« EelmineJätka »
weapon is usually the bow, sometimes the spear; on one occasion he grapples with the lion, hand to jowl, and stabs the quarry to the heart with a short sword. The quiet dignity and royal calm with which the feat is achieved must have ensured the artist a high and enduring place in the royal favour. The action, however, of the human figures in these sculptures is always sedate and reposeful, suggestive of reserved strength perhaps, or possibly of the artist's limitations. Whichever it is, the real power of the artist is not shown in the human figures. These, to be sure, are in part strongly anatomized; in the main, they are fairly proportioned, and, unlike the Egyptian figures, they have the shoulders drawn in proper perspective. But the faces are fixed, impassive; the eyes are not in perspective, and, as a whole, they cannot claim high merit as works of art, viewed from an abstract modern standpoint. Considered in relation to their time, they are wonderful enough, so far ahead are they of anything that we could suppose to have been accomplished in the world of that day. But they fall far short of the standard which the same artist has himself given us in animal figures of his composition. It seems as if the human figures might have been done from memory, whereas the animal forms are clearly enough from the natural model. Indeed, when we turn to these animal figures we may criticize them, not with reservation as to their age, but from the standpoint of modern art, and as individual figures they will not be found wanting. The three fundamental canons—" proportion, action, aspect ”—have been successfully met. The lions skulk sullenly from their cages, spring furiously into action, or roll in death-agony at the will of the depicter. The lioness, with spine broken by an arrow, dragging her palsied hind-quarters, is a veritable masterpiece.
The same is true of many of the figures of goats, of running and pacing wild asses, and of dogs. As a whole, these animal frescoes are nothing less than wonderful. It is worth a visit to London from the remotest land to see these sculptures from the palace of the old Assyrian king.
Still, though these bas-reliefs have intrinsic merits as works of art, their chief value is for what they teach regarding the evolution of art in the world. Previously to their discovery it had been supposed that the stiff formalism of Egyptian sculpture represented the fullest flight of pre-Grecian art; and that Greek art itself had stepped suddenly forth, rather a new creation than an evolution. But the pick and shovel of Layard at Nineveh dispelled that illusion. For these art treasures, that had lain there under the deposits of centuries, were found to represent an enormous advance upon Egyptian models, precisely in the direction of that realism for which Greek art is distinguished.
If we would judge how direct and unequivocal was the impulse which the dying nation transferred to the adolescent one in point of art, we have but to take a few steps in the British Museum, from the Assyrian rooms to the wonderful hall that holds Lord Elgin's trophies from the desecrated Parthenon. Look then upon the frieze of bas-relief that bears the magic name of Phidias. If anything can reconcile us to the act that deprived Greece of her priceless heirlooms, it is the fact that they have found lodgment here close beside their Oriental prototypes, where half a million visitors each year may at least have an opportunity to learn the lesson that human progress is an accretion, a growth, a building upon foundations ; and, specifically, that Greek art, no less than other forms of human culture, was an evolution, and not an isolated miracle.
For what is the Parthenon frieze, as we now come to it fresh from the palaces of Nineveh, but an Assyrian fresco adapted to the needs and ideals of another race and developed by the genius of a newer civilization? The profiled figures in low relief coursing together, are they different in conception from the profiled figures of the palaces we have just left ? The horses of the Parthenon frieze might almost seem to have stepped bodily from the palaces of Assur-bani-pal. They have gained something in suppleness of limb, have altered their attitude in a measure, to be sure, thanks to their new environment. But their type has not changed by so much as an actual breed of horses might be changed in as many generations. Note the head, the most typical and characteristic feature of this Grecian steed. Line for line it is the same head, trappings aside, that we have just seen at Nineveh. Even the defects of the Assyrian drawing are there—the too small and slender face, and receding lower jaw, the tiny ear, the far too full and “chuffy” neck. Possibly no horse in nature was ever like this, but the Assyrian artist so conceives it; the Greek copies that conception ; and the distorted type will be transmitted down
the generations to the Italian of the Renaissance, to the classical painters of Spain, the Netherlands, and Germany, and France ; nay, even to the artist of the 19th century. The court artist of an Oriental prince of the 9th or 10th century B.C. conceives a certain ideal; and, following him, a certain type of sculptured horse, such as the artist who carved it has never seen, steps before the chariots on Napoleon's Arc de Triomphe, in 19th-century Paris.
We have only been able to indicate some of the most important of the issues raised by modern research. Enlightening as the results have been, they are even more striking as the promise of further investigation. At the opening of the Twentieth Century the field of inquiry stretched out on all sides, and the method of cultivating it for the profit of all mankind—since the true history of man on the earth must always be of the supremest interest to intelligent people—had been brought home to us by the new treasures already at our disposal. Strangely enough, there were still obstacles—pecuniary or politicalto be faced by those expert archæologists who had best proved their title to support. But in the light of accomplished facts, it is not reasonable to suppose that a work so successfully begun will not be pushed forward further and further, till every available source of knowledge has been tapped.
