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Assoc. ; delegate of H.M. Gov. to Internat. Grenadier Guards ; Director of Intelligence and Bonaparte,''Life of Napoleon the Third, "The Conf, on Exploration of the Sea, Christiania, Civil Service, Sudan Provinces; D.A.A.G., Lover's Lexicon,' 'Imagination in Dreams, 1901; medallist of the Société Centrale d'Agri- S. Africa, 1900; Nile Expedition, 1884-85; etc.

(F. G.) culture et de Pêche, Paris ; author of nunerous Intelligence Department, War Office, 1886-89; memoirs on Marine Biology, etc. etc. (W. GA.) Mission to Abyssinia, 1897; D.A.A.G. in

GREENWOOD, Thomas ; author of GATES, Lewis Edwards, A.B.; Assistant

Intelligence Division

Public Libraries,' The Library Year-book,' War Office, 1898-99 ;

etc. served s. Africa, 1899-1900; author of With

(T. GD. Professor of English, Harvard University ; author of 'Selections from Jeffrey,' “Selec

the Camel Corps up the Nile,' 'Armies of GREGO, Joseph, English Art Critic and tions from Newman,' "Three Studies in

Europe' (translation), With the Mission to Writer ; author of "A History of Parliamentary Literature.'

(L. E. G.)

(G*.) Elections,' 'A History of Dancing,' Thomas GOODRICH, Edwin Stephen, M.A. ; Fellow

Rowlandson,' 'James Gillray,' etc. (J. Go* GEDDIE, John; on the editorial staff of the 'Scotsman,' Edinburgh; author of The Water

of Merton College, Oxford, and Aldrichian GRIERSON, Colonel James Moncrieff, of Leith,' etc.

(J. GE.)

Demonstrator of Anatomy, University Museum, R.A., M.v.6.; served as D.A.Q.M.G., Indian

(E. S. G.) Contingent, Egypt, 1882; as D.A.A. and Q.M.G., GEIKIE, Sir Archibald, Hon. D.C.L., D.Sc., GOODRICH, J. E., D.D.; Prof. of Latin,

Suakin, 1885; as D.A.Q.M.G., Hazara ExpediLL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; correspondent of InstiUniversity of Vermont; author of 'Vermont'

tion; as A.A.G., Army Headquarters, S. Africa, tute of France, of the Lincei, Rome, of the

in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.' Academies of Berlin, Vienna, Belgium, Stock

(J. E. G.)

1900; as D.A.G., China, 1900-1901, on F.M.

Count Waldersee's staff; Military Attaché, holm, Turin, Munich, Christiania, Göttingen, GORDON, Home Seton Charles Mon- Embassy, Berlin, 1896-1900; Chief Staff Officer, Kais. Leopold, Carol., Philadelphia, New York, tagu; writes for Victoria History Counties

2nd Army Corps, 1901 ; Knight of Grace of National Academy of Sciences of United States, of England,', 'Morning Post' (London), The St John of Jerusalem; Commander of 2nd etc. ; Director Geological Survey of Scotland, Artist,' Outlook,' County Gentleman,' Bad- Class of Prussian Royal Crown (with star), 1967 ; first Murchison Professor of Geology and minton Magazine,' etc. (H. S. C. M. G.) Red Eagle, and Saxon Albrecht orders ; author Mineralogy, Edinburgh, 1871-82 ; Foreign Sec. Royal Society, *1890-94 ; President Geological GORDON, Gen. Sir John James Hood,

of ' Armed Strengths of Armies of Russia, GerK.C.B., Indian Staff Corps; member of the many, and Japan,' Staff Duties in the Field, Society, 1891-92; President British Association,

Council of India. 1892; Director-General Geological Survey of

(J. J. H. G.)

'Handbook of the Russian Army.' (J. M. GR.) United Kingdom, and Director Museun of GORST, John Lowndes, C.B. ; Financial GRIFFITH, Francis Llewelyn, M.A.; Practical Geology, London, 1882-1901; author Adviser to the Egyptian Government; Con

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University; of ‘Geography' (Physical), "Geology,' Hutton, troller of Direct Taxes to Egyptian Government,

editor of Archæological Survey of Egypt, James,' Murchison,' "Scotland' (geology), 1890; Under-Secretary of State for Finance,

"The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty, Vesuvius,' in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit., 1892; Adviser to the Ministry of the In


(F. LL. G.) Memoir of Edward Forbes' (with G. Wilson), terior, 1894 ; Grand Cordon Order Medjidieh, GRIFFITHS, John G.; Fellow of the Inst. Geological Map of Scotland' (with Murchison), 1897.

(J. L. G.) “The Scenery of Scotland viewed in connexion

of Chartered Accountants, and President of

same, 1897-99. with its Physical Geology, Text-book of GOSCH, C. A.; attaché to the Danish Lega

(J. G. GR.) Geology,' 'New Geological Map of Scot

tion in Great Britain ; author of Denmark

GRIFFITHS, Major Arthur George land, "The Ancient Volcanoes of Britain,' and Germany since 1815,' The Nationality of

Frederick; H.M. Inspector of Prisons, Schleswig,' editor of 'Danish Arctic Expedietc.

(A. GE.)
tions 1605-1620,' etc.

1878-96; formerly editor of Army and Navy, (C. A. G.)

Gazette'; editor of the Fortnightly Review,' GIANNINI, Torquato C., State Advocate, San Marino; author of Laws and Decrees of

GOSSE, Edmund, Hon. M.A. Trin. Coll. Camb.; 1884, the World,' 1895; author of Prison the Republic of San Marino,' etc. (T. G*.) Hon. LL.D. St Andrews; Knight of the Royal

Discipline'in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,'

Norwegian Order of St Olaf, First Class ; Asst. Memorials of Millbank,' 'Secrets of the GIBBONS, H.E. Cardinal James, Arch- Librarian, British Museum, 1867-75; Trans

Prison House,' ‘Mysteries of Police and bishop of Baltimore, U.S.; author of "The lator to Board of Trade; Clark Lecturer in


(A, G.) Taith of Our Fathers, Our Christian Heritage,' English Literature, Trin. Coll. Camb., 1884-90; GRUEBER, H, A.,, F.S.A.; Assistant The Ambassador of Christ.'

(+J. G.) author of Cowley,' 'Denmark,' 'Holberg,
'Holland' (literature), ' Norway' (literature),

Keeper of Coins and Medals, British Museum; GIBBS, George; Consulting Engineer to the

editor of 'Medallic Illustrations of the History Baldwin Locomotive Works, and the Westing

'Oehlenschlager,'' Pastoral,'_'Sweden' (litera- of Great Britain and Ireland,' 'Roman Medal.

ture) in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit., Colhouse Electric Manufacturing Co.; forinerly

lions in the British Museum,' etc. lected Poems,''Northern Studies,' 'Life of Gray,'

(H. A. G.) Mechanical Engineer for the Chicago, Mil

Life of Congreve,'. 'History of Eighteenth GULLAND, George Lovell, M.A., M.D., waukee, and St Paul R.R. Co.; Member

Century Literature,' 'The Jacobean Poets,' F.R.C.P. Edin.; Fellow and late President of Am. Soc. Mech. Engineers, anıl Am. Soc. Civ. IIistory of Modern English Literature,' 'Life Royal Med. Soc., Edin.

(G. L. G.) Engineers.

(G, GI.)
and Letters of Dr John Donne,' etc. (E. G.)

GUNTHER, Albert Charles Lewis GIBSON, George Alexander, M.D., D.Sc.

GOUGH, James A. H., B.A. Lond. ; late Sec. Gotthilf, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.; Keeper Edlin., F.R.C.P. Edin., F.R.S. Edin.; Hon.

retary of the Thames Coriservancy. (J. H. Go.) of Zoological Department British Museum; Men:ber Norwich Med. Chir. Soc. ; Fellow and

author of Flying Fish,' 'Ichthyology,' 'Lizard,' Member of many societies in England and Scot- GOULD, Prof. Elgin R. L., Ph.D.; Pres.

'Mackerel,' etc., in Ninth Edition of Ency. land; Physician to Royal Infirmary of Edin. City and Suburban Homes Company, New

Brit.,' 'Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batraburgh ; Lecturer on Medicine in School of York; formerly Lecturer at Johns Hopkins chia salientia, and Fishes in the British Medicine of Royal Colleges; editor of the and Chicago Universities; Cor. Secretary

Museum,' 'Reptiles of British India,' 'Fishes Edinburgh Med. Journ.'since 1896 ; Secretary, Am. Statistical Soc. ; Member International

of Zanzibar,' Reports on the “Challenger" Royal Coll. of Physicians, Edin., 1881-91 Statistical Soc., British Economic Soc., and

Fishes,' etc.

(A. Go.) Meinber of Council of the College since 1894 ; Cor. Member Société de Statistique, Paris ; author of Physical Diagnosis’ (part), 'Cheyne- author of “Housing of Working People, Stokes Respiration,' 'Diseases of the Heart etc.

