« EelmineJätka »
the flexural couple across a section normal to either axis has a vessels of 209,500 tons in 1891 to 3004 of 568,930 tons component about that axis as well as a component about the per- in 1899. There is an institute of viticulture. On this pendicular axis. Considering an element ABCD of the section at right angles to the axis of 2, contained between two lines near
and the neighbouring island of Pianosa there are convict together and perpendicular to the middle plane, the action of the prisons, in which from 3000 to 4000 convicts are lodged. portion of the plate to the right upon the portion to the left, The principal towns are Portoferrajo (population, 3737 in across the element, gives rise to a couple about the middle line 1881), Marciana (5444), Portolungone (4172), and Rio (3) of amount, estimated per unit of length of that line, equal Marina (2964). Population of the island, about 27,000.
, similarly estimated,
Elbe (the Albis of the Romans), one of the most imabout the normal (2) of amount – C(1 - 0)āz@y say.
portant rivers of Central Europe. It rises in Bohemia, in corresponding couples on an element of a section at right angles the upper gathering-grounds of the Riesengebirge, its chief to the axis of y, estimated per unit of length of the axis of x, are feeders being the Weisswasser, which originates near the
and the Elbseifen, which is formed in the same neighbourS, of the shearing stresses on the element ABCD, estimated as hood, but at a little lower elevation. After plunging
дG, ән before, is given by the equation S,=
(cf. $ 10), and the down the 140 feet of the Elbfall, the latter stream unites corresponding resultant S, for an element perpendicular to the with the steep torrential Weisswasser at Mädelstegbaude, axis of y is given by the equation S = - OH- og If the plate of the Elbe pursues a southerly course, emerging from the
at an altitude of 2230 feet, and thereafter the united stream y
ду is bent by a pressure p per unit of area, the equation of equili- mountain glens at Hohenelbe (1495 feet), and continuing
as, , as, brium is дх
on at a soberer pace to Pardubitz, where it turns sharply to =P, or, in terms of w, Ho aw 24w the west, and at Kolin (730 feet), some 27 miles farther
A little on, bends gradually towards the north-west. Ox?ay20
above Brandeis it picks up the Iser, which, like itself, This equation, together with the special conditions at the rim, suffices for the determination of w, and then all the quantities its stream more than doubled in volume by the Moldau,
comes down from the Riesengebirge, and at Melnik it has here introduced are determined. Further, the most important of the stress-components are those which act across elements of a river which winds northwards through the heart of normal sections: the tension in direction X, at a distance from
Bohemia in a sinuous, trough-like channel carved through the middle plane measured in the direction of p, is of amount
the plateaux. 3C / 220 22w)
Some miles lower down, at Leitmeritz 213 ore 2 dya
and there is a corresponding tension in direc- (433 feet), the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish tion y; the shearing stress parallel to y on planes a=const., and Eger, a stream which drains the southern slopes of the parallel to z on planes y=const., is of amount 3C(1 - 0)2 220 : Erzgebirge. Thus augumented, and swollen into a stream
дхду 140 yards wide, the Elbe carves a path through the these tensions and shearing stresses are equivalent to two principal basaltic mass of the Mittelgebirge, churning its way tensions, in the directions of the lines of curvature of the surface
Then the river into which the middle plane is bent, and they give rise to the through a deep, narrow rocky gorge. flexural couples.
winds through the fantastically sculptured sandstone 33. In the special example of a circular plate, of radius a, sup- mountains of the “Saxon Switzerland," washing succesported at the rim, and held bent by a uniform pressure p, the sively the feet of the lofty Lilienstein (932 feet above the value of w at a point distant r from the axis is
Elbe), the scene of one of Frederick the Great's military (
exploits in the Seven Years' War, Königstein (797 feet 1+
above the Elbe), where in times of war Saxony has more and the most important of the stress components is the radial than once stored her national purse for security, and the tension, of which the amount at any point is 59(3+0 )pa[a? – m2)/ho; pinnacled rocky wall of the Bastei, towering 650 feet
above the surface of the stream. Shortly after crossing the maximum radial tension is about kalhypp
, and, when the the Bohemian-Saxon frontier, and whilst still struggling thickness is small compared with the diameter, this is a large through the sandstone defiles, the stream assumes a northmultiple of p.
westerly direction, which on the whole it preserves right AUTHORITIES.—The analysis requisite to prove most of the results away to the North Sea. At Pirna the Elbe leav behind stated in this article is given by Love, Mathematical Theory of it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls Elasticity, Cambridge, 1892, 1893. Reference may also be made to through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, BOUSSINESQ, Application des potentiels, Paris, 1885.; CLEBSCH, Theorie beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the der Elasticität fester Körper, Leipzig, 1862 (Saint-Venant's edition, Paris, 1883); THOMSON and Tait, Natural Philosophy, Cambridge, North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magde1879, 1883; TODHUNTER and PEARSON, History of the Theory of burg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg, and Altona on the Elasticity, Cambridge, 1886–93 ; POCHHAMMER, Gleichgewicht des way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and elastischen Stabes, Kiel, 1879 ; CHREE, "Changes in the Dimensions Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, of Elastic Solids due to given Systems of Forces," Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. xv., 1892; "On Thin Rotating Isotropic Disks,” Proc. Camb.
Havel, and Elde from the right. Eight miles above Phil. Soc. vii., 1891 ; “Long rotating..Circular Cylinders,” Proc.
