which the state of Lübeck nishing other facilities for the efficient navigation of the Elbe. In this respect the greatest efforts have naturally been made by canal has been made 72 feet wide at the bottom, 105 to 126 feet

contributed £802,700, and the kingdom of Prussia £375,000. The Hamburg (9.v.); but Magdeburg, Dresden, Meissen, Riesa,

wide at the top, has a minimum depth of 87 feet, and is equipped Tetschen, Aussig, and other places have all done their relative

with seven locks, each 262} feet long and 397 feet wide. It is shares, Magdeburg, for instance, providing a commercial harbour

thus able to accommodate vessels up to 800 tons burden ; and the and a winter harbour. In spite, however, of all that has been done, the Elbe remains subject to serious inundations at periodic passage from Lübeck to Lauenburg occupies 18 to 21 hours. In intervals. Some of the worst floods which have been occasioned

the first year of its being open (June 1900 to June 1901) a total of by this river have occurred in the years 1774, 1799, 1815, 1830,

115,000 tons passed through the canal. A gigantic project has

also been put forward for providing water communication between 1845, 1862, and 1890. The growth of the traffic up and down the Elbe during the last

the Rhine and the Elbe, and so with the Oder, through the quarter of the 19th century will be illustrated by the subjoined known as the Midland Canal, are given in the article Canals.

heart of Germany. Some particulars of this scheme, which is table, which shows the number of vessels, with their tonnage, which passed the river stations of Schandau (near the Saxon

Another canal has been projected for connecting Kiel with the Bohemian frontier), the Plauer Schleuse (some 20 miles below

Elbe by means of a canal trained through the Plön Lakes. Magdeburg), and Hamburg-Entenwärder-(i.) the annual average Pardubitz, Kolin, Leitmeritz, Tetschen, Schandau, Pirna, Dresden,

The Elbe is crossed by numerous bridges, as at Königgrätz, for the years 1872–75, and (ii.) for the year 1899.

Meissen, Torgau, Wittenberg, Rosslau, Barby, Magdeburg, Rathe

now, Wittenberge, Dömitz, Lauenburg, and Hamburg and HarUp-stream. Down-stream.

burg. At all these places there are railway bridges, and nearly all, but more especially those in Bohemia, Saxony, and the middle

course of the river—these last on the main lines between Berlin and Schandau s 1872–75 4,336 30,600 3,152 429,200

the west and south-west of the empire-possess a greater or less 11899 8,489 3,045,600 7,795 4,509,500

strategic value. At Leitmeritz there is an iron trellis bridge, 600 Plauer s 1872–75 2,313 108,600 2,099 148,000

yards long. Dresden has four bridges, three built in the 19th Schleuse 11899 5,149 1,223,100 5,269 1,739,500

century, one of them serving also as a railway bridge, and the Hamburg- | 1872–75 5,053 438,700 4,725 256,400

fourth early in the 18th century ; there is a fifth bridge at Entenwärder (1899 24,480 6,607,000 26,706 6,174,600

Loschwitz, about three miles above the city. Meissen has a new

railway bridge, in addition to an old road bridge. Magdeburg is one In addition to this, timber rafts with an annual average of

of the most important railway centres in Northern Germany; and 154,500 tons of timber passed downwards through Schandau, and

the Elbe, besides being bridged—it divides there into three arms34,400 tons through Hamburg, in the years 1872–75; the corre

several times for vehicular traffic, is also spanned by two fine railsponding figures for 1899 being 284,100 tons through Schandau

way bridges. At both Hamburg and Harburg, again, there are and 23,600 tons through Hamburg. The value of the goods for

handsome new railway bridges, the one (1868–73 and 1894) crossing warded from Hamburg to the interior of Germany up the Elbe in

the Northern Elbe, and the other (1900) the Southern Elbe; and the year 1899 was estimated at over 341 millions sterling, equivalent for vehicular traffic.

the former arm is also crossed by a fine triple-arched bridge (1888) to about 20 per cent. of the entire exports from Hamburg. This

The river is well stocked with fish, both salt-water and freshvast amount of traffic is directed principally to Berlin, by means of the Havel-Spree system of canals, to the Thuringian states and

water species being found in its waters, and several varieties of the Prussian province of Saxony, to the kingdom of Saxony and

fresh-water fish in its tributaries. The kinds of greatest economic Bohemia, and to the various riverine states and provinces of the

value are sturgeon, shad, salmon, lampreys, eels, pike, and whiting. lower and middle Elbe. The passenger traffic, which is in the

In the days of the old German empire no fewer than thirty-five hands of the Sächsisch-Böhmische Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft,

different tolls were levied between Melnik and Hamburg, to say is limited to Bohemia and Saxony, steamers plying up and down nothing of the special dues and privileged exactions of various the stream from Dresden to Melnik, occasionally continuing the riparian owners and political authorities. After these had been journey up the Moldau to Prague, and down the river as far as

de facto, though not de jure, in abeyance during the period of the Riesa, near the northern frontier of Saxony. The carrying trade Napoleonic wars, a commission of the various Elbe states met and and the towing of barges are conducted by several large navigation

drew up a scheme for their regulation, and the scheme, embodied companies.