(E. R. L. G.) and Aorta'; editor of "Text-Book of Medicine, GOW, William, M.A. Glasgow, Ph.D. Heidel

H 1901.

(G. A. G.)

berg; Lecturer at University Coll. Liverpool, GIFFEN, Sir Robert K.C.B., F.R.S. ; on Marine Insurance ; author of Marine In- HADCOCK, A. G., late R.A.; manager of

assistant editor of Economist, London, 1868- surance,' a hand-book, 'A British Imperial Gun Dept., Elswick; part-author Modern 76; Chief of Statistical Department, Board of Customs Union,' etc.

(W. Go.) Artillery,' etc.

(A. G. H. Trade, 1876-82; Assistant Secretary Board of Trade, and afterwards Controller - General of

GRACE, John Hilton, M.A.; Fellow of HADLEY, Arthur Twining, LL.D.; Pres.
Peterhouse, Cambridge.

(J. H. GR.) Commercial, Labour, and Statistical Depart

Yale University; joint-editor the New

Volumes of the Ency. Brit.'; part-author of ments, 1882-97 ; President of Statistical Society, GRAHAM, P. Anderson; author of 'Rural

Railway' in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' 1882-84 ; author of 'American Railways as Exodus.

(P. A. G.)

author of 'Railroad Transportation, EcoInvestments,' “Stock Exchange Securities,

nomics,' etc.
GREEN, Joseph Reynolds, Sc.D., F.R.S.,
Essays in Finance,' 'The Progress of the
Working Classes in the Last Half-Century,'

F.L.S.'; Professor of Botany, Pharmaceutical "The Growth of Capital,' "The Case against Society of Great Britain ; Fellow of Downing HALDANE, John Scott, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.;

University Lectnrer in Physiology, Oxford; Bimetallism,' etc.

(R. Gn.)
Coll. Čainbridge; Demonstrator of Physiology,

Fellow New College, Oxford ; Metropolitan
Cambridge, 1885-87; author of 'A Manual of

Gas Referee, Board of Trade; author of Essays GILBERT, Grove Karl, A.M.; Geologist Botany,'The Soluble Ferments and FermentaU.S. Geological Survey; author of Geology

in Philosophical Criticism,' (joint-author) 'Bluetion,' etc.

(J. R. GR.)

book on the Causes of Death in Colliery Exploof the Henry Mountains,' 'Lake Bonneville, GREENE, General Francis Vinton; sions,' a series of papers in scientific journals etc.

(G. K. G.)
Major-Géneral U.S. Volunteers in the Spanish-

and blue-books on the physiology of respiraGILES, Peter, M.A.; Fellow of Emmanuel American War; President New York State tion, and on the air of the mines, dwellingCollege, Cambridge, and University Reader in Canal Commission ; author of The Russian houses, etc.

(J. S. H.) Comparative Philology; late ecretary of the Army and its Cainpaigns in Turkey,' 'Life Cambridge Philological Society; author of of Major-General Nathaniel Greene,

HALE, Rev. Edward Everett, S.T.D.;

"The "A Short Manual of Comparative Philology, Mississippi Campaigns of the Civil War,

author of 'Everett' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. etc.

Brit.,' 'Man without a Country,''Life of James (P. GI.) etc.

(F. V. G.)
Russell Lowell,' etc.


F.R.C.P. Edin., GREENE, Thomas L.; Manager of the F.R.S.E.; author of Natural History of Ellin- Audit Company of New York ; author of HALE, George E., Sc.D.; Professor of Astroburgh,' 'Manual of Modern Gastric Methods,' Corporation Finance,' etc.

(A. T. H.




(T. L. G.)

physics in the University of Chicago and etc.

Director of the Yerkes Observatory, Williams (A. L. G.) | GREENHILL, Alfred George, M.A., Bay, Wis.; editor of the Astrophysical GILMAN, Daniel Coit, LL.D.; President F.R.S. ; Prof. of Math., Ordnance Coll. Wool- Journal.'

(G. Ė. H.) Carnegie Inst., Washington ; President Johns wich; author of 'Hydromechanics' in Ninth Hopkins University, 1876-1901; author of 'Life Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Differential and

HALSEY, F. A.; asst.-editor of the American of James Monroe,' 'University Problems, Integral Calculus with Applications, 'A Chap

Machinist'; Member of the Am. Assoc. of Mech. etc. (D. C. G.) ter in the Integral Calculus,' 'Applications of

Engineers, and designer of Compressed Air Elliptic Functions,' 'Hydrostatics. (A. G. G.)

Machinery; author of 'Slide Valve Gears, GINSBURG, Benedict William, M.A.

Locomotive Link Motion,''Premium Plan of LL.D.; Secretary of the Royal Statistical GREENOUGH, John, B.A.; banker and Paying for Labour,' etc.

(F. A. H) Society of Great Britain ; author of 'Legal financier, New York.

(J. Gu.) Duties of Ship Masters,' etc. (B. W. G.)

HAMILTON, David James, M.B. Edin., GREENWOOD, Frederick; originator and F.R.C.S. Edin.; Professor of Pathology, AberGLEICHEN, Count, Albert Edward first editor of "Pall Mall Gazette' and the 'St deen; author of "Text- Book of Pathology,

Wilfred, C.M.G., D.S.O., C.v.o.; Major James's Gazette'; author of 'Louis Napoleon etc.

(D. J. H.) Orion,' etc.

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HAMILTON, Sir Edward Walter, | HEHNER, Otto; Past President of the Society HILL, Leonard Erskine, M.B., F.R.S. ;

K.C.B., K.C.V.O.; Assist. Sec. H.M. Treasury' of Public Analysts; Public Analyst for Notting. Lecturer on Physiology, London Hospital; author of National Debt,' etc. (E. W. H.)

hamshire, the Isle of Wight, etc. ; Chairman of Demonstrator of Physiology, Oxford University; HAMILTON, Adml. Sir Richard

the London Section of the Society of Chemical Assistant Professor of Physiology, University Vesey, G.C.B.; served in Arctic Expedition,

Industry, etc.; author of works on Butter- College, London; Hunterian Professor Royal 1850-51, and 1852-1854 in search of Sir John

analysis, Alcohol Tables, etc.

(O. H*.) College of Surgeons, author of 'The Physiology Franklin; in China, 1857, etc. (R. V. H.) HEINEMANN, Mrs William ['Kassandra

aud Pathology of the Cerebral Circulation,' Vivaria ']; autkóress of Via Lucis,' The Garden

Manual of Physiology.'

(L. E. H.) HAMMOND, John Hays, A.M.;

of Olives,' etc. sulting engineer of the Consolidated Gold

(M. HE.) HILL, Maurice, B.A. ; Barrister, Inner Fields of South Africa, British South Africa HELE-SHAW, H, S., LL.D., F.R.S.,


(M. H*.) Company, etc.

(J. H. H*.) M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., Assoc. Inst. N.A. ; Senior HILL, Robert Thomas, U.S. Geo

Whitworth Scholar, 1876; Harrison Professor logical Survey ; formerly Professor of Geology, HARMER, Sidney Frederic, D.Sc. (Camb.),

of Engineering in Univ. Coll., Liverpool.

University of Texas; author of Texas' in Ninth B.Sc. (Lond.), F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S., Fellow

(H. S. H.-S.) Edition of Ency. Brit.,' 'Cuba, Porto Rico, since 1886 and assistant tutor since 1890 of King's College, Cambridge ; superintendent of HELMUTH, William Tod, M.D., LL.D.;

and other Islands of the West Indies.' (R. T. H.) University Museum of Zoology; author of Professor of Surgery and Dean of the Homeo- KILLIER, Alfred Peter, M.D., B.A., C.M.; papers on Zoological subjects; joint-editor pathic and Medical College and Hospital, New one of the Reform Prisoners at Pretoria, 1896 ; of the 'Cambridge Natural History.' (S. F. H.) York, and President of the Collins State author of South African Studies,' etc. (A. P. H.)

Homoeopathic Hospital; sometime President HARMON, Hon. Judson, LL.D.; ex: of the American Institute of Homoeopathy and HIME, Lieut.-Col. H. W. L. ; Gold Medal U.S. Attorney-General; sometime President the New York State Homeopathic Medical

Roy. Artillery. Inst., and Roy. United Service of the Ohio Bar Association.

(J. Ha.)
Society; author of "Treatise on Diphtheria,'

Inst. ; Secretary Roy. Artillery Inst., 1880-86; HARMSWORTH, Alfred Charles ;

author of Outlines of Quaternions,' 'Stray 'System of Surgery,' etc.

(W. T. H.)

Military Papers,' 'Lucian, the Syrian Satirist, principal proprietor of the 'Daily Mail,' the HEMMING, Major Edward Hughes, etc. Evening News,' etc.

(H. W. L. H.) (A. C. A*.) R.E., H.M. War Office.

(E. H. H.)

HINTON, A. Horsley, editor of The HARPER, William Rainey, D.D., LL.D., HENDERSON, Col. George Frances Amateur Photographer'; author of A HandPh.D.; Pres. University of Chicago.