Proc. Hamburg the stream divides into the Norder (or Hamburg) Camb. Phil. Soc. vii., 1892; Hertz, "Über die Berührung fester Elbe and the Süder (or Harburg) Elbe, which are linked elastischer Körper,” Crelle, xcii., 1881; MICHELL, "On the Direct together by several cross-channels
, and embrace in their Determination of Stress in an Elastic Solid .
papers in Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. xxxi. xxxii., 1899–1900; PEARSON, ".On arms the large island of Wilhelmsburg and some smaller the Flexure of Heavy Beams subjected to Continuous Systems of
But by the time the river reaches Blankenese, Load,” Quart. Journ. Math. xxiv.,
1889; PEARSON and Filon, same 7 miles below Hamburg, all these anastomosing branches title, Quart. Journ. Math. xxxi., 1899.
(A. E. H. L.)
have been reunited, and the Elbe, with a noble width of Elba; an island of Italy, belonging to the province of 4 to 9 miles between bank and bank, travels on between Leghorn, 4 miles from the nearest point of the mainland the green marshes of Holstein and Hanover until it becomes (Piombino), and 35 miles south from Leghorn. Iron is merged in the North Sea off Cuxhaven. From Dresden not only mined, but since 1900 smelted, in Elba. Iron to the sea the river has a total fall of only 123 feet, ore, wine, and salt are exported to the average (1891–98) although the distance is about 430 miles. For the 75 value of £197,250 (£244,000 in 1899). The shipping miles between Hamburg and the sea the fall is only 31 which cleared from the various ports increased from 2692 feet. One consequence of this is that the bed of the river
just below Hamburg is obstructed by a bar, and still lower | dug, 5 to 6} feet deep and of various widths, for the purpose of down is choked with sandbanks, so that navigation is con
connecting the Elbe, through the Havel and the Spree, with the fined to a relatively narrow channel down the middle of
system of the Oder. The most noteworthy of these connexions
are the Elbe Canal (144 miles long), the Reek Canal (9} miles), the stream. But Hamburg has been unremitting in her the Rüdesdorfer Gewässer (114 miles), the Rheinsberger Canal efforts to maintain a sufficient fairway, and now vessels (114 miles), and the Sacrow. Paretzer Canal (10 miles), besides drawing 26 feet are able to proceed right up to her wharves,
which the Spree has been caualized for a distance of 28 miles, the depth of water on the bar having been increased from and the Elbe for a distance of 70 miles. Since 1896 great improve
ments have been made in the Moldau and the Bohemian Elbe, 14 feet in 1830 to 247 feet in 1899. The tide advances with the view of facilitating communication between Prague and as far as Geesthacht, a little more than 100 miles from the the middle of Bohemia generally on the one hand, and the middle
The river is navigable as far as Melnik, that is, the and lower reaches of the Elbe on the other. In the year naned confluence of the Moldau, a distance of 525 miles, of Moldau and Elbe between Prague and Aussig, at a cost estimated
a special commission was appointed for the regulation of the which 67 are in Bohemia. Its total length is 725 miles, of at about £1,000,000, of which sum two-thirds were to be borne by which 190 miles are in Bohemia, 77 miles in the kingdom the Austrian empire and one-third by the kingdom of Bohemia. of Saxony, and 350 miles in Prussia, the remaining 108 The regulation is being effected by the construction of locks and miles being in Hamburg and other states of Germany: frost they can be dropped flat on the bottom of the river. . When
movable dams, the latter so designed that in times of flood or The area of the drainage basin is estimated at 56,000 all these works are finished, the two rivers will have a minimum
depth over the distances indicated of 6 feet, and will be able to Since 1842, but more especially since 1871, improvements have
accommodate barges of 700 to 800 tons when fully laden. In been made in the navigability of the Elbe by all the states which Bill
, with proposals (1) for constructing a canal from the Danube
1901 the Austrian Government laid before the Reichsrath a canal border upon its banks. As a result of these labours, there is now in the Bohemian portion of the river a minimuin depth of 2 feet (probably near Linz) to the Moldau near Budweis, a distance of 8 inches, whilst from the Bohemian frontier down to Magdeburg Prague ;' (2) for constructing a canal from the Danube to the
80 miles, and for regulating the Moldau from Budweis down to the minimum depth is 3 feet, and from Magdeburg to Hamburg, Oder; (3) for constructing å canal between this last, starting at 3 feet 10 inches. In 1896 and 1897 Prussia and Hamburg signed Prerau and ending at Pardubitz on the upper Elbe, and for the covenants whereby two channels are to be kept open to a depth of canalization of the Elbe from Pardubitz to Melnik; and (4) for 99 feet, a width of 656 feet, and a length of 550 yards between making a navigable canal to unite the Danube-Oder section with Bunthaus and Ortkathen, just above the bifurcation of the Norder Elbe and the Süder Clbe. In 1869 the maximum burden of the
the basin of the Vistula and with the navigable portion of the
Dniester. The total cost was estimated at £31,000,000, and the vessels which were able to ply on the upper Elbe was 250 tons ; but in 1899 it was increased to 800 tons. The large towns
time the works would take at twenty years. In 1900 Lübeck was through which the river flows have vied with one another in put into direct communication with the Elbe at Lauenburg by the building harbours, providing shipping accommodation, and fur- opening of the Elbe-Trave Canal
, 42 miles in length, and con
structed at a cost of £1,177,700, of which the state of Lübeck nishing other facilities for the efficient navigation of the Elbe. In this respect the greatest efforts have naturally been made by canal has been made 72 feet wide at the bottom, 105 to 126 feet
contributed £802,700, and the kingdom of Prussia £375,000. The Hamburg (q.v.); but Magdeburg, Dresden, Meissen, Riesa,
wide at the top, has a minimum depth of 83 feet, and is equipped Tetschen, Aussig, and other places have all done their relative
with seven locks, each 2627 feet long and 394 feet wide. It is shares, Magdeburg, for instance, providing a commercial harbour
thus able to accommodate vessels up to 800 tons burden ; and the and a winter harbour. In spite, however, of all that has been done, the Elbe remains subject to serious inundations at periodic the first year of its being open (June 1900 to June 1901) a total of
passage from Lübeck to Lauenburg occupies 18 to 21 hours. In intervals. Some of the worst floods which have been occasioned by this river have occurred in the years 1774, 1799, 1815, 1830,
115,000 tons passed through the canal. A gigantic project has
also been put forward for providing water communication between 1845, 1862, and 1890. The growth of the traffic up and down the Elbe during the last
the Rhine and the Elbe, and so with the Oder, through the quarter of the 19th century will be illustrated by the subjoined known as the Midland Canal, are given in the article CANALS.
heart of Germany. Some particulars of this scheme, which is table, which shows the number of vessels, with their tonnage, which passed the river stations of Schandau (near the Saxon- Elbe by means of a canal trained through the Plön Lakes.