1 See Der Bau des Elbe - Trave Canals und seine Vorgeschichte. In 1877–79, and again in 1888–95, some 100 miles of canal were Lübeck, 1900.

Vessels.

Tons.

Vessels.

Tons.

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in the Elbe Navigation Acts, came into force in 1822. By this a woollen goods, the raw material being imported chiefly definite number of tolls, at fixed rates, was substituted for the from Argentina (average about 4700 tons). Elbeuf is often arbitrary tolls which had been exacted previously. Still

also an important entrepôt for German wools. There is a further relief was afforded in 1844 and in 1850, on the latter occasion by the abolition of all tolls between Melnik and the Saxon

state school of manufactures for the training of practical frontier. "But the number of tolls was only reduced to one, levied managers and foremen. Port traffic on the Seine (1898), at Wittenberge, in 1863, about one year after Hanover was induced 58,663 tons. Population (1901), 19,050. to give up the Stade or Brunsbüttel toll in return for a compensation of 2,857,310 thalers. Finally, in 1870, 1,000,000 thalers were Elbing, a town of Prussia, province of West Prussia, paid to Mecklenburg and 85,000 thalers to Anhalt, who thereupon 49 miles east-south-east from Danzig by rail and 5 miles abandoned all claims to levy tolls upon the Elbe shipping, and thus navigation on the river became at last entirely free.

from the Frisches Haff. The town-hall (1894) contains The Elbe cannot rival the Rhine in the picturesqueness of the

the historical museum. The Marienkirche (15th and 16th scenery it travels through, uor in the glamour which its romantic centuries) was restored in 1887. There is a monument of

and legendary associations exercise over the imagination. History.

the war of 1870–71 (1887). Elbing is a place of rapidly But it possesses much to charm the oye in the deep growing industry, the principal branches being iron shipglens of the Riesengebirge, amid which its sources spring, and in the bizarre rock-carving of the Saxon Switzerland. And it has building (one firm alone employing more than 3000 hands been indirectly or directly associated with many stirring events in and doing work for the Imperial navy) and other iron the history of the German peoples. In its lower course, whatever industries, and cigar manufacture. There is a large trade is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of

in agricultural produce. Population (1900), 52,298. Hambury-its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its

Elbing-Oberland Canal, in the Prussian commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at

provinces of East and West Prussia, connecting Lake the hands of the ruthless Davoût. The bridge over the river at Drausen, and consequently the port of Elbing, with Lakes Dessau recalls the hot assaults of that ill-favoured condotticre Ernst

Geserich and Drewenz to the south—total distance, 110 von Mansfeld in April 1626, and his repulse by the crafty general

miles. The width is 52 feet, the depth 41 feet; and ship of Wallenstein. But three years later this imperious leader was checked by the heroic resistance of the “Maiden” fortress of

the canal, which was made in 1845–60, cost £225,000. Magdeburg; though two years later still she lost her reputation, It consists of four inclined planes connected by three and suffered unspeakable horrors at the hands of Tilly's lawless stretches of canal and shut off by five sluices, the altitude and unlicensed soldatesca. Mühlberg, just outside the Saxon

of the two lakes and their feeders being 338 feet above frontier, is the place where Charles V. asserted his imperial authority over the Protestant elector of Saxony, John Frederick,

sea-level, and the altitude of Lake Drausen only 54 feet. the Magnanimous or Unfortunate, in 1547. Dresden, Aussig, and

Boats are drawn up the inclined planes on waggons, which Leitmeritz are all reminiscent of the fierce battles of the Hussite are hauled up by machinery. wars, and the last-named of the Thirty Years' War. But the chief historical associations of the upper (i.c., the Saxon and Elche, a town and railway station of Spain, in the Bohemian) Elbe are those which belong to the Seven Years' War

province of Alicante, on the river Vinalapo. It has and the struggle of the great Frederick of Prussia against the power of Austria and her allies. At Pirna (and Lilienstein) in 1756,

grown in importance, and there are now more than a he caught the entire Saxon army in his fowler's net, after driving million palm trees in the district, and 22,500 tons of dates back at Lobositz the Austrian forces which were hastening to their are exported every year.

