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Assoc.; delegate of H.M. Gov. to Internat. Conf. on Exploration of the Sea, Christiania, 1901; medallist of the Société Centrale d'Agriculture et de Pêche, Paris; author of numerous memoirs on Marine Biology, etc. etc. (W. GA.) GATES, Lewis Edwards, A.B.; Assistant Professor of English, Harvard University; author of 'Selections from Jeffrey,' 'Selections from Newman,' 'Three Studies in Literature.' (L. E. G.) GEDDIE, John; on the editorial staff of the 'Scotsman,' Edinburgh; author of The Water of Leith,' etc. (J. GE.) GEIKIE, Sir Archibald, Hon. D.C.L., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.; correspondent of Institute of France, of the Lincei, Rome, of the Academies of Berlin, Vienna, Belgium, Stockholm, Turin, Munich, Christiania, Göttingen, Kais. Leopold, Carol., Philadelphia, New York, National Academy of Sciences of United States, etc.; Director Geological Survey of Scotland, 1867; first Murchison Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Edinburgh, 1871-82; Foreign Sec. Royal Society, 1890-94'; President Geological

Society, 1891-92; President British Association, 1892; Director-General Geological Survey of United Kingdom, and Director Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1882-1901; author of 'Geography' (Physical), 'Geology,' 'Hutton, James,' Murchison,' Scotland' (geology), 'Vesuvius,' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Memoir of Edward Forbes' (with G. Wilson), 'Geological Map of Scotland' (with Murchison), 'The Scenery of Scotland viewed in connexion with its Physical Geology,' 'Text-book of Geology,' 'New Geological Map of Scotland, The Ancient Volcanoes of Britain,' etc. (A. GE.) GIANNINI, Torquato C., State Advocate, San Marino; author of 'Laws and Decrees of the Republic of San Marino,' etc. (T. G*.) GIBBONS, H.E. Cardinal James, Archbishop of Baltimore, U.S.; author of 'The Faith of Our Fathers,' Our Christian Heritage,' 'The Ambassador of Christ.' (+J. G.)

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GIBBS, George; Consulting Engineer to the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and the Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Co.; formerly Mechanical Engineer for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St Paul R.R. Co.; Member Am. Soc. Mech. Engineers, and Am. Soc. Civ. Engineers. (G. GI.) GIBSON, George Alexander, M.D., D.Sc. Edin., F.R.C.P. Edin., F.R.S. Edin.; Hon. Member Norwich Med. Chir. Soc.; Fellow and Member of many societies in England and Scotland; Physician to Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh; Lecturer on Medicine in School of Medicine of Royal Colleges; editor of the 'Edinburgh Med. Journ.' since 1896; Secretary, Royal Coll. of Physicians, Edin., 1884-94 Member of Council of the College since 1894; author of Physical Diagnosis' (part), 'CheyneStokes Respiration,' 'Diseases of the Heart and Aorta'; editor of 'Text-Book of Medicine, 1901. (G. A. G.) GIFFEN, Sir Robert, K.C.B., F.R.S.; assistant editor of Economist,' London, 186876; Chief of Statistical Department, Board of Trade, 1876-82; Assistant Secretary Board of Trade, and afterwards Controller-General of Commercial, Labour, and Statistical Departments, 1882-97; President of Statistical Society, 1882-84; author of 'American Railways as Investments,' 'Stock Exchange Securities,' 'Essays in Finance,' 'The Progress of the Working Classes in the Last Half-Century,' "The Growth of Capital,' The Case against Bimetallism,' etc. (R. GN.)

GILBERT, Grove Karl, A.M.; Geologist U.S. Geological Survey; author of 'Geology of the Henry Mountains,' 'Lake Bonneville,' etc. (G. K. G.) GILES, Peter, M.A.; Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology; late Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society; author of 'A Short Manual of Comparative Philology,


Grenadier Guards; Director of Intelligence and Civil Service, Sudan Provinces; D.A.A.G., S. Africa, 1900; Nile Expedition, 1884-85; Intelligence Department, War Office, 1886-88; Mission to Abyssinia, 1897; D.A.A.G. in Intelligence Division War Office, 1898-99; served S. Africa, 1899-1900; author of 'With the Camel Corps up the Nile,' 'Armies of Europe' (translation), With the Mission to Menelik.' (G*.) GOODRICH, Edwin Stephen, M.A.; Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and Aldrichian Demonstrator of Anatomy, University Museum, Oxford. (E. S. G.) GOODRICH, J. E., D.D.; Prof. of Latin, University of Vermont; author of 'Vermont' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.' (J. E. G.) GORDON, Home Seton Charles Montagu; writes for 'Victoria History Counties of England,' 'Morning Post' (London), 'The Artist, Outlook,' 'County Gentleman," Badminton Magazine,' etc. (H. S. C. M. G.)