Another canal has been projected for connecting Kiel with the Bohemian frontier), the Plauer Schleuse (some 20 miles below
The Elbe is crossed by numerous bridges, as at Königgrätz, Magdeburg), and Hamburg-Entenwärder—(i.) the annual average Pardubitz, Kolin, Leitmeritz, Tetschen, Schandau, Pirna, Dresden, for the years 1872-75, and (ii.) for the year 1899.
Meissen, Torgau, Wittenberg, Rosslau, Barby, Magdeburg, Rathe
now, Wittenberge, Dömitz, Lauenburg, and Hamburg and HarUp-stream.
burg. At all these places there are railway bridges, and nearly all, Vessels.
but more especially those in Bohemia, Saxony, and the middle
course of the river—these last on the main lines between Berlin and (1872–75 4,336 30,600 Schandau
the west and south-west of the empire-possess a greater or less | 1899 8,489 3,045,600 7,795 4,509,500
strategic value. At Leitmeritz there is an iron trellis bridge, 600 Plauer 1872–75 2,313 108,600 2,099
yards long. Dresden has four bridges, three built in the 19th Schleuse 11899 5,149 1,223,100 5,269 1,739,500
century, one of them serving also as a railway bridge, and the Hamburg- (1872–75 5,053 438,700 4,725 256,400
fourth early in the 18th century, there is a fifth bridge at Entenwärder 1899 24,480 6,607,000 26,706 6,174,600
Loschwitz, about three miles above the city. Meissen has a new
railway bridge, in addition to an old road bridge. Magdeburg is one In addition to this, timber rafts with an annual average of
of the most important railway centres in Northern Germany; and 154,500 tons of timber passed downwards through Schandau, and
the Elbe, besides being bridged-it divides there into three arms34,400 tons through Hamburg, in the years 1872–75; the corre
several times for vehicular traffic, is also spanned by two fine railsponding figures for 1899 being 284,100 tons through Schandau
way bridges. At both Hamburg and Harburg, again, there are and 23,600 tons through Hamburg. The value of the goods for
handsome new railway bridges, the one (1868–73 and 1894) crossing warded from Hamburg to the interior of Germany up the Elbe in
the Northern Elbe, and the other (1900) the Southern Elbe ; and the year 1899 was estimated at over 34} millions sterling, equivalent for vehicular traffic.
the former arm is also crossed by a fine triple-arched bridge (1888) to about 20 per cent. of the entire exports from Hamburg. This vast amount of traffic is directed principally to Berlin, by means
The river is well stocked with fish, both salt-water and freshof the Havel-Spree system of canals, to the Thuringian states and
water species being found in its waters, and several varieties of the Prussian province of Saxony, to the kingdom of Saxony and
fresh-water fish in its tributaries. The kinds of greatest economic Bohemia, and to the various riverine states and provinces of the
value are sturgeon, shad, salmon, lampreys, eels, pike, and whiting. lower and middle Elbe. The passenger traffic, which is in the
In the days of the old German empire no fewer than thirty-five hands of the Sächsisch-Böhmische Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft, nothing of the special dues and privileged exactions of various
different tolls were levied between Melnik and Hamburg, to say is limited to Bohemia and Saxony, steamers plying up and down riparian owners and political authorities. After these had been the stream from Dresden to Melnik, occasionally continuing the
de facto, though not de jure, in abeyance during the period of the journey up the Moldau to Prague, and down the river as far as Riesa, near the northern frontier of Saxony. The carrying trade Napoleonic wars, a commission of the various Ålbe states met and and the towing of barges are conducted by several large navigation
drew up a scheme for their regulation, and the schenie, embodied companies.
1 See Der Bau des Elbe - Trave Canals und seine Vorgeschichte. In 1877–79, and again in 1888–95, some 100 miles of canal were Lübeck, 1900.
in the Elbe Navigation Acts, came into force in 1822. By this a
woollen goods, the raw material being imported chiefly definite number of tolls, at fixed rates, was substituted for the from Argentina (average about 4700 tons). Elbeuf is often arbitrary tolls which had been exacted previously. Still
also an important entrepôt for German wools. There is a further relief was afforded in 1844 and in 1850, on the latter occasion by the abolition of all tolls between Melnik and the Saxon
state school of manufactures for the training of practical frontier. But the number of tolls was only reduced to one, levied managers and foremen. Port traffic on the Seine (1898), at Wittenberge, in 1863, about one year after Hanover was induced 58,663 tons. Population (1901), 19,050. to give up the Stade or Brunsbüttel toll in return for a compensation of 2,857,340 thalers. Finally, in 1870, 1,000,000 thalers were Elbing, a town of Prussia, province of West Prussia, paid to Mecklenburg and 85,000 thalers to Anhalt, who thereupon 49 miles east-south-east from Danzig by rail and 5 miles abandoned all claims to levy tolls upon the Elbe shipping, and
from the Frisches Haff. The town-hall (1894) contains thus navigation on the river becanje at last entirely free. The Elbe cannot rival the Rhine in the picturesqueness of the
the historical museum. The Marienkirche (15th and 16th scenery it travels through, nor in the glamour which its romantic centuries) was restored in 1887. · There is a monument of
and legendary associations exercise over the imagination. History.