Chicago, the second city in size in the United Railways.-Chicago is one of the great railway centres States, situated in Cook county, state of Illinois, in in the United States. Trunk lines reach east to 41° 50' N. lat. and 87° 34' W. long. It stretches along the Montreal, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore; west shore of Lake Michigan for nearly 30 miles. The south to Charleston, Savannah, Florida, Mobile, New Chicago river, which empties into the lake, is about a mile Orleans, Texas; west to the Pacific by all the overland long, being formed by the junction of branches from the routes. Nearly all the traffic between the northern north-west and south-west. The main river and the Atlantic seaboard and the Far West passes through Chicago, branches are an important part of the harbour, vessels and the trade of the city extends in every direction. The being docked all along the banks. A series of breakwaters Illinois and Michigan canal connects the Chicago river protect the mouth of the river from the lake storms and with the waters of the Mississippi for small craft, and it make a secure basin. The rivers divide the city into three seems not unlikely that some day the new drainage canal divisions, the north, south, and west sides. The streets will become a ship canal, thus making it possible for generally intersect at right angles. The total area of large vessels to ply between New Orleans and Chicago. the city is 1901 square miles. There are 4074 miles Local transit is provided partly by the trunk railways, of streets and alleys—1269-4 improved and 2804:6 un- partly by four elevated railways, one on the south side, improved. The extreme length of the city is 26.1 miles two on the west side, and one on the north side, all and the extreme breadth 14} miles. In 1880 the popu- worked by electricity. The trains are operated by cables lation numbered 503,185 ; in 1890, 1,099,850; and in of electricity. The local lines, both elevated and tram, 1900, 1,698,575. The native-born population (1900) was belong to private corporations which hold charters for å 1,111,463, and the foreign-born 587,112; the total coloured term of years from the city. One important effect of the population was 31,435, of whom 30,150 were negroes, and the abundant provision for local travel is seen in the concenbalance Chinese, Japanese, and Indians. Out of 511,048 tration of business in the comparatively small area south males of voting age (21 years and over), 20,572 were of the main river and between the south branch and the illiterate (unable to write), of whom 19,336 were foreign-lake. Another effect is the wide diffusion of the residential born. Of the total number of males of voting age, as quarter, there being many areas within the city limits given above, 237,688 were native - born and 273,360 very sparsely built up. In consequence of the enormous were foreign-born. Of the latter number, 186,660 were value of land in the down-town district, the erection of naturalized, 10,398 had filed their first naturalization very high buildings for business purposes has become papers, 35,897 were aliens, and the citizenship of 40,405 imperative. The highest is the Masonic temple, which was returned by the U.S. census enumerators as un has 22 storeys, with a total height of 302 feet. The Monadknown. The number of births registered in 1900 was nock, an office building, has no less than 6000 occupants, 29,568. The number registered is thought to be perhaps and constitutes a postal district by itself—as is the case, 80 per cent. of the total. The number of deaths in the indeed, with other such buildings. census year ending 31st May 1900 was 27,533, showing a Education.- Education, as generally in the United death-rate of 16-2 per thousand. In 1890 the death-rate States, is largely in the hands of the state, but is liberally was 19.1. As the number of births is only slightly in supplemented by private effort, by corporations endowed excess of the number of deaths, it is obvious that the from private munificence, and by church schools. Besides growth of the city in population comes mainly from the usual primary, secondary, and higher institutions, there immigration.
are technical and professional schools and a variety of
special bodies. In addition to institutions with a dis- | and the rest by the institute and by gifts from its friends. tinctly scholastic aim, there are libraries, museums, art The art school had 1904 students in 1899-1900. The galleries, and semi-public musical organizations. The free collection of pictures contains excellent examples of the public school system includes elementary schools, high works of old and modern masters. The Field Columbian schools, and a normal school. The following statistics are Museum occupies the building in Jackson Park which was for the school year ending 30th June 1900 :
the art gallery of the Columbian Exposition of 1893. The nucleus of the collection was in large gifts from
exposition exhibitors, and many additions have been made Pupils.