GORDON, Gen. Sir John James Hood,
K.C.B., Indian Staff Corps; member of the
Council of India.
(J. J. H. G.)


GORST, John Lowndes, C.B.; Financial
Adviser to the Egyptian Government; Con-
troller of Direct Taxes to Egyptian Government,
1890; Under-Secretary of State for Finance,
1892; Adviser to the Ministry of the In-
terior, 1894; Grand Cordon Order Medjidieh,
(J. L. G.)
GOSCH, C. A.; attaché to the Danish Lega-
tion in Great Britain; author of 'Denmark
and Germany since 1815,' 'The Nationality of
Schleswig, editor of 'Danish Arctic Expedi-
tions 1605-1620,' etc.
(C. A. G.)
GOSSE, Edmund, Hon. M. A. Trin. Coll. Camb.;
Hon. LL.D. St Andrews; Knight of the Royal
Norwegian Order of St Olaf, First Class; Asst.
Librarian, British Museum, 1867-75; Trans-
lator to Board of Trade; Clark Lecturer in
English Literature, Trin. Coll. Camb., 1884-90;
author of 'Cowley,' 'Denmark,' 'Holberg,'
'Holland' (literature), 'Norway' (literature),
'Oehlenschlager,' Pastoral, Sweden' (litera-
ture) in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' 'Col-
lected Poems,' 'Northern Studies,' 'Life of Gray,'
'Life of Congreve,' 'History of Eighteenth
Century Literature,' 'The Jacobean Poets,'
'History of Modern English Literature,' 'Life
and Letters of Dr John Donne,' etc. (E. G.)
GOUGH, James A. H., B.A. Lond.; late Sec-

retary of the Thames Conservancy. (J. H. Go.)
GOULD, Prof. Elgin R. L., Ph.D.; Pres.
City and Suburban Homes Company, New
York; formerly Lecturer at Johns Hopkins
and Chicago Universities; Cor. Secretary
Am. Statistical Soc.; Member International
Statistical Soc., British Economic Soc., and
Cor. Member Société de Statistique, Paris;
author of 'Housing of Working People,'
(E. R. L. G.)

GOW, William, M.A. Glasgow, Ph.D. Heidel-
berg; Lecturer at University Coll. Liverpool,
on Marine Insurance; author of Marine In-
surance,' a hand-book, 'A British Imperial
Customs Union,' etc.
(W. Go.)
GRACE, John Hilton, M.A.; Fellow of
Peterhouse, Cambridge.
(J. H. GR.)
GRAHAM, P. Anderson; author of 'Rural
(P. A. G.)

GREEN, Joseph Reynolds, Sc.D., F.R.S., F.L.S.; Professor of Botany, Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; Fellow of Downing Coll. Cainbridge; Demonstrator of Physiology, Cambridge, 1885-87; author of A Manual of Botany, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation,' etc. (J. R. GR.) GREENE, General Francis Vinton; Major-General U.S. Volunteers in the SpanishAmerican War; President New York State Canal Commission; author of 'The Russian Army and its Campaigns in Turkey,' 'Life of Major-General Nathaniel Greene," 'The Mississippi Campaigns of the Civil War, etc. (P. GI.) (F. V. G.) GREENE, Thomas L.; Manager of the Audit Company of New York; author of 'Corporation Finance,' etc. (T. L. G.). GREENHILL, Alfred George, M.A., F.R.S.; Prof. of Math., Ordnance Coll. Woolwich; author of Hydromechanics' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Differential and Integral Calculus with Applications,' 'A Chapter in the Integral Calculus,' 'Applications of Elliptic Functions,' 'Hydrostatics.' (A. G. G.) GREENOUGH, John, B.A.; banker and financier, New York. (J. GH.) GREENWOOD, Frederick; originator and first editor of Pall Mall Gazette' and the 'St James's Gazette'; author of 'Louis Napoleon

GILLESPIE, A. L.; F.R.C.P. Edin., F.R.S.E.; author of 'Natural History of Edinburgh,' 'Manual of Modern Gastric Methods,' etc. (A. L. G.) GILMAN, Daniel Coit, LL.D.; President Carnegie Inst., Washington; President Johns Hopkins University, 1876-1901; author of 'Life of James Monroe,' 'University Problems,' etc. (D. C. G.) GINSBURG, Benedict William, M.A., LL.D.; Secretary of the Royal Statistical Society of Great Britain; author of 'Legal Duties of Ship Masters,' etc. (B. W. G.) GLEICHEN, Count, Albert Edward Wilfred, C.M.G., D.S.O., C.V.O.; Major