the war of 1870–71 (1887). Elbing is a place of rapidly But it possesses much to charm the eye in the deep growing industry, the principal branches being iron shipglens of the Riesengebirge, amid which its sources spring, and in the bizarre rock-carving of the Saxon Switzerland. And it has building (one firm alone employing more than 3000 hands been indirectly or directly associated with many stirring events in and doing work for the Imperial navy) and other iron the history of the German peoples. In its lower course, whatever industries, and cigar manufacture. There is a large trade is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg—its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar)
in agricultural produce. Population (1900), 52,298. and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic
Elbing-Oberland Canal, in the Prussian League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at
provinces of East and West Prussia, connecting Lake the hands of the ruthless Davoût. The bridge over the river at Drausen, and consequently the port of Elbing, with Lakes Dessau recalls the hot assaults of that ill-favoured condotticre Ernst
Geserich and Drewenz to the south-total distance, 110 von Mansfeld in April 1626, and his repulse by the crafty general
miles. The width is 52 feet, the depth 47 feet; and ship of Wallenstein. But three years later this imperious leader was checked by the heroic resistance of the “Maiden" fortress of
the canal, which was made in 1845–60, cost £225,000. Magdeburg ; though two years later still she lost her reputation, It consists of four inclined planes connected by three and suffered unspeakable horrors at the hands of Tilly's lawless stretches of canal and shut off by five sluices, the altitude and unlicensed soldatesca. Mühlberg, just outside the Saxon
of the two lake and eir feeders being 338 feet above frontier, is the place where Charles V. asserted his imperial authority over the Protestant elector of Saxony, John Frederick,
sea-level, and the altitude of Lake Drausen only 54 feet. the Magnanimous or Unfortunate, in 1547. Dresden, Aussig, and Boats are drawn up the inclined planes on waggons, which Leitmeritz are all reminiscent of the fierce battles of the Hussite are hauled up by machinery. wars, and the last-named of the Thirty Years' War. But tho chief historical associations of the upper (i.c., the Saxon and Elche, a town and railway station of Spain, in the Bohemian) Elbe are those which belong to the Seven Years' War and the struggle of the great Frederick of Prussia against the
province of Alicante, on the river Vinalapo. It has power of Austria and her allies. At Pirna (and Lilienstein) in 1756,
grown in importance, and there are now more than a he caught the entire Saxon army in his fowler's net, after driving million palm trees in the district, and 22,500 tons of dates back at Lobositz the Austrian forces which wero hastening to their are exported every year.
Manufactures of oil, flour, soap, assistance ; but only nine months later he lost his reputation for
leather, alcohol, and esparto - grass rugs are prosperous “invincibility” by his crushing defeat at Kolin, where the great highway from Vienna to Dresden crosses the Elbe. Not many
industries. Population (1887), 23,847; (1897), 28,030. miles distant, higher up the stream, another decisive battle was fought between the same national antagonists, but with a contrary
Elduayen, José de, 1st MARQUIS DEL PAZO DE result, on the memorable 3rd July 1866.
LA MERCED (1823-1898), Spanish politician, was born in See M. BUCHHEISTER, “ Die Elbe u. der Hafen von Hamburg," Madrid, 22nd June 1823. He was educated in the capital, in Mitteil. d. Goog. Gesellsch. in Hamburg (1899), vol. xv. pp. 131- took the degree of civil engineer, and as such directed im188; V. Kurs, “Die künstlichon Wasserstrassen des deutschen Reichs,” in Geog. Zeitschrift (1898), pp. 601-617 ; and (the official)
portant works in Asturias and Galicia, entered the Cortes Der Elbstrom (1900).
(J. T. BE.)
in 1856 as deputy for Vigo, and sat in all the parliaments
until 1867 as member of the Union Liberal with Marshal Elberfeld, a town of Prussia, in the Rhine province,
O'Donnell. He attacked the Miraflores cabinet in 1864, on the river Wupper, 15 miles by rail east from Dusseldorf. Since 1874 several new and handsome quarters have
and became under-secretary of the Home Office when
Canovas was minister in 1865. He was made a councillor been built to the south and west of the older part of the
of state in 1866, and in 1868 assisted other members of town. A new town-hall was erected in 1899–1900. The more recent buildings include the Roman Catholic church
the Union Liberal în preparing the revolution. In the
Cortes of 1872 he took much part in financial debates. of St Suitbert's, the Reformed church in the cemetery, the
He accepted office as a member of the last Sagasta cabinet royal engineering school, a hospital; and there are monuments to Moltke, Bismarck (1897), and the Emperors
under King Amadeus. On the proclamation of the republic William I. and Frederick III.
are, further, zoo
Elduayen very earnestly co-operated in the Alphonsist conThere
spiracy, and endeavoured to induce the military and polilogical gardens, and deaf and dumb and lunatic asylums.
ticians to work together. He went abroad to meet and A railway 9 miles in length, with 20 stations, on the
accompany Langen mono-rail system, suspended on the river Wupper
the prince after the pronunciamiento of Marshal from Elberfeld to Barmen, has recently been opened. The
Campos, landed with him at Valencia, was made governor
of Madrid, a marquis, grand cross of Charles III., and industries are on a scale of great magnitude; various iron Minister for the Colonies in 1878. He accepted the portand steel industries, paper, musical instruments, tobacco,
folio of Foreign Affairs in the Canovas cabinet from 1883 and carpet manufacture, and brewing are important.
to 1885, and was made a life senator. He always prided Population (1885), 109,218; (1900), 156,503.
himself on having been one of the five members of the Elbeuf, a town in the arrondissement of Rouen, de- Cortes of 1870 who voted for Alphonso XII. when that partment of Seine Inférieure, France, 14 miles south-south- parliament elected Amadeus of Savoy. He died at Madrid, west of Rouen by rail. There is a large manufacture of 24th June 1898.