Manufactures of oil, flour, soap, assistance ; but only nine months later he lost his reputation for leather, alcohol, and esparto - grass rugs are prosperous “invincibility” by his crushing defeat at Kolin, where the great highway from Vienna to Dresden crosses the Elbe. Not many

industries. Population (1887), 23,847; (1897), 28,030. miles distant, higher up the stream, another decisive battle was fought between the same national antagonists, but with a contrary

Elduayen, José de, 1st MARQUIS DEL PAZO DE result, on the memorable 3rd July 1866.

LA MERCED (1823–1898), Spanish politician, was born in See M. BUCHHEISTER, “Die Elbe u. der Hafen von Hamburg," Madrid, 22nd June 1823. He was educated in the capital, in Mitteil. d. Geog. Gesellsch. in IIamburg (1899), vol. xv. pr. 131- took the degree of civil engineer, and as such directed im188; V. Kurs, “Die künstlichen Wasserstrassen des deutschen Reichs,” in Geog. Zeitschrift (1898), pp. 601-617; and (the official)

portant works in Asturias and Galicia, entered the Cortes Der Elbstrom (1900).

(J. T. BE.)

in 1856 as deputy for Vigo, and sat in all the parliaments

until 1867 as member of the Union Liberal with Marshal Elberfeld, a town of Prussia, in the Rhine province,

O'Donnell. He attacked the Miraflores cabinet in 1864, on the river Wupper, 15 miles by rail east from Dussel

and became under-secretary of the Home Office when dorf. Since 1874 several new and handsome quarters have

Canovas was minister in 1865. He was made a councillor been built to the south and west of the older part of the

of state in 1866, and in 1868 assisted other members of town. A new town-hall was erected in 1899–1900. The

the Union Liberal in preparing the revolution. In the more recent buildings include the Roman Catholic church of St Suitbert's, the Reformed church in the cemetery, the

Cortes of 1872 he took much part in financial debates.

He accepted office as a member of the last Sagasta cabinet royal engineering school, a hospital; and there are monu

under King Amadeus. On the proclamation of the republic ments to Moltke, Bismarck (1897), and the Emperors Elduayen very earnestly co-operated in the Alphonsist conWilliam I. and Frederick III. There are, further, zoological gardens, and deaf and dumb and lunatic asylums.

spiracy, and endeavoured to induce the military and poli

ticians to work together. He went abroad to meet and A railway 9 miles in length, with 20 stations, on the Langen mono-rail system, suspended on the river Wupper Campos, landed with him at Valencia, was made governor

accompany the prince after the pronunciamiento of Marshal from Elberfeld to Barmen, has recently been opened. The

of Madrid, a marquis, grand cross of Charles III., and industries are on a scale of great magnitude; various iron

Minister for the Colonies in 1878. He accepted the portand steel industries, paper, musical instruments, tobacco, and carpet manufacture, and brewing are important.

folio of Foreign Affairs in the Canovas cabinet from 1883

to 1885, and was made a life senator. He always prided Population (1885), 109,218; (1900), 156,503.

himself on having been one of the five members of the Elbeuf, a town in the arrondissement of Rouen, de- Cortes of 1870 who voted for Alphonso XII, when that partment of Seine Inférieure, France, 14 miles south-south-parliament elected Amadeus of Savoy. He died at Madrid, west of Rouen by rail. There is a large manufacture of 24th June 1898.

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THE LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS here given is necessarily incomplete, inasmuch as the later Volumes are still

in course of preparation, and all the Contributors have not yet been selected. On the other hand, the present List may contain a few names which ultimately will not appear in the final List of Contributors. Death or other cause may prevent certain writers who have undertaken the preparation of Articles from completing the contributions which they were to furnish. A full List, compiled when the final Volume goes to press, will be given later. The present List, however, includes the names of all those who have written signed Articles for the first Volume.

After the few words of description which accompany the names are given the initials of the different authors as they have been affixed to the Articles contributed by them.

The Publishers congratulate themselves that in this List of a thousand names are to be found not only the most famous scholars and writers of Great Britain, but of the whole world.

A

ALLDRIDGE, T. J., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S.; for | ASTON, Major George Grey, R.M.A. ; late

many years Travelling Commissioner of Sierra Professor of Fortification, Royal Naval College, ABBE, Prof. Cleveland, A.M., Ph.D., Leone, District Commissioner of Sherbro Dis. Greenwich.