Robert, C.B.; Director of Military Intelli- book of Illustration,' Practical Pictorial (W. R. H.) gence, South Africa ; for many years Director Photography,' etc.

(A. H. H.) HARRIS, Hon. Addison C., U.S. Minister of Military Art and History at the Staff College to Austria; author of 'Indiana' in Ninth Edition

author of A Tactical Study of Fredericksburg,

HIPKINS, Alfred James, F.S.A. ; member of Ency. Brit.

of Council and Hon. Curator of R. C. of Music; (A. C. H.) 'Life of Stonewall Jackson,' etc. (G. F. R. H.)

engaged in Messrs Broadwood's pianoforte HARRIS, James Rendel, M.A., Litt.D.,

HENDERSON, T. F.; on editorial staff of the business since 1840; Member of Committee of LL.D.; Univ. Lecturer in Paleography, Camb.,

Ninth Edition of the 'Ency. Brit.' (T. F. H.) the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885, of late Prof. at Johns Hopkins University; author HENRICI, Olaus F. M. E., Ph.D., LL.D.,

the Vienna Exhibition, 1892, and of the Paris of The Teaching of the Apostles and the F.R.S. ; Professor of Mechanics and Mathe

Exhibition, 1900; author of 'Harp,' 'Lyre,' Sibylline Books,' Fragments of Philo,' The matics, City and Guilds of London Central

'Pianoforte,' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' Origin of the Leicester Codex,' 'A Study of Technical Coll., author of Geometry'(pure and

'Musical Instruments,' 'A Description and Codex Bezae,' 'The Apology of Aristides,' "Life projective), Projection,' in Ninth Edition of

History of the Pianoforte,' etc. (A. J. H.) of Francis William Crossley'; editor 'The Gospel Ency. Brit.,' 'Skeleton Structures, especially 'HOBBES, John Oliver' (Pearl Mary of the Twelve Apostles,' etc. (J. R. HA.)

in their Application to the Building of Steel Teresa Craigie); author of 'Some Emotions and

and HARRIS, Thomas, M.D., F.R.C.P. Ed. ; Hon.

Iron Bridges,' Congruent Figures,'

a Moral,' ' A Study in Temptations,' 'The Gods, etc. Physician of Manchester Royal Infirmary,

(O. H.) Some Mortals, and Lord Wickenham,' 'School and Lecturer on Diseases of the Respiratory HENRY, Hon. William Wirt, M.A.; late

for Saints, Robert Orange,' 'The Serious Organs, Owens College, Manchester; author of Pres. of the Virginia Hist. Soc. and of the Am.

Wooing,' The Ambassador, The Wisdom of numerous articles on diseases of the respiratory Hist. Ass.; author and editor of the Life,

the Wise,' etc.

(P. M. T. C.) organs. (T. H*.) Correspondence, and Speeches of Patrick

HOBSON, Ernest W., D.Sc., F.R.S. ; Fellow HARRISON, Charles Custis, LL.D. ;


(W. W. H*.) of Christ's Coll. Cambridge; University Lecturer Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. HENSON, Herbert Hensley, B.D. ; Canon in Mathematics.

(E. W. H.) (C. C. H*.) of Westminster; author of Light and Leaven,' HODGE, Frederick Webb, Bureau of HARRISON, Frederic, M.A. ; President of

Apostolic Christianity,' editor 'Church Pro

American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution ; blems,' etc. London Positivist Comínittee; Fellow and

(H. H. H*.)

managing editor 'American Anthropologist.' Tutor of Wadham Coll., 1854-56; Hon. Fellow, HERBERTSON, Dr A. J.; of the

(F. W. H.) 1899; member of Royal Commission of Trades School of Geography, Ashinolean Buildings, HODGKINSON, W. R. E., F.R.S. Edin., Unions, 1867-69; Secretary Royal Commission Oxford.

(A. J. HE.)

F.C.S., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. Würzburg; Professor for Digesting the Law, 1869-70; Professor of Jurisprudence and International Law to Inns

HERDMAN, William Abbott, D.Sc., of Chemistry and Physics, Ordnance Coll.,

F.R.S. ; Prof. of Natural History, Univ. Coll. Woolwich ; late Professor of Chemistry and of Court, 1877-89; Rede's Lecturer, Cambridge, 1900; Vice-President Royal Historical Soc.,

Liverpool; assist. to Sir Wyville Thomson in Physics, R.M.A., Woolwich; edited Valentine's

Challenger' Expedition office; Demonstrator Practical Chemistry,' etc. author of Social Statics — Comte's Positive

(W. R. E. H.) Polity,' The Choice of Books,' Oliver Crom

of Zoology in Edinburgh, 1880; President Zo

HOFFER, Leopold; chess editor of the

ological Section Brit. Ass., 1895 ; has (along well, · Victorian Literature,' ( William the



(London); author with others) established a Marine Biological Silent,'"The Millenary of King Alfred.' (F. H*.)


etc. Station at Port Erin, Isle of Man; author of

(L. H.) HART, Charles Henry, Director of the "Tunicata' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' HOFMAN, Heinrich O., E.M., Ph.D.;

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Phila- Report upon the Tunicata collected during Professor of Metallurgy, Massachusetts Instidelphia; author of Philadelphia' in Ninth the voyage of the “Challenger, "The Fauna

tute of Technology.

(H. O. H.) Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Portraits of Great of Liverpool Bay,' 'Oysters and Disease,' Americans,' 'Turner, the Dream Painter,' etc.

(W. A. He.)

HOGARTH, David George, M.A., Fellow William Morris,' etc.

of Magdalen College, Oxford ; explored Asia (C. H. H*) HERR, E. M., General Manager Westinghouse Minor, 1887, 1890, 1891, 1894; excavated at HART, Maj.-Gen. Sir Reginald Clare, Air Brake Conípany, Pittsburg. (E. M. HE.) Paphos in Cyprus, 1888; appointed by Egypt R.E., K.C.B., V.C.; commanding Quetta dis

Exploration Fund, 1893; Special Correspondent trict in India; assistant Garrison Instructor, HERVEY, Arthur; musical critic of the

for The Times' in Crete and Thessaly, 1897 1874-78; Garrison Instructor, 1885-88; Director 'Morning Post'; author of 'Masters of French

Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900 ; Military Education in India, 1888-96 ; Afghan

Music,' etc.

(A. HE.)

Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899; War, 1879; Ashantee Expedition, 1881; Egyptian HEWINS, William Albert Samuel, M.A.; author of 'A Wandering Scholar in the War, 1882'; cominanded 1st Brigade Tirah Cam- Director, London School of Economics and Levant,''Philip and Alexander of Macedon,' paign, 1897-98; author of 'Reflections on the Political Science, 1895 ; Tooke Professor of The Nearer East,' etc.

(D. G. H.) Art of War,''Sanitation and Health.' (R. C. A) Economic Science and Statistics at King's Coll.

London, 1897; Member of the Senate of the

HOLDEN, Prof. Edward Singleton, HASSERT, Dr K., traveller; intimately

University of London ; Hon. Fellow R. Hist.

Sc.D., LL.D.; Director of the Lick Observaacquainted with the Balkan States and author Soc. ; Examiner in Political Economy in the

tory, 1887-97; Member National Academy of of numerous works of travel, etc. (K. H.)

Sciences ; Associate Royal Astronomical Society University of London, and in the Historical

of London, Astronomical Society of France, HASTINGS, Charles S., Ph.D. ; Professor Tripos, Cambridge ; Lecturer at Univ. College, of Physics, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale Bristol, 1890; author of 'English Trade and

etc. ; author of 'Astronomy for Students'


'Life of Sir Wm. Herschel,' 'Nebula University. (C. S. H.) Finance in the 17th Century,'etc. (W. A. S. H.)

(E. S. H.) HASTINGS. E. J., Miss; contributor to HIBBERT, Walter, A.M.I.C.E., F.I.C., "The Times' Gazetteer. (E. J. H.) F.C.S. ; Lecturer on Electro-Technology, Poly

IOLDICH, Col. Sir Thomas HungerHAWKINS,

technic, Regent Street; author of "Notes on

ford, R. E. (retired), K.C.I.E., C.B. ; Abyssinia, Charles Cæsar, M.A., M.I.E.E.; author of 'The Dynamo,' and of many

Secondary Batteries,' etc.

(W. Hr.)

1867 ; Afghan War, 1878-80; also served on

political duty with Afghan Boundary Compapers, such as Armature Reaction, The HIGGINSON, Col. Thomas Wentworth, mission, 1884-86; Supt. Frontier Surveys, India, Theory of Commutation,' etc. (C. C. H.) LL.D.; author of 'Atlantic Essays, ' Cheerful 1892-98; Asmar Boundary Commission, 1894 ;

Yesterdays,''History of the United States,''Bio- Pamir Commission, 1895; as H.M. Commissioner HAXTON, H. R., author of The Adver. tiser's Manual,' 'An Evening with "Punch," graphy of Wendell Phillips,' etc. (T. W. H.) for Perso-Beluch Boundary in 1896 ; author of

Kandahar,' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' etc. (H. R. H*.) HIGGS, HENRY, LL.B., F.S.S. ; _clerk in

"The Indian Borderland,' various papers on HEADLAM, James Wycliffe, M.A.; late

H.M. Treasury ; Sec. to the British Economic

military surveying, etc.