END OF THIRD VOLUME.
Printed by MORRISON & GIBB LIMITED, Edinburgh.
THE NEW VOLUMES
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA
WITH THE INITIALS WHICH HAVE BEEN AFFIXED TO THEIR
in course of preparation, and all the Contributors have not yet been selected. On the other hand, the present List may contain a few names which ultimately will not appear in the final List of Contributors. Death or other cause may prevent certain writers who have undertaken the preparation of Articles from completing the contribations which they were to furnish. A full List, compiled when the final Volume goes to press, will be given later. The present List, however, includes the names of all those who have written signed Articles for the first Volume.
After the few words of description which accompany the names are given the initials of the different authors as they have been affixed to the Articles contributed by them.
The Publishers congratulate themselves that in this List of a thousand names are to be found not only the most famous scholars and writers of Great Britain, but of the whole world.
ALLDRIDGE, T, J., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S.; for | ASTON, Major George Grey, R.M.A. ; late many years Travelling Commissioner of Sierra
Professor of Fortification, Royal Naval College, ABBE, Prof. Cleveland, A.M., Ph.D., Leone, District Commissioner of Sherbro Dis. Greenwich.
(G. G. A.) LL.D.; Meteorologist, U.S. Weather Bureau; trict, Sierra Leone ; author of "The Sherbro author of
and its Hinterland.'
ASTON, William George, B.A., M.A., Hon. • Atmospheric Radiation, etc.;
(T. J. A.)
D.Lit., C.M.G. ; student interpreter in Japan, editor of Monthly Weather Review'; Lec- ANDERSON, Miss A. M.; Principal Lady In.
1864; interpreter and translator to British turer on Meteorology, Johns Hopkins Uni. spector of Factories, Home Omce. (A. M. An.)
Legation at Yedo, 1870; assistant Japanese versity.
(0. A.) ANDERSON, W., F.R.C.S., the late ; Comp. Secretary, Yedo, 1875-82; acting Consul, Hiogo, ABBOT, Rev. Lyman, D.D.; editor of The of the Order of thé Rising Sun (Japan); Pro
1880-88; Consul General for Corea, 1884; JapauOutlook' (New York); associate editor of 'The fessor at Royal Acaderny; Chairman of Council ese Secretary, Tokio, 1886; author of 'A Christian Union' (New York) with Henry of the Japan Society; Medical Director, Imperial
Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language,' Ward Beecher, whom he succeeded as pastor Naval Medical College, Tokio; author of "The 'A Grammar of the Japanese Written Lan. of
Church, Brooklyn; author of Pictorial Arts of Japan,' 'Japanese Wood guage,' 'A Translation of the Nihongi, or Christianity and Social Problems,' 'Life of Engravings, Cat. of Chinese and Japanese Annals of Ancient Japan,''History of Japanese Christ,', Theology of an Evolutionist,', 'Life Pictures in British Museum.' (WM. An.) Literature,' etc.
(W. G. As.) and Epistles of St Paul.'
(L. A.) ANDERSON, Lt. - Col. W. P.; Chief ATWATER, Wubur Olin, Ph.D.; ProABNEY, Sir William de Wiveleslie,
Engineer and superintendent of Lights, De- fessor of Chemistry, Wesleyan University, K.C.B., D.Sc., D.C.L., F.R.S.; Principal
partment of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa, U.S.A. ; Special Agent of the U.S. DepartAssist. Sec., Board of Education, South Ken.
(W. P. A.) ment of Agriculture in charge of Nutrition sington, since 1899; President, Royal Astro ANDREWS, Hon. Elisha Benjamin,
(W.0. A.) nomical Society, 1893-95; President, Physical LL.D. ; Chancellor of the University of Ne. AVES, Ernest, M.A.; fornerly Sub-Warden Society, 1895-97; author of Photography'in braska; late Superintendent of Schools of the
of Toynbee Hall; author of papers on sociology Ninth Edition of the 'Ency. Brit., In- City of Chicago, formerly President of Brown
(E. A*.) struction in Photography,' 'Treatise on Photo- University; author of Institutes of General graphy,' 'Colour Vision, Colour-Measurement History, Institutes of Economics, History AXON, William Edward Armitage, and Mixture,' 'Thebes and its Five Great of the United States,' etc.
(E. B. A)
LL.D. ; late Dep. Librarian Manchester Free Temples,' in part of "The Pioneers of the
Libraries ; author of 'Manchester' in Ninth ANSTRUTHER-THOMSON, Major Alps.' (W. DE W. A.)
Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'The Annals of Man. W., F.G.S., F.S.A. ; Inspector of' Concentra
chester,' 'Manchester a Hundred Years Ago,' ADAMS, B. B.; associate-editor of the Rail. tion Camps, S.A.
(W. A.-T.) road Gazette' (New York).
Lancashire Gleanings,' 'Stray Chapters in (B. B. A.) ARCHER, William; dramatic critic of Literature,' 'Folk - lore and Archæology, AIRY, Wilfred, B.A., M.I.C.E.; Examiner of World' (London), 1884' onwards; edited and etc.
(W. E. A. A.) Inspectors of Weights and Measures, Board of
translated Ibsen's Prose Dramas'; author of Trade; author of Levelling and Geodesy,' 'Life of Macready,'. 'Masks or Faces,' "The Weighing Machines,' etc.
(W. A.) BACON, gonian, and Chilian Sketches,' etc. (O. E. A.)