(G. G. A.) LL.D.; Meteorologist, U.S. Weather Bureau;

trict, Sierra Leone ; author of 'The Sherbro ASTON, William George, B.A., M.A., Hon. author of 'Atmospheric Radiation, etc.;

and its Hinterland.'

(T. J. A.)

D. Lit., C.M.G. ; student interpreter in Japan, editor of Monthly Weather Review'; Lec- ANDERSON, Miss A. M.; Principal Lady In- 1864; interpreter and translator to British turer on Meteorology, Johns Hopkins Uni- spector of Factories, Home Office. (A. M. An.) Legation at Yedo, 1870; assistant Japanese versity

(C. A.) ANDERSON, W., F.R.C.S., the late ; Comp. Secretary, Yedo, 1875-82; acting Consul, Hiogo, ABBOT, Rev. Lyman, D.D. ; editor of The of the Order of thé Rising Sun (Japan); Pro- 1880-83; Consul-General for Corea, 1884; Japan

Outlook' (New York); associate editor of 'The fessor at Royal Academy ; Chairman of Council ese Secretary, Tokio, 1886; author of A Christian Union (New York) with Henry of the Japan Society; Medical Director, Imperial Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language,' Ward Beecher, whom he succeeded as pastor Naval Medical College, Tokio; author of The 'A Grammar of the Japanese Written Lanof Plymouth Church, Brooklyn; author of Pictorial Arts of Japan,' 'Japanese Wood guage, A Translation of the Nihongi, or 'Christianity and Social Problems,' 'Life of Engravings, Cat. of Chinese and Japanese Annals of Ancient Japan,' History of Japanese Christ,' Theology of an Evolutionist,' 'Life Pictures in British Museum.' (WM. An.) Literature,' etc.

(W. Ĝ. As.) and Epistles of St Paul.'

(L. A.) | ANDERSON, Lt. - Col. W. P.; Chief ATWATER, Wilbur Olin, Ph.D.; ProABNEY, Sir William de Wiveleslie,

Engineer and Superintendent of Lights, De- fessor of Chemistry, Wesleyan University, K.C.B., D.Sc., D.C.L., F.R.S.; Principal

partment of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa, U.S.A. ; Special Agent of the U.S. DepartAssist. Sec., Board of Education, South Ken.

Canada.

(W. P. A.) ment of Agriculture in charge of Nutrition sington, since 1899 ; President, Royal Astro ANDREWS, Hon. Elisha Benjamin,

investigations.

(W. O. A.) nomical Society, 1893-95; President, Physical LL.D.; Chancellor of the University of Ne- AVES, Ernest, M.A. ; formerly Sub-Warden Society, 1895-97 ; author of Photography'in braska ; late Superintendent of Schools of the of Toynbee Hall; author of papers on sociology Ninth Edition of the Ency. Brit., In- City of Chicago, formerly President of Brown

and economics.

(E. A*.) struction in Photography,' 'Treatise on Photo- University ; author of Institutes of General graphy,''Colour Vision, Colour-Measurement History, Institutes of Economics, History AXON, William Edward Armitage, and Mixture,' Thebes and its Five Great of the United States,' etc.

(E. B. A.)

LL.D. ; late Dep. Librarian Manchester Freć Temples,' in part of "The Pioneers of the

Libraries ; author of 'Manchester' in Ninth Alps.

Major
(W. DE W. A.)
ANSTRUTHER-THOMSON,

Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'The Annals of Man-
W., F.G.S., F.S.A. ; Inspector of' Concentra-

chester,' 'Manchester a Hundred Years Ago,' ADAMS, B. B.; associate-editor of the Rail- tion Camps, S.A.

(W. A.-T.)

Lancashire Gleanings,' 'Stray Chapters in road Gazette' (New York).

(B. B. A.) ARCHER, William; dramatic critic of Literature,' Folk - lore and Archæology,' AIRY, Wilfred, B.A., M.I.C.E. ; Examiner of World' (London), 1884' onwards; edited and etc.

(W. E. A. A.) Inspectors of Weights and Measures, Board of translated Ibsen's Prose Dramas'; author of Trade; author of Levelling and Geodesy,' "Life of Macready, Masks or Faces,' 'The Weighing Machines,' etc. (W. Ay.) Theatrical World, Study and Stage,'' America

B
To-day, 1900,''Poets of the Younger Generation,
AKERS, C. E.; author of 'Argentine, Pata- etc.
gonian, and Chilian Sketches,' etc.

(W. A.) BACON, Edwin Monroe, M.A.; editor of (C. E. A.)