since. Besides the libraries of the various institutions of Elementary schools
203,880 learning, there are a public library and two endowed High schools
libraries, the Newberry and the Crerar. The public Normal schools. 1
library has an annual appropriation of about $276,000 Totals. 213,134 from the Common Council
, and has 272,000 volumes on
its shelves. The Newberry Library, on the north side, In 1900 there were 526,013 persons of school age (5 to possesses an endowment fund of about $2,500,000, and 20 years)
has 230,000 volumes. It is especially rich in Americana. The cost of the public schools for the year ending The John Crerar Library has an endowment fund of 30th June 1900 was $7,096,674. Of this $3,500,000, an income (for 1900) of $157,285, and 70,406 $6,295,133 came from taxation and $801,5+1 from books. This library is limited to books on science (inthe income on invested funds. In 1898 the private cluding the social sciences). The library of the University schools had 323 teachers and 7625 pupils, and the of Chicago has 337,915 volumes, and that of the Chicago parochial and church schools 1301 teachers and 78,989 Law Institute (which is accommodated in the Court House) pupils, exclusive of numerous kindergarten and business has upwards of 37,000 titles. The Chicago orchestra, schools. There are three universities, situated wholly or mainly supported by voluntary contributions, is devoted in part in Chicago — Lake Forest University, North- to rendering classical music. Western University, and the University of Chicago. They Religion and Charity.— There are in Chicago 775 were founded under Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist churches, or parishes, representing 36 distinct ecclesiauspices respectively. The academic departments of the astical organizations. The Baptists have 60 parishes, two former are in the suburbs of Lake Forest and the Congregationalists 83, the Episcopalians 42, the Evanston, the professional departments being in Chicago. Lutherans 87, the Methodist Episcopalians 145, the Lake Forest, for the year ending June 1900, had 126 Presbyterians 48, and the Roman Catholics 118. There students in the college at Lake Forest, 561 in the college are also upwards of a hundred missions maintained by of dental surgery, and 364 in the college of law—a the various churches. There are 45 hospitals and several total of 1051. North-Western University had an attend- infirmaries and dispensaries in the city. The Cook ance, for the year ending June 1900, of 572 students County Hospital belongs to the county. The others are in the college of liberal arts, 42 in the graduate school, in the main supported by churches or by private benevo182 in theology, 211 in law, 413 in medicine, 235 in lence. Provision is made for indigent patients as well as pharmacy, 566 in dentistry, and 292 in music, there being for those who are able to pay for treatment. There are 55 a total of 2358 (excluding repetitions). There were in the asylums and homes for the destitute, for orphans, for the same departments 277 professors and instructors. The aged, the erring, for those afflicted with incurable disease, University of Chicago alluded to in the ninth edition for the friendless, and the like. Of these the Cook County of this work went out of existence in 1886. In 1890 a Insane Asylum and the Cook County Poor House belong new institution of the same name (see separate heading to the public. The rest, like the hospitals, are supported below) was incorporated under the laws of Illinois, and by churches or by private benevolence. Chicago has its was opened on 1st October 1892. Schools of law and full share of temporary distress, of habitual mendicancy, medicine include those connected with the North-Western of economic inefficiency, of vicious poverty. The city is, and Lake Forest Universities, the Rush Medical College however, well equipped with the customary institutions (affiliated with the University of Chicago), the College of for dealing with such cases. Moreover, to prevent the Physicians and Surgeons (the medical department of the overlapping of charitable work, and also as a precaution University of Illinois), and several which are independent. against fraud, there has been organized since the World's Theological schools, besides those of the universities, are Fair the bureau of charities. For this purpose the city the V‘Cormick Theological Seminary (Presbyterian), the is divided into districts, in each of which there is a local Chicago Theological Seminary Congregational), the organization, under the general direction of a central Western Episcopal Theological Seminary, the German committee.
are registered, new cases being Lutheran Theological Seminary, and some others. The examined in detail. Nearly 50,000 family records are Lewis Institute, on the west side, and the Armour Institute on file in the bureau registration. During 1899, 11,274 of Technology, on the south side, both largely endowed, applications were made for the services of the bureau. provide education in which technical instruction is promi- About 25 per cent. of these were sent to the bureau for nent. The Chicago Institute, founded and endowed by investigation by co-operating agencies. Mrs Anita M‘Cormick Blaine as an independent school for Commerce and Industry.—Chicago is a centre of manuthe training of teachers, is now a part of the University of facturing and commerce on the largest scale. Among the Chicago. The Chicago Art Institute conducts an art leading industries may be enumerated meat-packing, agrischool and maintains a collection of pictures, reproduc- cultural implements, railroad cars, printing, electrical tions of sculpture and bronzes, and original Egyptian apparatus, brewing, bicycles, pianos, mill machinery, and antiquities. The library, consisting of over 2000 volumes shipbuilding. Chicago is the greatest grain market in and 16,000 photographs, is used in connexion both with the world. Some idea of the extent of the industries of the school and with the museum. The building, which the city may be obtained from the following statistics for stands on the Lake Front Park and is the property of The receipts of live stock amounted to 14,623,435 the city, cost a little over $700,000. Of this sum head, valued at $233,711,180, and the shipments were $200,000 was paid by the World's Columbian Exposition, 1 3,006,532 head. There were also shipped during the same