Edwin Monroe, M.A.; editor of ARMSTRONG, Edmund Archibald, "Time and the Hour' (Boston, U.S.A.); some. ALCOCR, Charles William ; Secretary Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. (E. A. Ar.) time editor-in-chief of the 'Boston Globe,' Surrey County Cricket Club since 1872; Hon.
the 'Boston Advertiser,' and the ‘Boston Sec. Football Association, 1867-90; author of ARMSTRONG, Henry Edward, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.8.; Professor of Chemistry at the
Post'; author of 'Boston Illustrated,''
Dictionary of Boston,' 'Boston of To-day,'
(E. M. B.) Annual,' 'Cricketer's Annual' (Lillywhite's),
South Kensington; author of 'Carbon,' etc., in
Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Introduction BADEN-POWELL, Maj. Baden P. S.; etc.
(O. W. A.)
to the Study of Organic Chemistry.' (H. E. A.) inventor of man- lifting kites; late President ALEXANDER, Gen. Edward Porter ; ARMSTRONG, Sir Walter; Director of Aëronautical Society; author of 'In Savage General of Ordnance; and later Brigadierthe National Gállery of Ireland ; anthor of 'Şir
Isles and Settled Lands,' many articles on General of Artillery and Chief of Artillery Joshua Reynolds,' Thomas Gainsborough,' ballooning, etc.
(B. F. S. B.-P.) in Gen. Longstreet's Corps, Confederate
Sir Henry Raeburn,'' Alfred Stevens,'.' Peter
(E. P. A.)
BAGWELL,, Richard, M.A.; author of
Ireland' in the Ninth Edition of the 'Ency. ALEXANDER, W. .D., Honolulu; author 'J. M. W. Turner, etc., and co-editor of
Brit.,' 'Ireland under the Tudors,''A Plea for of a Brief History of the Hawaiian ‘Bryan's Dictionary of Painters.' (W. AR.)
National Education,' etc.
(R. BA.) People.'
(W. D. A.) ASHWORTH, Philip A., Dr. Juris of the BAINES, Jervoise Athelstane, C.S.I. ; ALLBUTT, Thomas Clifford, M.A., M.D.,
Inner Templé, Barrister-at-Law; editor of
Hon. Sec. (gold medallist) and Vice-President Physic, Camb., sinco 1892; Commissioner in of England,' translator of Gneist's History of
Royal Statistical Society; Census CommisLunacy, 1889-92; author of The Ophthalmothe English Constitution,' etc. (P. A. A.)
sioner under Government of India, 1889-93;
employed at India Office and as secretary to scope in Medicine, Goulstonian Lectures (On ASKWITH, Rev. Edward Harrison, Royal Commission on Opium, 1894-95; author Visceral Neuroses),' On Scrofula,' 'Science M.A., B.D.; Chaplain of Trinity College, of Official Reports on Provincial Administration, and Medical Thought'; itor of System of Cambridge ; author of 'Christian Conception on Indian Census Operations, 1881-91, on Indian Medicine and Gynecology,' etc. ; inventor of of Holiness,' 'Epistle to the Galatians, Progress, 1894, many papers, ethnographic and short clinical thermometer. (T. O. A.) etc.
(E. H. A.) statistical, for London societies. (J. A. B.) Sir Frank Lockwood, 1898; Collected Essays, Children's Country Holiday Fund ; Chairman
BAKER, Henry Frederick, M.A., F.R.S. ; and Publishing in Spain,' and translator of BERRY, George Andreas, M.B., F.R.C.S.,
Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, various works of travel, etc. (G. F. B.) F.R.S. Edin.; Vice-Pres. Ophthalmological Soc.; Cambridge; University Lecturer in Mathematics.
author of 'Diseases of the Eye,' The Elements (H. F. BA.)
BASSETT, John Spencer, Ph.D.; Professor
of Ophthalmoscopic Diagnosis,' 'Subjective BALCARRES, Lord, M.P., F.S.A., F.S.A.S.; •Constitutional Beginnings of North Carolina,'
Symptoms in Eye Diseasez, etc. (G. A. BE.) Trustee of National Portrait Gallery, Lon. 'Slavery and Servitude of the Colony of North BESANT, Sir Walter, M.A., F.S.A., the don; Hon. Sec. Society for Protection of Carolina,' 'Anti-Slavery Leaders of North late; Secretary Palestine Exploration Fund, Ancient Buildings; Vice-Chairman of National
Carolina, 'Slavery in the State of North Trust.
1868-85; Hon. Sec. Palestine Exp. Fund; First (B.) Carolina.
(J. S. BA.) Chairman Society of Authors, 1884-85; ChairBALDRY, Alfred Lys, artist; author of BASTABLE, C. F., M.A., LL.D.; Professor
man Society of Authors, 1887-1892; author of 'Albert Moore : his Life and Works,' 'The of Political Economy, Dublin University,
Froissart' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit., Life and Works of Marcus Stone, R.A.,' 'Sir 1882; author of 'Money' in Ninth Edition of
Studies in Early French Poetry,' Rabelais,' John Everett Millais,''Hubert von Herkomer,' 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Theory of International Trado,
Lives of 'Coligny,' Whittington,' 'Edward etc. (A. L, B.) Commerce of Nations,' 'Public Finance,
Palmer,' and Richard Jefferies,' 'London,' BALDWIN, Hon. Simeon Eben, A.M., 'Dictionary of Political Economy,' and 'Econo
Westminster,' 'South London,' many Novels LL.D.; Judge of the Supreme Court of Errors mic Journal.
(O. F. B.)
with the late James Rice, Novels alone : The of Connecticut; Professor of Constitutional BATHER, Francis Arthur, M.A., D.Sc.,
Revolt of Man,'. 'All Sorts and Conditions of and Mercantile Law, Corporations, and Wills, F.G.S. ; Natural History Museum, South Ken.
Men,''Beyond the Dreains of Avarice,' 'The Yale University; sometime President of the sington; Hon. Member Soc. Linnéenne de
Orange Girl,' etc.