(T. H. H*.) Fellow of King's Coll., Cambridge; author of

Association and joint-editor of the 'Economic Bismarck,' etc.

(J. W. HE.)

Journal'; Life Governor of University College, HOLLAND, Hon. Sydney, LL.D.; Presi

London ; ex-Member of Council of Royal Stat. dent of the Life Saving Society of England; HEADLAM, Walter George; Fellow of Soc. ; Pres. of sections of Political Economy Chairman of the London Hospital; Knight Kirg's College, Cambridge. (W. G. H.) and Statistics, Brit. Ass., Dover, 1899; author of Grace of the Order of St John of


of "The Physiocrats,' and many articles. (H. H*.) HEAWOOD, Edward, M.A., Librarian to

(S. H*.) R.G.S.; aided in settleinent of Santal Colony HILL, E. P., M.I.C.E. ; partner in Messrs. G. HOLLINGSHEAD, John, staff of 'Housein Bengal Duars, 1890-92; author of 'Geography H. Hill and Sons, engineers to the Corporation hold Words,' under Charles Dickens; staff of of Africa,' etc, etc. (E. HE.) of Manchester, etc.

(E. P. H*.) Cornhill Magazine, under W. M. Thackeray, (H. G. H.)




"Good Words, under Dr Norman Macleod,


Court, 1891; President of Probate, Divorce, Daily News,' etc. ; founded Gaiety Theatre,

and Admiralty Division; Judge-Advocate-Gen., 1868; Theatrical Licensing Reform, 1866 and IDE, Hon. Henry Clay, Member of U.S.


(F. L J.) 1892 ; Copyright Reform, 1874; author of 'Plain

Philippine Commission; formerly U.S. ComEnglish, Underground London,''Ragged Lon

JEUNE, Lady ; contributor to leading reviews

missioner to Samoa, and later Chief Justice of don,' 'According to My Lights,' etc. (J. HD.)

and magazines ; author of 'Lesser Questions, Sainoa. (H. C. I.) etc.

(M. J.) HOLROYD, Charles, F.R. Soc. Painter ILBERT, Sir Courtenay Peregrine, JOHNSTON, Sir Etchers; Keeper National Gallery of British

Harry Hamilton, K.C.S.I., C.I.E. ; Clerk of the House of Com

G.C.M.G., K.C.B.; Special Commissioner, ComArt (Tate Gallery); assistant to Professor

mons; formerly Parl. Counsel to the Treasury, mander-in-Chief and Consul-General for Uganda Legros, Slade School of Art, for four years; 1899-1902; Legal Member of Council of Gover

Protectorate; explored Portuguese West Africa author of 'Michael Angelo and His Works, nor-General of India, 1882-86 ; Assistant Parl.

and River Congo, 1882-83; commanded Scientific 'Etchings,' etc. (C. HD.) Counsel to the Treasury, 1886 - 99; Member

Expedition of Royal Society to Mt. Kilimanjaro, HOOPER, Franklin H., A.B.; assistant

of Statute Law Committee ; author of The

1884; H.M. Vice-Consul in Cameroons, 1885; editor of The Century Dictionary.' (F. H. H.)

Government of India,' 'Legislative Method and Acting Consul in Niger Coast Protectorate,

(C. P. I.) 1887; Consul for province of Mozambique, HOOPER, Wynnard, M.A., author of 'Popu.

1888; expedition to Lakes Nyasa and Tanganlation, Statistics,'

Suicide,' in the Ninth
Edition of the 'Ency. Brit.'

yika (founding of the British Central Africa Pro(W. Ho.)

von; Professor of Political Science, Vienna;

President of the Austrian Royal Statistical tectorate), 1889; author of 'River Congo,''KiliHOPKINSON, S. D. (S. D. H.) Central Commission; author of Outlines of Ger

manjaro, History of a Slave,' 'Life of Livingmanic Philology,''Economy,' etc. (K, T. I.-S.)

stone, British Central Africa,' etc. (H. E. J.) HOSE, C., LL.D., D.Sc.; Resident in the Boram

District, Sarawak; anthor of 'A Descriptive IRVINE, William Fergusson; Hon. Sec. JORDAN, David Starr, Ph.D., LL.D.; Account of the Mammals of Borneo,'etc. (C. H.) Record Society of Lanc. and Chesh., author

President of Leland Stanford'Junior University; of Notes on the Ancient Parish of Bidston

sometime Assistant to the U.S. Fish CommisHOUGHTON, A. E.; Correspondent of the "Standard’ in Spain.

editor “Liverpool in King Charles II.'s Time, sion, and Professor of Zoology, and President of (A. E. H.) etc.

(W. F. I.)

Indiana University ; Commissioner and Expert HOUSMAN, Laurence, author of

for the United States to investigate the Fur Writings of William Blake,' 'Arthur Boyd

Seal Question, 1896-97; author of Vertebrate Houghton, Green Arras,' etc. ; illustrated


Animals of Northern U.S.,' Fisheries of North

and Middle America,' Factors of Organic 'Goblin Market, The End of Elfintown,' "The Were Wolf,' ("Jump to Glory" Jane,' The

Evolution,' etc.


DS. J.) JACKS, Rev. L. P.

(L. P. J.) Sensitive Plant.' (L. Ho.)

JORDAN, Richard;Draughts Champion of ScotJACKSON, Lieut.-Col. Louis, R.E. ; late HOWE, Henry Marion, A.M. ; Professor of

instructor in Fortification, R.M.A., Woolwich ;

land, 1896, and of the World since 1996. (R. J.) Metallurgy, Columbia University, New York; instructor in Fortification and Military En- JUDSON, Harry Pratt, A.M., LL.D.; ProPast President Am. Institute of Mining gineering, School of Military Engineering, Chat- fessor of Political Science, and Dean of the Engineers; President Jury of Mines and

ham; Assoc. Memb. of Ordnance Committee, Faculties of Arts, Science, and Literature, Mining, World's Columnbian Exposition; Bes- etc.

(L. J.) University of Chicago; author of 'Europe sener Medallist, British Iron and Steel Inst.,

in the Nineteenth century,' 'Growth of the and Gold Medallist, Franklin Inst. of Phila- JACOB, Francis, M.I.E.E., F.P.S. Lond. ;

American Nation,' etc. chief electrician to Messrs Siemens Bros. and

(H. P. J.) delphia, 1895; author of 'Metallurgy of Steel, 'Copper Smelting,' etc. (H. M. H.)

(F. JA.) HOWELL, Hon. Clark; editor of "The Con- JAMES, Edmund Janes, A. M., Ph. D. ; Prestitution,' Atlanta, Georgia.

(C. Ho.)

sident North - Western University; late Pro-
fessor of Public Administration and Director of

HOWELL, William H., Ph.D., M.D. ; Dean the Extension Division, University of Chicago;

of the Medical Faculty and Professor of Physio- past Pres. Am. Acad. of Political and Social KAN, C. M.; Professor of Geography, Unilogy, Johns Hopkins University. (W. H. H.) Science ; author of Our Legal Tender Deci- versity of Amsterdam ; author of Holland' in

sions,' The Education of Business Men,' HUBBARD, Wilfranc.

Ninth Edition of the 'Ency. Brit.,' A History, (W. Hd.) etc.

(E. J. J.)

of Discoveries in the Indian Archipelago, HUDSON, James Fairchild, editor of the

editor The International Colonial Review,

etc. Pittsbury Dispatch”; author of "Railways of JAMES, Lionel; War Correspondent of 'The

(C. M. K.) Times' in South Africa, the Republic,' etc. (J. F. H.)

(L. J*)

KARAGEORGEVITCH, Bojidar, HUGHES, Rev. Hugh Price, M.A.; Pres.

JAMIESON, George, C.M.G.; Director of the Prince; artist and art critic. (B. K.) Wesleyan Conference,

Pekin Syndicate and Yangtse Valley Company: KEANE, Augustus Henry, F.R.G.S.; 1898-99; editor of Methodist Tiines'; Past Pres. of National

Consul and Judge of Supreme Court, Shanghai, Council of Evangelical Free Churches ; author 1891; Consul-Gen., 1897-99; author of various

Emeritus Professor of Hindustani, Univ. Coll. of 'Social Christianity,' 'Ethical Christianity,' papers on the Revenue and Statistics of China ;

London; late Vice-President Anthrop. Inetc.

stitute; author of 'Kirghiz,' 'Soudan,' 'Somali, (H. P. H.)

(G. J.) prize essay on Bimetallism.