ARMSTRONG, Edmund Archibald, Time and the Hour' (Boston, U.S.A.); someALCOCK, Charles William; Secretary Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. (E. A. Ar.) time editor-in-chief of the Boston Globe,'

Surrey County Cricket Club since 1872 ; Hon.
Sec. Football Association, 1867-90; author of
ARMSTRONG, Henry Edward, Ph.D.,

the 'Boston Advertiser,' and the 'Boston Football our Winter Game,' 1867 ; editor of LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor of Chemistry at the

Post'; author of 'Boston Illustrated,''Bacon's Cricket Newspaper,'

Dictionary of Boston,' 'Boston of To-day,' 1882 - 1900, Football City and Guilds of London Central Institute,

etc.

(E. M. B.) Annual,' 'Cricketer's Annual' (Lilly white's),

South Kensington; author of Carbon,' etc., in

Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Introduction BADEN-POWELL, Maj. Baden F. S.; etc.

(C. W. A.)

to the Study of Organic Chemistry.' (H. E. A.) inventor of man- lifting kites; late President ALEXANDER, Gen. Edward Porter ; ARMSTRONG, Sir Walter; Director of

Aëronautical Society; author of 'In Savage General of Ordnance; and later Brigadier

the National Gallery of Ireland ; author of 'Sir Isles and Settled Lands,' many articles on General of Artillery and Chief of Artillery Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough,

ballooning, etc.

(B. F. S. B.-P.) Gen. Longstreet's Corps, Confederate

Sir Henry Raeburn,'' Alfred Stevens,'. Peter Army. (E. P. A.)

BAGWELL, Richard, M.A.; author of de Wint, Velasquez,' 'Scottish Painters,

Ireland' in the Ninth Edition of the 'Ency. ALEXANDER, W.D., Honolulu; author 'J. M. W. Turner, etc., and co-editor of

Brit.,' Ireland under the Tudors,''A Plea for of Brief History of the Hawaiian Bryan's Dictionary of Painters.' (W. AR.)

National Education,' etc.

(R. BA.) People.'

(W. D. A.) ASHWORTH, Philip A., Dr. Juris: of the BAINES, Jervoise Athelstane, C.S.I.; ALLBUTT, Thomas Clifford, M.A., M.D.,

Inner Templé, Barrister-at-Law; editor of
LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.; Regius Professor of
Taswell - Langmead's 'Constitutional History

Hon. Sec. (gold medallist) and Vice-President Physic, Camb., since 1892; Commissioner in of England,' translator of Gneist's 'History of

Royal Statistical Society; Census CommisLunacy, 1889-92; author of The Ophthalmothe English Constitution,' etc. (P. A. A.)

sioner under Government of India, 1889-93 ;

employed at India Office and as secretary to scope in Medicine, Goulstonian Lectures (On ASKWITH, Rev. Edward Harrison, Royal Commission on Opium, 1894-95 ; author Visceral Neuroses), 'On Scrofula,' 'Science M.A., B.D.; Chaplain of Trinity College, of Official Reports on Provincial Administration, and

Thought'; editor of System of Cambridge ; author of 'Christian Conception on Indian Census Operations, 1881-91, on Indian Medicine and Gynecology, etc.; inventor of of Holiness,' 'Epistle to the Galatians,' Progress, 1894, many papers, ethnographic and short clinical thermometer. (T. C. A.) etc.

(E. H. A.) statistical, for London societies. (J. A. B.) Japan,' 'The Golden Chersonese,''Journeys in tolic Age,' etc. (J. V. B.) Critical Philosophy for English Readers,'trans

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BAKER, Henry Frederick, M.A., F.R.S.; and Publishing in Spain,' and translator of | BERRY, George Andreas, M.B., F.R.O.S.,
Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, various works of travel, etc.

(G. F. B.) F.R.S. Edin.; Vice-Pres. Ophthalmological Soc.;
Cambridge; University Lecturer in Mathe-
matics.

author of Diseases of the Eye,' "The Elements (H. F. BA.)

BASSETT, John Spencer, Ph.D.; Professor
of History, Trinity College, N.C.; author of

of Ophthalmoscopic Diagnosis,' 'Subjective BALCARRES, Lord, M.P., F.S.A., F.S.A.S. ; Constitutional Beginnings of North Carolina,'

Symptoms in Eye Diseases, etc. (G. A. BE.) Trustee of National Portrait Gallery, Lon- “Slavery and Servitude of the Colony of North BESANT, Sir Walter, M.A., F.S.A., the don; Hon. Sec. Society for Protection of Carolina, 'Anti-Slavery Leaders of North late; Secretary Palestine Exploration Fund, Ancient Buildings; Vice-Chairman of National Carolina, 'Slavery in the State of North 1868-85; Hon. Sec. Palestine Exp. Fund; First Trust. (B.) Carolina.