(W. BE.) American Bar Association and Ainerican Social Normandie ; author of 'Concise Knowledge of BHOWNAGREE, Sir Mancherjee MerScience Association ; author of 'Baldwin's Con.
Natural History, The Genera and Species wanjee, K.C.I.E., M.P.; State Agent, Bom. necticut Digest,''Cases on R.R. Law,' 'Modern of Blastoidea,' Echinoderma' (in Lankester's bay, for the territory of Bhavnagar, 1873; Political Institutions,' etc.
(S. E. B.) Zoology'), The Crinoidea of Gottland,' author of 'History of the Constitution of the BALDWIN, W. H., Jr.; President of the etc.
(F. A. B.) East India Company,' Gujerati translation Long Island R.R. Co., U.S.A. (W. H. B.) BAUERMAN, H., F.G.S.; Lecturer
of 'Her Majesty's Life in the Highlands,'
etc. BALE, Edwin, R.I. ; Art Director, Cassell and Metallurgy, 'Ordnance
(M. M. Bu.)
College, Woolwich; Company ; Hon. Sec. Artists' Committee for author of Bismuth,' 'Coal,' 'Fuel,'' Furnace,
"BICKERDYKE, John', (Charles Henry Promoting Art Copyright Bill, etc. (E. BA.) etc., in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'A Cook), M.A.; writer on angling and sporting BALFOUR, Isaac Bayley, M.D., D.Sc.,
Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron,' 'Text-book subjects; President of Thames Re-stocking M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S.; Regius Keeper of Royal
of Systematic Mineralogy,'etc.
(H. B.) Association, and the Fly-Fishers' Club, 1899Botanic Garden, Edinburgh ; Professor of BEALBY, J. T., B.A.; sometime acting
1900; editor of the angling department of the Botany, University of Edinburgh; Transit of editor of Scottish Geographical Magazine
"Field"; author of 'Angling in Salt Water,' Venus Expedition to Rodriguez, 1874 ; Regius author of 'A Daughter of the Fen,' and
The Book of the All Round Angler,' 'Thames Professor of Botany, Univorsity of Glasgow,
Rights and Thames Wrongs,' 'Days in Thule numerous geographical magazine articles ; 1879-84; explored island of Socotra, 1880; joint author of Stanford's Compendium :
with Rod, Gun, and Camera,' 'Sea-Fishing,'
Days of My Life in Water, Fresh and Salt, Sherardian Professor of Botany, University Europe'; translator of Sven Hedin's Through of Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College,
(J. T. BE.)
Wild Sports in Ireland,' 'Letters to Young
('J. B.') 1884-88; author of Botany of Rodriguez, BEDDARD, Frank Evers, M.A., F.R.S. ; Botany of Socotra,' editor of 'Annals of
BIDWELL, Shelford, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S. ;
Prosector of Zoological Soc. of England since Botany.'
(I. B. B.)
barrister ; President of Physical Society, EngBANCROPT, Frederic, Ph.D.; Chief of Lecturer on Biology at Guy's Hospital; has
land, 1897-99; author of 'Curiosities of Light Bureau of Rolls and Library, U.8. Department been Examiner in Zoology and Comparative
and Sight,' and numerous memoirs on physical of State ; author of 'Life of William H. Seward, Anatomy, University of London, and of
(S. Bl.) etc.
(F. BA.) Morphology at Oxford ; now Examiner in the BINDLOSS, Harold ; Secretary Royal Mersey BANISTER, G. H.,. M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E. ;
University of New Zealand; naturalist to
(H. Bs.) late Assistant to Superintendent of the Royal 'Challenger’ Expedition Commission, 1882-84; BINYON, Laurence; assistant in the British Carriage Department, Woolwich; Whitworth author of Worm' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Museum, Department of Printed Books, 1993; Scholar.
(G. H. BA.)
Brit.,' 'Animal Coloration,' 'Text-book of transferred to Department of Prints and DrawBARCLAY, Thomas, LL.B., Ph.D.; member
Zoogeography,' 'A Monograph of the Oligo. ings, 1895; author of 'Lyric Poems,' 'Poems,' chæta, Structure
Classification of of the Institute of International Law; Vice
London Visions,' The Praise of Life, 'PorBirds. President of the International Law Association;
(F. E. B.) phyrion and other Poems,'' Western Flanders,' Examiner in Jurisprudence and International BELL, Charles Frederic Moberly; asst. Odes,' 'Catalogue of English Drawings in the Public and Private Law to the University of manager of The Times'; formerly corre- British Museum,
(L. B.) Oxford, 1900; member of the Supreme Council spondent of The Times' in Egypt; author BIRD, Christopher John, C.M.G.; Principal of the Congo Free State; Vice-President of of ‘Khedives and Pashas, Egyptian Finance,' Under Secretary of the Colony of Natal, and a the Franco-Scottish Society; President of the From Pharaoh to Fellah,' etc. (O. F. M. B.) Member of the Civil Service Board. (C. J. Bi.) British Chamber of Commerce in Paris, 1899- BELL, Dr Louis, Boston, U.S.A.; author of BIRDWOOD, Sir George Christopher 1900; Knight of the Legion of Honour and of "The Elements of Practical Electricity,''Power Molesworth, M.D., K.C.I.E., C.S.I., LL.D.; the Order of d; author of Companies Distribution for Electric
special assistant in Revenue and Statistics in France,' and other law books, all the articles Power Transmission,' etc.
(L. BL.) Department India Office, 1871-99 ; author of on International Law in the 'Encyclopedia of BELL, Malcolm; author of 'Rembrandt,
* Incense' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' the Law of England,' etc.