Yoruba,' etc., in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit. HUGHES, Rupert, A.M. ; formerly assistant JEBB, Sir Richard Claverhouse, Litt.D., Stanford's 'Asia,' 'Africa,''Ethnology,' Man, editor of the Criterion, New York; author D.C.L., LL.D., M.P.; Regius Professor of Past and Present,' etc.

(A. H. K.) of American Composers,' 'Gyges Ring,'

Greek, Camb.; Hon. Professor Ancient History, etc.

KELSEY, C.H., President of the Title Guaranty (R. HU.)

Roy. Acad., since 1898; Fellow and Lecturer
of Trinity College, 1863 ; Public Orator of the

and Trust Company, New York. (C. H. K.) HULL, Commander Thomas A., R.N., University, 1869 ; Professor of Greek, Univer- KELTIE, John Scott, F.S.S., F.S.A. F.R.G.S.; employed in the search for Sir John sity of Glasgow, 1875-89; Lecturer at Johns

(Scot.), LL.D. St Andrews; Secr. Royal Franklin, survey of Palestine, Corfu, etc.; Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1892; Member Geog. Soc. ; Knight of Swedish Order of late Superintendent of Admiralty charts; of Royal Commission on Secondary Education, North Star, 1898; Hon. Memb. Geographical author of Practical Nautical Surveying'; 1894 ; of Royal Commission on Irish University Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, Brussels, editor and reviser "The Pilot's Handbook for tho Education, 1901 ; Member of Consulting Com- Amsterdam, Geneva, Lisbon, Buda - Pest, PhilaEnglish Channel,' and 'The Practice of Naviga- mittee of Board of Education, 1900 ; Fellow of delphia, etc.; for several years sub-editor of

tion and Nautical Astronomy,' etc. (T. A. H.) London University, 1897; Member of London Nature'; inspector of geographical education, HUMMEL, J. J., F.I.C. ; Professor of Dyeing,

University Commission, 1898; Bampton Lec- R.G.S., 1884; Librarian R.G.S., 1885; President Yorkshire Coll., Leeds; author of 'The Dyeing

turer, 1899; author of 'Aristophanes, Demos- Geographical Section, Brit. Ass., 1997; author of Textile Fabrics.'

(J. J. H.)

thenes,' Euripides,' etc., in Ninth Edition of of Finland,' 'Sir John Franklin,' etc., in

Ency. Brit.,' 'Sophocles,' 'Electra' in Catena Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' History of HUNT, Rev. William, M.A.; examiner in Classicorum, 'Ajax,' 'Characters of Theophras- Scottish Highlands and Clans,' Applied Geo

History, 1877 to 1880, Oxford ; author of 'The tus,' 'Attic Orators,' Modern Greece,' 1880; graphy,' The Partition of Africa'; editor of English Church, 597 to 1066,''The Church of Bentley,' 'Sophocles,' with Critical Notes, Statesman's Year Book' since 1880; editor England in the Middle Ages'; editor with E. A. Commentary, and Translation ; 'Humanism in of the 'Geographical Journal'; joint-editor of Freeman of Historic Towns,' etc. (W. Hu.) Education,' etc.

(R. C. J.) World's Great Explorers' Series, and "The JEFFERSON, Joseph, LL.D.; actor; author

Systematic Atlas.' HUNT, Hon. William H., Governor of

(J. S. K.) Porto Rico; sometime Justice of the Supreme

of 'Autobiography,' etc.

(J. J*.) KEMPE, Harry Robert, A.M.I.C.E., Court of Montana. (W. H. H*.) JEKELFALUSSY, Józef von Jekel- und

M.I.E.E. ; principal technical officer, Postal HUNTER, Sir Robert, M.A.; Solicitor to Margitfalva, Dr. Juris, the late ; Director

Telegraph Dept., England; author of Handthe Post Office; author of The Preservation General of the Royal Hungarian Statistical

book of Electrical Testing, The Electrical of Open Spaces and of Footpaths and Other Bureau; Member of the Royal Hungarian Aca

Engineer's Pocket Book,'The Engineer's Year
Book,' etc. etc.

(H. R. K.) Rights of Way.'

demy of Sciences; edited The Millennium of
(R. H*.)
Hungary and its People,' etc.

(J. JE.) KENNEDY, Sir Charles Malcolm, HUNTER, Walter, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E. ;

K.C.M.G., C.B.; Head of Commercial Departengineering director of the Grand Junction JENKS, Jeremiah Whipple, Ph.D.; ProWater Works Co., and joint engineer of the fessor of Political Science, Cornell University;

ment, Foreign Office, 1872-93 ; Lecturer on InStaines Reservoir Joint Committee.

ternational Law, Univ. Coll. Bristol ; Commis(W. H*.)

Member of the U.S. Committee to investigate
Trusts; author of "Henry C. Carey,' 'Road

sioner in the Levant, 1870-71 ; at Paris, 1872-86; HUTCHINSON, Horatio Gordon, B.A.; Legislation for the American State,' and numer

Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882; amateur golf champion, 1886-87; author of ous magazine contributions in Gerinany, Eng:

author of Kennedy's Ethnological and LinGolf' in Badminton Library, Creatures of land, and the United States. (J. W. J.)

guistic Essays' (editor), 'Diplomacy and InterCircumstance,' The Book of Golf and Golfers,'

national Law.

(C. M KR.) 1899.

JENKYNS, Sir Henry, the late, K.C.B.; KENNEDY, Hon. Sir William Rann;

Parliamentary Counsel to Treasury. (H. JE.) HUTTON, Rev. Arthur Wollaston,

Judge of the King's Bench Division of the M.A. ; Rector of Spridlington, 1873-76; received

JERVIS-SMITH, Rev. Frederick J., High Court of Justice; Fellow, and afterinto Roman Catholic Church by Dr Newman,

M.A., F.R.S.; University Lecturer in Me- wards Hon. Fellow of Pembroke Coll. 1876; resumed clerical functions in the Church chanics ; Millard Lecturer,_Trinity College, Camb.

(W. R. K.) of England, 1898; author of Our Position as

Oxford ; Member of Com. on Explosions, Home Catholics in the Church of England, The

Office, 1895-96; received Medal French Exhibi

KEYNES, John Neville, M.A., D.Sc.; UniAnglican Ministry,''Cardinal Manning'; edited tion for Dynamometer; silver medal Inventions

versity Lecturer in Moral Science, Cambridge, Arthur Young's Tour in Ireland,' 1892, MaitExhibitions for Integrator. (F. J. J.-S.)

1884; Member of the Council of the Senate of

the University of Cambridge, author of "Studies land's 'Essays on the Reformation,' Newman's JEUNE, Rt. Hon. Sir Francis Henry, and Exercises in Formal Logic,' 'Scope and Lives of the English Saints,' etc. (A. W. Hu.) K.C.B., K.B. ; appointed a Judge of the High Method of Political Economy.' (J. N. K.) LOCOCK, Col. Herbert, C.B.;_retired Corsairs,' "The Mahommedan Dynasties,' 'The

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KHNOPFF, Fernand: chevalier de l'ordre | LANG, Andrew, M.A., LL.D. ; Hon. Fel- of Shakespeare,' 'Lord Herbert of Cherbury's

de Leopolá, de St Michel de Bavière ; Vice- low of Mertou Cóll., Oxford ; author of Ap- Autobiography, with a continuation of his Life,' Pres. de Cercle artistique et littéraire_de paritions, · Ballad, Family,' Molière, in 'A Life of William Shakespeare.' (S. L.) Bruxelles, etc. (F. K.) Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,''Oxford,'' Helen

LEE-WARNER, Sir William, K.C.S.I., KIDD, Benjamin; formerly of Inland Revenue of Troy,' 'Custom and Myth,' 'Myth, Ritual, Department; author of 'Social Evolution,' 1894 and Religion,' 'Life, Letters, and Diaries of

M.A. ; Secretary in the Political and Secret (translations: German, 1895; Swedish, 1895 ; Sir Stafford Northcote,' * Pickle the Spy,'

Departments of the India Office ; Fellow of the French, 1896; Russian, 1897 ; Italian, 1898; The Book of Dreains and Ghosts,' Translations

University of Bombay; entered Indian Civil Czech, 1900; Danish, 1900); The Control of the of 'Odyssey' (with Professor Butcher), and

Service, 1869 ; political agent at Kolhapur; Tropics, 1898.

Under-Secretary in Foreign Office of India; (B. K*.) 'Iliad' (with Myers and Walter Leaf); The KIRK, Edward C., D.D.S.; Dean of the

World's Desire' (with Rider Haggard), “The

Secretary to the Government of Bombay in

Political and Judicial Departments; Chief Department of Dentistry, and Professor of Making of Religion,' 'The Companions of


Commissioner of Coorg and Resident Clinical Dentistry, University of Pennsylvania ;

Pickle,' 'A History of Scotland from the Roinan
Member of the National Dental Association and
Occupation,' 'Prince Charles Edward,' 'Magic

Mysore; additional member of the Viceroy's

Council; served on Education Commission, the the American Academy of Dental Science;

and Religion,' 'The Mystery of Mary Stuart,

Financial Commission, etc. ; author of The editor of 'The American Text-book of Operative

(A. L.)