(J. S. BA.) Chairman Society of Authors, 1884-85; ChairBALDRY, Alfred Lys, artist; author of BASTABLE, C. F., M.A., LL.D.; Professor man Society of Authors, 1887-1892; author of 'Albert Moore : his Life and Works,' 'The of Political Economy, Dublin University,

Froissart' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit., Life and Works of Marcus Stone, R.A.,' 'Sir 1882; author of 'Money' in Ninth Edition of

Studies in Early French Poetry,' Rabelais, John Everett Millais,' 'Hubert von Herkomer,' 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Theory of International Trade,

Lives of 'Coligny,'

. Whittington,' Edward etc.

(A. L. B.) *Commerce of Nations,' 'Public Finance,' Palmer,' and Richard Jefferies, London,' BALDWIN, Hon. Simeon Eben, A.M., 'Dictionary of Political Economy,' and 'Econo

Westminster,' 'South London,' many Novels LL.D.; Judge of the Supreme Court of Errors mic Journal

(C. F. B.)

with the late James Rice. Novels alone: The of Connecticut; Professor of Constitutional BATHER, Francis Arthur, M.A., D.Sc.,

Revolt of Man,' 'All Sorts and Conditions of and Mercantile Law, Corporations, and Wills, F.G.S. ; Natural History Museum, South Ken

Men,' 'Beyond the Dreams of Avarice,' The Yale University; sometime President of the sington; Hon. Member Soc. Linnéenne de

Orange Girl,' etc.

(W. BE.) American Bar Association and American Social Normandie ; author of 'Concise Knowledge of BHOWNAGREE, Sir Mancherjee MerScience Association ; author of 'Baldwin's Con

Natural History, The Genera and Species wanjee, K.C.I.E., M.P.; State Agent, Bomnecticut Digest,''Cases on R.R. Law,' 'Modern of Blastoidea,' Echinoderma' (in Lankester's bay, for the territory of Bhavnagar, 1873; Political Institutions,' etc.

(S. E. B.) • Zoology '), "The Crinoidea of Gottland, author of 'History of the Constitution of the BALDWIN, W. H., Jr.; President of the etc.

(F. A. B.) East India Company,' Gujerati translation Long Island R.R. Co., U.S.A. (W. H. B.) BAUERMAN, H., F.G.S. ; Lecturer

of 'Her Majesty's Life in the Highlands, on

etc.
BALE, Edwin, R.I. ; Art Director, Cassell and Metallurgy,
'Ordnance

(M. M. Bu.)

College, Woolwich;
Company ; Hón. Sec. Artists' Committee for author of 'Bismuth,' “Coal,'' Fuel,'' Furnace, 'BICKERDYKE, John', (Charles Henry
Promoting Art Copyright Bill, etc. (E. Ba.) etc., in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,, 'A

Cook), M.A.; writer on angling and sporting
BALFOUR, Isaac Bayley, M.D., D.Sc.,

Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron,' 'Text-book subjects; President of Thames Re-stocking M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Regius Keeper of Royal

of Systematic Mineralogy,'etc.

(H. B.) Association, and the Fly-Fishers' Club, 1899Botanic Garden, Edinburgh; Professor of BEALBY, J. T., B.A. ; sometime acting

1900; editor of the angling department of the Botany, University of Edinburgh; Transit of editor of Scottish Geographical Magazine';

'Field"; author of 'Angling in Salt Water,' Venus Expedition to Rodriguez, 1874 ; Regius author of 'A Daughter of the Fen,' and

"The Book of the All Round Angler,' Thames Professor of Botany, University of Glasgow, numerous geographical magazine articles ;

Rights and Thames Wrongs,' Days in Thule 1879-84; explored island_of Socotra, 1880; joint author of Stanford's Compendium :

with Rod, Gun, and Camera,' Sea-Fishing, Sherardian Professor of Botany, University Europe'; translator of Sven Hedin's Through

Days of My Life in Water, Fresh and Salt, of Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College,

Asia.

(J. T. BE.)

Wild Sports in Ireland,' 'Letters to Young 1884-88; author of Botany of Rodriguez,

Sea-Fishers,' etc.

('J.B.) BEDDARD, Frank Evers, M.A., F.R.S. ; Botany of Socotra,' editor of ‘Annals of

BIDWELL, Shelford, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S. ;

Prosector of Zoological Soc. of England since
Botany.'