'Economic Vegetable Products of the Bombay BARING, The Hon. Maurice; Attaché
Presidency, The Industrial Arts of India, to the British Embassy, Paris, 1899; Third
BELLAIRS, Carlyon; Lieutenant _R.N.; Secretary to the British Embassy, Rome, writer of articles on naval subjects. (O. W. BE.)
Report on Old Records of the India Office,
*First Letter Book of East India Company,' 1902. '(M. BA.) BELLINGER, Hon. Charles Byron;
Appendix on the Aryan Fauna and Flora to Max. BARLOW,, Major H. W. W., R.A.;
Judge of the U.S. District Court, District of Müller's 'Biography of Words,' etc. (G. B.) Secretary to Chief Superintendent, Royal Ord.
(O. B. B*.)
M.A., nance Factories, Wool wich. (H. W. B.) BELTRAMI, Luca ; architect; author of F.S.A. ; author of Russia and thé English
Storia della facciata di St Maria del Fiore Church.' BARNES, William Emery, D.D.; Fellow
(W. J. Bi.) of Peterhouse, Cambridge; Búlgean Professor
in Firenza,''La Basilica Ambrosiana primitiva
BIRKINBINE, John, M.E.'; President of of Divinity, Cambridge; assist. editor of 'Journal
e la ricostruzione compiuta nel secolo IX, tho Franklin Institute and the Pennsylvania of Theological Studies'; Lecturer in Hebrew
Forestry Association; sometime President at Clare Coll. Camb., 1885-94 ; in Hebrew and BÉNÉDITE, Leonce; Conservator, Musée American Institute of Mining Engineers, and Divinity at Peterhouse, 1899-1901 ; author of du Luxembourg, Paris; author of 'Alphonse editor 'Journal of Iron Workers, (J. Bit.) "The Genuineness of Isaiah xxiv. - xxvii.,' Legros'; editor of 'Bulletin des Musées,' Canonical and Uncanonical Gospels, The
BIRRELL, Augustine, K.C.; Hon. Fellow, etc.
Trinity Hall, Cambridge'; LL.D. St Andrews Peshitta Text of Chronicles,' I. II. Chronicles,
BENSON Arthur Christopher, M.A., (Honorary); Quain Professor of Law, University with Introduction and Notes (Cambridge Bible). F.R.Hist. Soc.; Master at Eton College since Coll. London, 1896; M.P. (L.) Fifeshire W., Isaiah (Churchman's Bible). (W. E. B.)
1885; author of Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton, 1889-1900; author of Obiter Dicta, 1884, 1887; BARNETT, Rev. Samuel Augustus, Archbishop Laud: A Study, Poems,' Lyrics, Life of Charlotte Brontë, 1885; Res Judicatae,
M.A. ; Canon of Bristol ; Founder and Warden Essays,' Lord Vyet and other Poems,' Fasti 1892; Men, Women, and Books, 1894 ; Lectures of Toynbee Hal, Whitechapel; President of Etonenses,' 'Life of Archbishop Benson,' 'The on the Duties and Liabilities of Trustees, 1896 ; the Sunday Society; Chairman Whitechapel Professor, and other Poems.' (A. O. BE.) editor of Boswell's Life of Johnson, 1897; Board of Guardians, 1894 ; Chairman of
BERG, Sigvard Johnson, A.M.I.C.E.,
(S. J. B.)
BISHOP, Mrs Isabella L. (Miss Isabella Service of God.'
Bird), F.R.G.S., Hon. F.R.S.G.S. ; Hon. Mem(S. A. B.)
Fellow of Trin. Coll., Dublin ; Archbishop
ber of Oriental Society, Pekin; first lady Fellow BARRETT, P. N., editor of the 'American Grocer' (New York).
of the Royal Geographical Society; author of (F. N. B.)
lin; member of University Council, 1892 ; Vice.
The English woman in America,' Six Months BARTLET,Rev.J. Vernon, M.A.; Professor education of women, 1894 ; Secretary of Royal
in the Sandwich Islands,' 'A Lady's Life in of Church' History, Mansfield 'College, Oxford ; Irish Academy, 1899; Commissioner of National
the Rocky Mountains,' 'Unbeaten Tracks in author of 'Early Church History,' The Apos- Education, Ireland, 1897; part-editor of 'Kant's
Japan,' "The Golden Chersonese,''Journeys in tolic Age,' etc. (J. V. B.) Critical Philosophy for English Readers,' trans
Persia and Kurdistan,' 'Among the Tibetans, BARTLEY, George Christopher Trout, lator of Kant's Kritik of Judgment, joint
'Korea and her Neighbours,' The Yangtze M.P.; Assistant Director of Science Division of author of "The Literature of the Second
Valley and Beyond,' Pictures from China, etc.
(I. L. B.) Science and Art Department, London, till 1880; Century,' editor of The Pilgrimage of St established National Penny Bank, 1875; author Silvia of Aquitania,' The Pastoral Epistles BLAIR, Andrew A.; chief chemist of the of 'A Square Mile in the East of London,' of St Paul, The Works of Bishop Butler, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and 'Schools for the People,''Provident Knowledge etc.
(J. H. BE.) Geology, Tenth Census of the United States; Papers,' 'The Seven Ages of a Village Pauper, BERNSTEIN, Eduard ; German Socialistic
author of 'The Chemical Analysis of Iron, "The Parish Net. (G. 0. T. B.)
(A. A. B.) politician and writer; late editor of the Social BARWICK, G. F. ; Assistant Keeper of Democrat'; author of on the History and BLAKE, Rev. John Frederick, M.A.,
Printed Books and Superintendent of Reading, Theory of Socialism,' 'The Communistic and F.R.S., sometime Professor of Natural Science, room, British Museum; author of International Democratic-Socialistic Movements in England University College, Nottingham; author of Exhibitions,' 'The Laws Regulating Printing during the 17th Century,' etc.
(E. BN.) British Fossil Cephalopoda," "The Geological