Protected Princes of India,' 'The Citizen of Dentistry,' and of The Dental Cosmos LANG, W. H., M.B., D.Sc. ; lecturer in India.

(W. L.-W.) Magazine.

(E. C. K.) botany, Queen Margaret's, Coll., Glasgow; LEGGE, J. G. ; Chief Inspector of Reformatory KNIGHT, Major John G. D., Corps of

author of Memoirs on_Morphology,' The Engineers, U.S.A., A.M.; Commandant U.S. Developinent of the Higher Cryptogams,

and Industrial Schools, Home Office. (J. G. L.) Engineer School; in charge of U.S. Engineer


(W. H. L.) LEGGE, Robin H.; editor of Music in the Depot, 1895 - 1901, of Torpedo Defence, E.

Nineteenth Century.
LANKESTER, Edwin Ray, M.A., LL.D.,

(R. H. L.) entrance N.Y. Harbour, 1898-1901 ; on Board of F.R.S.; Hon. Fellow of Exeter Coll., 'Oxford; LEONARD, Rt. Rev. Abiel, A.M., S.T.D. ; U.S. Torpedo System, 1896-1901. (J. G. D. K.)

Correspondent of the Institute of France; Bishop of the Diocese of Salt Lake. (A. LE.) KNOTT, Cargill Gilston, D.Sc. ; Lecturer Director of the Natural History Department LEVEY, George Collins, C.M.G. ; London

on Applied Mathematics, Edinburgh Uni- of the British Museum ; Fullerian Professor versity; Assistant to Professor of Natural of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy in

Correspondent of Melbourne Age'; editor and Philosophy, Edinburgh University, 1879 - 83 ; the Royal Institution of London, 1898-1900 ;

proprietor of Melbourne Herald,' 1863-68 ; Prof. of Physics, Imperial University, Japan, Fellow and Lecturer, Exeter Coll., 1872; Pro

editor and contributor to 'Melbourne Age, 1883-91 ; conducted Magnetic Survey of Japan, fessor of Zoology and Coinpar. Anat. Univ.

1869-81 ; Secretary to Commissioners for Vic1887; awarded Keith Prize (Roy. Soc. Edin.) Coll., London, 1874-90; Regius Professor Natu

toria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, for work on magnetic strains, 1897; author of ral History, Edinburgh, 1882; Linacre Pro

Vienna, Philadelphia, Melbourne, 1873, 1876, Ice,' 'Pneumatics,' in Ninth

1878, isso-S1; Executive Commissioner, AmEdition of fessor of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford, 1891Ency. Brit., Physics,' etc. (C. G. K.) 1898; Royal Medallist Royal Society, 1885;

sterdam, 1993; Secretary Royal Commission,

Hobart Exhibition, 1894-95; Secretary Colonial KNOWLING, Richard John, D.D.; Pro

Vice-President Royal Society, 1896; Founder fessor of New Testament Exegesis in King's (1884), President (1892) Marine Biological

Adelaide Exhibition, 1887; Committee of Royal College, London, 1894 ; Fellow, 1899; Examiner Association (Plymouth Laboratory); Corre

Commission to Paris Exhibition, 1900; member for Hall-Houghton Prizes at Oxford, 1897, spondent of the Institute of France; Corr.

of Board of Advice to Agent-General of Vicand in Theology at Durham, 1895-96; Select Mem. Imp. Acad. Sciences, St Petersburg;

toria ; author of Handbook to Australasia,'

Australian Encyclopædia.' (G. C. L.) Preacher at Cambridge, 1895;, author of

For. Mem. Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences, "Witness of the Epistles,' Acts of the Apostles,

of the New York Academy of Sciences, of LEWES, Vivian B., F.I.C., F.C.S. ; Professor etc.

(R. J. K*)

the Academy of the Lincei of Rome, of the of Chemistry, Royal Naval College; Chief KOREN, John; author of 'Economic Aspects

Royal Belgian Academy, and of the Academy of Superintending Gas Examiner to the Corporaof the Liquor Problem,' etc.

(J. K.)
Sciences of Philadelphia ; editor since 1869 of tion of the City of London.

(V. B. L.) 'Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science' KRAUS, Professor Dr F. X., the late; author of IIydrozoa, Mollusca, Mussel,' LEWIS, Charlton T., Ph.D.; President N.Y. Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the Uni- Polyzoa,''Protozoa,' 'Vertebrata, Zoology,'

Prison Association, N.J. State Charities Aid versity of Freiburg in Bresigau. (F. X. K.) in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' 'A Mono

Association ; Chairinan of Commission to revise KROPOTKIN, Prince Peter Alexei- graph of Cephalaspidian Fishes,' 'Compara

Penal Laws of New Jersey; Lecturer on Life vitch; Gold Medal of Russian Geographical tive Longevity,' *Developmental History of

Insurance, Harvard and Columbia Universities, Society, 1864; crossed North Manchuria from the Mollusca, Degeneration, The Advance

and on Principles of Insurance, Cornell UniTransbaikalia to the Amur, 1864; Secretary to ment of Science,' 'Zoological Articles'; joint

versity; author of 'History of Germany, Physical Geography Section of Geographical editor of Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry

Essays, Addresses, etc.

(C. T. L.) Society ; author of Lithuanians,' 'Nijni- Huxley.'

(E. R. L.) LEYLAND, John; writer on naval quesNovgorod,' *Nova Zembla,' Poland,'Siberia, LARMOR, Joseph, M.A., D.Sc., Sec. R.S.;


(J. LD.) "Toinsk,' Warsaw,'etc., in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' General Sketch of the Oro

Fellow of St John's Coll., Camb. ; Univer- LIAS, Rev. John James, M.A.; Professor

sity Lecturer in Mathematics ; Professor of graphy of East Siberia,' 'In Russian and

of Modern Literature, St David's Coll., LamFrench Prisons,' 'Recent Science in Nine

Natural Philosophy, Queen's Coll., Galway, peter, 1871-1880; examining chaplain to Bishop teenth Century,' The State, its Part in His

and in the Queen's University in Ireland, 1880- of Llandaff, 1887-98; Chancellor of Llandast

1885, and formerly Fellow of the Royal Uni

(P. A. K.) tory,' 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist.'

Cathedral; author of Science in Relation to versity ; Examiner in Mathematics and Natural Miracles,' The Nicene Creed,' 'A Plea for Philosophy in the Univ. of London ; lately Rationality in Ceremonial,' etc. (J. J. L*.)

President of the Cambridge Philosophical So; LIDDELL, F. F., M.A.; Fellow of All Souls

ciety; Treasurer of the London Mathematical
Society; author of 'Ether and Matter,' and

College, Oxford ; Barrister, Lincoln's LABBE, Alphonse, Docteur ès sciences ; chief

editor of 'Manual of Military Laws.' (F. F. L.) various Memoirs

Mathematics and of the Laboratory of Zoology, University of Physics.

(J. L*.) LIGHTFOOT, T. B., M.I.C.E., M.1.M.E.; Paris ; author of "La Cytologie expérimentale,' LAUGHTON, John Knox, M.A.; Professor

author of The Mechanical Refrigeration of Air, Recherches zoologiques et biologiques sur les

‘Preservation of Foods by Cold,' etc. (T. B. L.) (A. L*.) parasites du sang des vertèbres,' etc.

Modern History, King's Coll., London ; Secre

tary of the Navy Records Society; served in LILLIE, Arthur; champion Grand National LAMB, Horace, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Chair- Baltic during the Russian War, 1854-55 ; in Croquet Club,_1872; author of "Croquet,' man of Convocation, and of the General Board China, 1956-59; afterwards in Mediterranean Croquet Up to Date,' etc.

(A. LI.) of Studies, Victoria University ; Professor of and Channel ; Mathematical and Naval In

LITTLEJOHN, Henry Harvey, M.B., Mathemnatics, Owers Coll., Victoria Univ., Man- structor, Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, chester; member_of Council of the Royal 1866-73 ; also at Greenwich, and lecturer on

B.Sc., F.R.C.S. Ed.; Lecturer in Medical JurisSociety, 1894-96 ; President of the Manchester Meteorology, 1873- S5 ; Pres. R. Met. Soc. 1882

prudence, School of Medicine of the Royal Literary and Philosophical Society, 1899-1901 ; 1884; Honorary Fellow, Caius College, Cam

College of Physicians and Surgeons of Edin

burgh. bridge, 1895; author of Farragut, Fitzroy,'

(H. H. L.) Fellow and Assistant Tutor, Trinity Coll., Camb., 1872-75; Professor of Mathematics, in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit. Physical LLOYD, Lt.-Col. E. M., R.E.; author of University of Adelaide, 1875-85; author of Geography in its Relation to the Prevailing Vauban, Montalembert, Carnot: Engineer Motion of Fluids,' 'Hydrodynamics, InWinds and Currents,' 'Studies in Naval Studies,' etc.