(I. B. B.)
1884, and Vice-Sec. since 1898 ; formerly

barrister ; President of Physical Society, EngBANCROFT, Frederic, Ph.D.; Chief of Lecturer on Biology at Guy's Hospital; has

land, 1897-99; author of Curiosities of Light Bureau of Rolls and Library, U.S. Department been Examiner in Zoology and Comparative

and Sight,' and numerous memoirs on physical of State ; author of 'Life of William H. Seward,' Anatomy, University of London, and of

subjects.

(S. BL.) etc.

(F. BA.) Morphology at Oxford ; now Examiner in the NDLOSS, Harold; Secretary Royal Mersey BANISTER, G. H., M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E. ; University of New Zealand; naturalist to Yacht Club.

(H. Bs.) late Assistant to Superintendent of the Royal

Challenger’ Expedition Commission, 1882-84; BINYON, Laurence; assistant in the British
Carriage Department, Woolwich; Whitworth author of Worm' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Museum, Department of Printed Books, 1893;
Scholar.

(G. H. BA.)
Brit.,' 'Animal Coloration,' 'Text-book of

transferred to Department of Prints and DrawBARCLAY, Thomas, LL.B., Ph.D.; member

Zoogeography,' 'A Monograph of the Oligo- ings, 1895; author of 'Lyric Poems, Poems,' chata,

Structure and Classification of of the Institute of International Law; Vice

"London Visions,' The Praise of Life, PorBirds. President of the International Law Association;

(F. E. B.) phyrion and other Poems,' 'Western Flanders, Examiner in Jurisprudence and International BELL, Charles Frederic Moberly; asst. Odes,' 'Catalogue of English Drawings in the Public and Private Law to the University of manager of The Times'; forinerly corre- British Museum.'

(L. B.) Oxford, 1900; member of the Supreme Council spondent of The Times' in Egypt; author BIRD, Christopher John, C.M.G.; Principal of the Congo Free State; Vice-President of of “Khedives and Pashas,? Egyptian Finance,' Under Secretary of the Colony of Natal, and a the Franco-Scottish Society; President of the

From Pharaoh to Fellah,' etc. (C. F. M. B.) Member of the Civil Service Board. (C. J. BI.) British Chamber of Commerce in Paris, 1899- BELL, Dr Louis, Boston, U.S.A.; author of BIRDWOOD, Sir George Christopher 1900; Knight of the Legion of Honour and of "The Elements of Practical Electricity, Power Molesworth, M.D., K.C.I.E., C.S.I., LL.D.; the Order of Leopold ; author of Companies Distribution for Electric Railroads,' Electric special assistant in Revenue and Statistics in France,' and other law books, all the articles Power Transmission,' etc.

(L. BL.) Department India Office, 1871-99 ; author of on International Law in the 'Encyclopedia of BELL, Malcolm; author of "Rembrandt,

Incense' in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' the Law of England,' etc.

(T. BA.)
'Sir E. Burne-Jones,' etc.

(M. BE.) 'Economic Vegetable Products of the Bombay
BARING, The Hon. Maurice; Attaché
to the British Embassy, Paris, 1809; Third
BELLAIRS, Carlyon; Lieutenant R.N.;

Presidency,' The Industrial Arts of India, Secretary to the British Embassy, Rome, writer of articles on naval subjects. (C. W. BE.)

*Report on Old Records of the India Office,

First Letter Book of East India Company,' 1902. '(M. BA.) BELLINGER, Hon. Charles Byron;

Appendix on the Aryan Fauna and Flora to MaxBARLOW, Major H. W. W.,

Judge of the U.S. District Court, District of

Müller's 'Biography of Words,' etc. (G. B.) Secretary to Chief Superintendent, Royal Ord

Oregon.

(C. B. B*.) | BIRKBECK,

William John, M.A.,
nance Factories, Woolwich. (H. W. B.) BELTRAMI, Luca ; architect; author of F.S.A. ; author of Russia and the English
BARNES, William Emery, D.D.; Fellow
Storia della facciata di St Maria del Fiore Church.'

(W. J. BI.) of Peterhouse, Cambridge ; Áulsean Professor

in Firenza,' 'La Basilica Ambrosiana primitiva

BIRKINBINE, John, M.E.; President of of Divinity, Cambridge; assist. editor of 'Journal e la ricostruzione compiuta nel secolo IX,'

the Franklin Institute and the Pennsylvania etc. of Theological Studies’; Lecturer in Hebrew

(L. BI.)