(E. M. L.) finitesimal Calculus. (H. LB.) History, Nelson and his Companions in

of LLOYD, Henry Demarest, author

Arms,' 'Life of Henry Reeve,' Sea Fights LANE-POOLE, Stanley, M.A., Litt. D. ; Pro

* Wealth against Commonwealth, Labor Coand Adventures,'. Letters and Despatches fessor of Arabic at Trin. Coll. Dublin; em

partnership,' etc.

(H. D. L*.) of Lord Velson,' 'Defeat of the Spanish ployed in Coin Department of British Museum,


(J. K. L.) LOCH, Charles Stewart, B.A.; Secretary 1874-92; sent by Governnient on archæological

to the Council of the London Charity Organizamissions to Egypt, 1883, and Russia, 1886; LAWRENCE, Rt. Rev. William, D.D., tion Society since 1875; Member Royal Coinemployed by Egyptian Government on archæo- S.T.D. ; Bishop of Massachusetts; sometime

inission on Aged Poor, 1893-95; Dunkin Trust logical research at Cairo, 1895-97 ; corr, member Professor of Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, Lecturer, Manchester College, Oxford, 1896; of the Imperial Russian Archäological Society ; and Dean Episcopal Theological School, Cam- Vice-President Royal Statistical Society, lecturer at the Royal Institution, 1900; author bridge, U.S.A.; author of Life of Amos A. Law

1894, 1995, 1897, 1901 ; _author of 'Charity of 'Catalogue of the Oriental and Indian Coins rence,' 'Proportional Representation in the

Organization,''Old Age Pensions and Pauperin the British Museum,' 'Lord Stratford de House of Clerical and Lay Delegates,' Visions ism.'

(C. S. L.) Redcliffe,' 'E. W. Lane,' 'Saladin,' "Histories and Service.'

(W. L.) of the Moors in Spain,' “Turkey, The Barbary LAYARD, George S.; English art writer ;

Colonel of Royal Engineers; Assist. Director author of Charles Keené,' 'Mrs Lynn Linton,' Mogul Emperors,' 'Egypt in the Middle Ages,

of Works at Headquarters, 1881 - 86; Depy. Portraits of Cruikshank by Himself,' 'Tenny. 'Egypt,' The Art of the Saracens of Egypt,

Inspector-General of Fortifications at Headson and his Cairo, etc., edited ‘Lane's Arabic Lexicon,'

Pre - Raphaelite Illustrators,'
quarters, 1887-96.

(H. Lo.) etc. ' Arabian Society in the Middle Ages,' 'Life of

(G. S. L.)

LODGE, Oliver Joseph, F.R.S.. D.Sc., General Chesney.'

'(S. L.-P.) LECLÈRE, Léon; Professor of Universal LL.D. ; Principal of the University of BirmingLANESSAN, J. M. A. de; Agr. de la

History and History of Philosophy, University ham; Professor of Physics, University Coll.,

of Brussels. faculté de Médicine; French Minister of Marine;

(L. L.) Liverpool, 1881 - 1900; anthor of Elementary, formerly Governor - General of Indo-China; LEE, Sidney, B.A., Litt.D.; editor of Diction

Mechanics,' 'Modern Views of Electricity,' author of 'La Tunisie,' 'L'expansi coloniale

of National Biography and Supplement;

Pioneers of Science,' 'Signalling without de la France,' 'L'Indo - Chine française,' 'Du Clark Lecturer in English Literature, Trin.

Wires,' etc.

(0. J. L.) Protoplasme végétal,' 'La Matière, la Vie et les Coll., Cambridge, 1901 ; author of Stratford- LORD, J. K., Professor of the Latin Lanêtres vivants.'

(J. M. A. DE L.) on-Avon from the Earliest Times to the Death guage and Literature, Dartmouth College,




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N.H.; anthor of 'New Hampshire' in Ninth Introduction to Animal Morphology,' 'Mor- MAC MUNN, Charles Alexander, M.A. Edition of 'Ency. Brit.'

(J. K. L*.) phology of Vertebrate Animals,' Text-Book of M.D., F.C.S., F.R.M.S.; Hon. Pathologist and LOUIS, Prof. Henry, The Durham College

Human Anatomy,' etc.

(A. MA.) Physician, Wolverhampton General Hospital; of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England; MacALISTER, Donald, M.A., M.D., B.Sc.,

author of The Spectroscope in Medicine,'? Outauthor of ' A Handbook of Gold Milling, F.R.C.P., Fellow and Senior Tutor of St John's

lines of Clinical Chemistry,' etc. (C. A. MAC M.) etc.

(H. L*) Coll., Camb. ; University Lecturer in Medicine; M'CORMICK, William Symington,

Physician to Addenbrooke's Hospital; Univ. M.A. ; Professor of English Literature at UniLOUIS, Paul; French statistician ; staff of the


Memb. and Business Chairman General Medical Revue Blanche. (P. L)

versity College, Dundee; author of 'Lectures

Council; Chairinan of British Pharmacopoeia on Literature,' joint - editor of the Globe LOVE, Augustus E. H., M.A., F.R.S. ; Committee; Examiner in Medicine, Univ. 'Chaucer,' etc.

(W. S. M.) Sedleian Professor of_Natural Philosophy, Birmingham, and R. Coll. Physicians, London; MCCRADY, Edward, President of the Oxford, since 1899 ; Fellow of St John's Hon. President International Congress of Historical Society of South Carolina ; author Coll., Camb.; University Lecturer in Mathe- Hygiene, Madrid, 1898; Lecturer in Natural

of History of South Carolina under the inatics.

(A. E. H. L.) Philosophy, St Bartholomew's Hospital, 1879;
Goulstonian Lecturer, Royal College of Physi-

Proprietary Government,' and 'History of LOW, A. P.; of the Geological_Survey of

South Carolina under the Royal GovernCanada; author of Report on the Exploration cians, 1887; first Croonian Professor, 1888; ment.'

(E. McC.) in the Labrador Peninsula,' etc. (A. P. Lo.)

Thomson Lecturer, Aberdeen, 1889; Examiner

Victoria Univ. 1896-98 ; author of "Ziegler's M'Vey, Frank L., Ph.D.; Assistant ProLOW, Hon. Seth, LL.D. ; Mayor of New York Pathological Anatomy,' 'Nature of Fever,

fessor of Political' Science, University of City; formerly President of Columbia Uni- * Advanced Study and Research in Cambridge,'


(F. L. M.) versity; Mayor of Brooklyn, 1881-85; Presi- "The Practitioner' (with editorial committee), MacWILLIAM, Robert, Professor at Gill dent of the Archæological Institution of "The British Pharmacopeia,' etc. (D. M*) Coll., Somerset East, Cape Colony. (R. M'W.) America.

(S. L*.)

MACAULAY, W. H., M.A.; Fellow and MAGNUS, Sir Philip; Superintendent of LOW, Sidney James, M.A., L.C.C. ; Lecturer Lecturer of' King's Cóll., Cambridge ; late Technological Examinations and Secretary

on History, King's College, 1883-86; editor of University Lecturer in Applied Mechanics, of Examinations Department, City and Guilds the 'St Jaines's Gazette,' 1888-97 ; co-editor of Cambridge.

(W. H. M.) of London Institute; organising Director and the ‘Dictionary of English History'; author

Secretary of City and Guilds of London Inof contributions to Nineteenth century, MacCOLL, D. S., M.A.; painter; art critic of

stitute, 1880-88; member Royal Commission on Fortnightly Review,' National Review,

the ‘Saturday Review.'

(D. S. M.) Technical Instruction, 1881-84 ; is Member of the etc. (S. J. L.) MacCORMAC, Sir William, Bt., the

Senate and Fellow of the London University; late; President of the Royal College of

Vice-President and Fellow of College of PreLOWE, Major F. M., R.A.; Senior Experimental Officer, Shoeburyness, 1884; Asst.

Surgeons, 1896-1901 ; Serjeant-Surgeon to King ceptors; Member of the Mathematical and

Edward VII. 188S ;

(W. Mao C.) Inspector, Army Inspection Dept.,

author Physical Societies ;

of Technical Gunnery Instructor, Brit. N. America, 1993;

Education' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' MACDONELL, John, C.B., LL.D.; Master ‘Lessons in Elementary Mechanics,' HydroGunnery Instructor, Coast Defence School,

of the Supreme Court; author of The Law of

; and Asst. Superintendent of Experiments at

statics and Pneumatics,' 'Industrial EducaMaster and Servant,' etc.

(J. Mt.) tion.' Shoeburyness. (F. M. L*.)

(P. M*.) MACFARLANE, J.; formerly assistant, MAITLAND, Frederic William, LL.D., LUGARD, Brig.-Gen. Sir Frederick British Museum.

(J. MʻF.) John Dealtry, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O. ;

D.C.L. (Oxford, Glasgow, Cracow); Professor of High Cominissioner of Northern Nigeria ; served MACGREGOR, Sir William, K.C.M.G.,

English Law, Cambridge; Reader of English Law Afghan War, 1879-1880 ; Soudan paign, 1885;

C.B., M.D. Aberdeen, B.Sc. Cámb., LL.D. at Cambridge, 1984; Corresponding Member Burina Campaign, 1886 - 1887; commanded exAberdeen ; Governor of Lagos; Resident Surgeon

of Roy. Prussian Academy; author of 'Justice and Resident Physician Glasgow Royal In

and Police,''Bracton's Note-Book,''History of pedition against slave traders on Lake Nyassa, 1888; employed by British East African Com- firmary, and Royal Lunatic Asylum, Aber

English Law' (with Sir F. Pollock), 'Domesday deen; Assistant Government Medical Officer,

Book and Beyond,' Township and Borough, pany; in command of Exploration of the Sabakhi, and Administrator of Uganda, 1889-92; Seychelles, 1873; Surgeon Civil Hospital, Port

'Canon Law in England,' etc. (F. W. M.) employed by Royal Niger Company, 1894-95;

Louis, Mauritius, 1874; Chief

Medical Officer, MAITLAND, J. A. Fuller, M.A., F.S.A.; West Charterland, 1896-97; H.M. Coinmissioner Fiji, 1975; late Receiver-General and Adminis

musical critic of The Times '; author of 'Life Hinterland of Nigeria and Lagos, 1897- 99 ;

trator of the Government, and Acting High of Robert Schumann,' 'Masters of German Commandant of West African Frontier Force, Commissioner and Consul - General for the

Music,' "The Musician's Pilgrimage,' Spitta's 1897-09; author of 'Our East African Em- Western Pacific ; Administrator of British New

Life of Bach' (joint-translation with Mrs pire.'

(F. D. L.) Guinea, 1888; Lieut.-Governor, 1895. (W. M'G.) C. Bell); edited the Appendix to Grove's LUMMIS, Charles Fletcher, editor of the MACKAY, T.; author of 'Methods of Social ' Dictionary of Music and Musicians,' 'English * Land of Sunshine' magazine, Los Angeles,


(T. M*.)

County Songs' (with Miss L. E. Broad wood),

"The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book' (with W. California ; author of 'The Right Hand of the

M'KENDRICK, John Gray, M.D., LL.D. B. Squire). Continent' (California), and numerous publica

(J. A. F. M.) (Hon. Aberdeen),


F.R.S. Edin., tions dealing with the western and south- F.R.C.P.; Professor of Physiology Glasgow

MANSON, Edward; Barrister, Middle western States ; formerly editor of the Los University; Examiner in Physiology University

Temple; author of Law of Trading ComAngeles 'Daily Times.'

(C. F. L.)
of London, Victoria University, and University

panies, The Law of Debentures and Debenture

Stock,' 'Practical Guide to Company Law, LUNGE, George, Ph.D.; Professor of Technical of Birmingham; formerly Examiner in Univ. of


(E. MA.) Oxford and Cainb.; Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Polytechnic, Zürich ; author of Acid and Alkali Manufacture,' etc. (G. L.) Physiology at Royal Inst. of Great Britain; MANSON, James Alexander; sub-editor of

one of the lecturers in connexion with the the New Volumes of the Ency. Brit."; dramatic LUSHINGTON, Sir Franklin, M.A., the Gilchrist Trust; has served on the Council of critic, Weekly Dispatch,' 1890-92; literary

late; Chief Police Magistrate for London ; the Royal Society; member of Council of Royal editor of the Daily Chronicle,' 1891; author of author of 'Wagers of Battle.'

(F. L*.)

Society of Edinburgh; President of Physio- 'In Memoriam edition of Burns's Poetical

logical Section of British Association; author LYALL, Sir Alfred Comyn, K.C.B., G.C.I.E.,

Works,' 'Valour for Victoria, "Sir Edwin Hon. 'D.C.L. Oxford, and LL.D. Cambridge; of 'Narcotics,' 'Sleep,' 'Smell,' 'Stammering, Landseer' (Makers of British Art Series),

etc. *Stereoscope,' Taste,' Touch,' 'Voice, VasMember of Council of Secretary of State for

(J. A, M.) India since 1888; Lieut. - Gov. North-West

cular System,' in Ninth Edition of Ency.

MARKBY, Sir William, K.C.I.E., D.C.L.; Provinces, India, 1882-87; author of 'British Brit.,' 'Animal Physiology,' 'A Text-Book of

Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and of Physiology, 'Life Dominion in India,' 'Asiatic Studies,' 'Life of

in Motion, Muscle

Balliol College ; judge of High Court, Calcutta, Warren Hastings.'


(A. C. L.)
Nerve,' Physiology,' 'Life of Helmholtz,'

1866-78; Reader in Indian Law, Oxford, 1878etc.

(J. G. M.) LYDEKKER, Richard, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S.,

1900; author of 'Lectures on Indian Law,' MʻLAUGHLIN, Andrew Cunningham, Elements of Law considered with Reference to F.Z.S. ; Geological Survey of India, 1874-82; author of Geology of Kashmir,' 'Catalogues

A.M., LL.B. ; Professor of American History, General Principles of Jurisprudence.' (W. M.) of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles, and Birds in

University of Michigan; author of History

MARKHAM, Sir Cléments Robert, British Museum,' 'Phases of Animal Life,'

of Higher Education in Michigan,' 'Civil

K.C.B., F.R.S. ; President of the Royal

in Royal Natural History,' 'A Manual of Palæon

Michigan,' 'Lewis Cass,' etc.

(A. C. M.)

Geographical Society, of the International tology'(with late Professor A. Nicholson), “The

Geographical Congress, 1894-99, and of the Great and Small Game of Europe, N. and w. MACMAHON, Major Percy Alexander, Hakluyt Society, and of the Geographical, Asia, and America,' 'Descriptions of South R.A., Sc.D., F.R.S.; Professor of Artillery, Elizabethan, and Royal Society Clubs; entered American Fossil Animals.'

(R. L*.)

Woolwich; President of London Mathematical the Navy in 1844; served in the Arctic LYNES, G. B., A.M. ; sub-editor of the New Society, 1894-96 ; accompaniel Government Expedition of 1850-51; geographer to the Volumes of Ency. Brit.'; formerly literary

Expedition to observe eclipse of sun, Norway, Abyssinian Expedition; Assistant Secretary editor of the Baltimore News,' and instructor

1896 ; author of numerous papers on Puro in the India Office, 1867-77; author of 'Geoin History and Acting Librarian, Union College,

Mathematics, etc.

(P. A. M.) graphy' (historical), Peru,' 'Polar Regions, Schenectady, N.Y. ; author of 'A Syllabus of

in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.'; 'Life of MCMASTER, John Bach, Ph.D., Litt. D. ; Modern European History,' etc. (G. B. L.)

the Great Lord Fairfax,' The Fighting Veres,' Professor American History, University of

History of Peru,''History of Persia,' History LYONS, H. G.; Major R. E.; Director of the Pennsylvania; author of 'A History of the

of the Abyssinian Expedition, Lives of Survey Departnient, Egypt; editor of 'A Hand- People of the United States.' (J. B. Mc M.)

Columbus, John Davis, and Major Rennell, 'The book of Travellers in Egypt;' author of 'RAMCMILLAN, Walter G., F.C.S., M.I.M.M.;

Paladins of Edwin the Great'; edited volumes port on the Island and Temples of_Philæ,' Sec. Inst. Elect. Engineers; lato lecturer on

for the Hakluyt Society, the Navy Records etc.

(H. G. L.)

Metallurgy, Mason Coll., Birmingham; author Society, the Roxburghe Club, etc. (C. R. M.) of 'A Treatise on Electro - Metallurgy, part MARSHALL, George M., Ph.B.; Professor

author of 'Metals,' translator of Electric M

of English Language and Literature, University Sinelting and Refining.' (W. G. M.) of Utah.

(G. M. M.) MACALISTER, Alexander, M.A., M.D., MAC MORRAN, Alexander, K.C., MARTEL, Major C. P., R.A. ; Sec. to the D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S. A.; Member of Senaté A.M.I.C.E. ; becamé editor of 'Justice of the

Ordnance Committee; late Professor of Artillery, of Royal University of Ireland ; Professor of Peace,' 1879, and has so continued ; author of

Ordnance Coll.
Anatomy, Cambridge University, since 1883; editions of 'Lumley's Public Health,' works on
Fellow of St John's College; Professor of

"The Public Health (London) Act, 1891, the

MARTIN, T. C.; editor of Electrical World Zoology, University Dublin, 1809; Professor Local Government Act, 1688,' the Local

and Engineer,' New York.

(T. O. M.) of Anatomy and Chirurgery, Dublin, 1877 ; Government Act, 1894,' the London Govern- MARTIN, Capt. W. R., R.N., author of author of "Phrenology,' 'Physiognomy,' 'Stig- inent Act, 1899,' 'Poor Law Orders,' 'Poor 'A Treatise on Navigation and Nantical matization,' in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' Law Statutes,' etc.

(A. M‘M.) Astronomy,' etc.

(W. R. M*.)

(C. P. M.)

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