Forestry Association; sometime President at Clare Coll. Camb., 1885-94 ; in Hebrew and BÉNÉDITE, Leonce; Conservator, Musée American Institute of Mining Engineers, and Divinity at Peterhouse, 1899-1901 ; author of du Luxembourg, Paris ; author of 'Alphonse editor Journal of Iron Workers.' (J. Bit.) The Genuineness of Isaiah xxiv. - xxvii.,' Legros'; editor of 'Bulletin des Musées,'

BIRRELL, Augustine, K.C.; Hon. Fellow, Canonical and Uncanonical Gospels, 'The etc.

(L. BE.)

Trinity Hall, Cambridge'; LL.D. St Andrews Peshitta Text of Chronicles,' I. II. Chronicles, with Introduction and Notes (Cambridge Bible).

BENSON, Arthur Christopher, M.A., (Honorary); Quain Professor of Law, University

F.R.Hist. Soc.; Master at Eton College since Coll. London, 1896; M.P. (L.) Fifeshire W., Isaiah (Churchman's Bible).

(W. E. B.)

1885; author of 'Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton, 1889-1900; author of Obiter Dicta, 1884, 1887 BARNETT, Rev. Samuel Augustus, Archbishop Laud: a Study,''Poems,' Lyrics, Life of Charlotte Brontë, 1885; Res Judicatae,

M.A. ; Canon of Bristol ; Founder and Warden Essays,' 'Lord Vyet and other Poems,' Fasti 1892; Men, Women, and Books, 1894 ; Lectures
of Toynbee Hall, Whitechapel; President of Etonenses,' 'Life of Archbishop Benson, The on the Duties and Liabilities of Trustees, 1896;
the Sunday Society; Chairman Whitechapel Professor, and other Poems.' (A. O. BE.) editor of Boswell's Life of Johnson, 1897;
Board of Guardians, 1894 ; Chairman of
BERG, Sigvard Johnson, A.M.I.C.E.,

Sir Frank Lockwood, 1898; Collected Essays,
Children's Country Holiday Fund ; Chairman

Switzerland.

(S. J. B.)
1900.

(A. BI.) Pupil Teachers' Scholarship Fund ; author of

BISHOP, Mrs Isabella L. (Miss İsabella
Practicable Socialism with Mrs Barnett, BERNARD, Rev. John Henry,, D.D.;
Service of God.'

Bird), F.R.G.S., Hon. F.R.S.G.S.; Hon. Mem(S. A. B.)

Fellow of Trin. Coll., Dublin; Archbishop
King's Lecturer in Divinity, University of Dub-

ber of Oriental Society, Pekin; first lady Fellow BARRETT, F. N., editor of the American

lin; member of University Council, 1892 ; Vice

of the Royal Geographical Society; author of Grocer' (New York).

(F. N. B.)
Warden, Alexandra Coll., Dublin, for higher

The English woman in America, Six Months
BARTLET, Rev. J. Vernon, M.A.; Professor education of women, 1894 ; Secretary of Royal

in the Sandwich Islands,' 'A Lady's Life in of Church' History, Mansfield College, Oxford; Irish Academy, 1899; Commissioner of National

the Rocky Mountains,' 'Unbeaten Tracks in author of 'Early Church History,' The Apos- Education, Ireland, 1897; part-editor of 'Kant's

Persia and Kurdistan,'. Among the Tibetans,' BARTLEY, George Christopher Trout, lator of 'Kant's Kritik of Judgment, joint

Korea and her Neighbours, The Yangtze M.P.; Assistant Director of Science Division of author of The Literature of the Second

Valley and Beyond, Pictures from China, etc.

(I. L. B.) Science and Art Department, London, till 1880; Century,' editor of The Pilgrimage of St established National Penny Bank, 1875; author Silvia of Aquitania,' The Pastoral Epistles BLAIR, Andrew A.; chief chemist of the of A Square Mile in the East of London,' of St Paul, The Works of Bishop Butler, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and 'Schools for the People,''Provident Knowledge etc.

(J. H. BE.) Geology, Tenth Census of the United States; Papers,' 'The Seven Ages of a Village Pauper,' BERNSTEIN, Eduard ; German Socialistic

author of The Chemical Analysis of Iron," "The Parish Net. (G. C. T. B.)

etc. politician and writer ; late editor of the 'Social

(A. A. B.) BARWICK, G. F. ; Assistant Keeper of Democrat'; author of "On the History and BLAKE, Rev. John Frederick, M.A.,

Printed Books and Superintendent of Reading; Theory of Socialism,' The Communistic and F.R.S., sometime Professor of Natural Science,

om, British Museum, author of International Democratic-Socialistic Movements in England University College, Nottingham; author of Exhibitions," "The Laws Regulating Printing during the 17th Century,' etc.

(E. BN.) British Fossil Cephalopoda, The Geological

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