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Bonaparte,' 'Life of Napoleon the Third, "The Lover's Lexicon,' 'Imagination in Dreams,' (F. G.) Thomas; author of 'Public Libraries,' The Library Year-book,' etc. (T. GD. GREGO, Joseph, English Art Critic and Writer; author of "A History of Parliamentary Elections,' 'A History of Dancing,' 'Thomas Rowlandson,' 'James Gillray,' etc. (J. Go*. GRIERSON, Colonel James Moncrieff, R.A., M.V.O.; served as D.A.Q.M.G., Indian Contingent, Egypt, 1882; as D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Suakin, 1885; as D.A.Q.M.G., Hazara Expedition; as A.A.G., Army Headquarters, S. Africa, 1900; as D.A.G., China, 1900-1901, on F.M. Count Waldersee's staff; Military Attaché, Embassy, Berlin, 1896-1900; Chief Staff Officer, 2nd Army Corps, 1901; Knight of Grace of St John of Jerusalem; Commander of 2nd Class of Prussian Royal Crown (with star), Red Eagle, and Saxon Albrecht orders; author of Armed Strengths of Armies of Russia, Germany, and Japan,' 'Staff Duties in the Field,' 'Handbook of the Russian Army.' (J. M. GR.) GRIFFITH, Francis Llewelyn, M.A.; Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University; editor of Archæological Survey of Egypt," "The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty, etc. (F. LL. G.) GRIFFITHS, John G.; Fellow of the Inst. of Chartered Accountants, and President of same, 1897-99. (J. G. GR.) GRIFFITHS, Major Arthur George Frederick; H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-96; formerly editor of 'Army and Navy Gazette'; editor of the 'Fortnightly Review,' 1884, the World,' 1895; author of 'Prison Discipline' in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' 'Memorials of Millbank,' 'Secrets of the Prison House,' 'Mysteries of Police and Crime.' (A. G.) GRUEBER, H. A., F.S.A.; Assistant Keeper of Coins and Medals, British Museum; editor of Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland,' 'Roman Medal. lions in the British Museum,' etc. (H. A. G.) GULLAND, George Lovell, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. Edin.; Fellow and late President of Royal Med. Soc., Edin. (G. L. G.) GUNTHER, Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.; Keeper of Zoological Department British Museum; author of Flying Fish,' 'Ichthyology,' 'Lizard,' 'Mackerel,' etc., in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia salientia, and Fishes in the British Museum, Reptiles of British India,' 'Fishes of Zanzibar,' Reports on the "Challenger" Fishes,' etc. (A. GU.)


HADCOCK, A. G., late R.A.; manager of Gun Dept., Elswick; part-author Modern Artillery,' etc. (A. G. H. HADLEY, Arthur Twining, LL.D.; Pres. Yale University; joint-editor of the New Volumes of the Ency. Brit.'; part-author of 'Railway' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' author of Railroad Transportation,' 'Economics,' etc. (Á. T. H. HALDANE, John Scott, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.; University Lecturer in Physiology, Oxford; Fellow New College, Oxford; Metropolitan Gas Referee, Board of Trade; author of 'Essays in Philosophical Criticism,' (joint-author) 'Bluebook on the Causes of Death in Colliery Explosions,' a series of papers in scientific journals and blue-books on the physiology of respira tion, and on the air of the mines, dwellinghouses, etc. (J. S. H.) HALE, Rev. Edward Everett, 8.T.D.; author of 'Everett' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. ''Man without a Country,' 'Life of James Brit.,' Russell Lowell,' etc. (E. E. H.) HALE, George E., Sc.D.; Professor of Astrophysics in the University of Chicago and Director of the Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis.; editor of the Astrophysical Journal.' (G. E. H.)

HALSEY, F. A.; asst.-editor of the 'American Machinist'; Member of the Am. Assoc. of Mech. Engineers, and designer of Compressed Air Machinery; author of 'Slide Valve Gears, 'Locomotive Link Motion,' 'Premium Plan_of Paying for Labour,' etc. (F. A. H) HAMILTON, David James, M.B. Edin., F.R.C.S. Edín.; Professor of Pathology, Aberdeen; author of "Text-Book of Pathology, (D. J. H.)




HAMILTON, Sir Edward Walter, | K.C.B., K.C.V.O.; Assist. Sec. H.M. Treasury author of National Debt,' etc. (E. W. H*.) HAMILTON, Adml. Sir Richard Vesey, G.C.B.; served in Arctic Expedition, 1850-51, and 1852-1854 in search of Sir John Franklin; in China, 1857, etc. (R. V. H.) | HAMMOND, John Hays, A.M.; consulting engineer of the Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa, British South Africa Company, etc. (J. H. H*.) HARMER, Sidney Frederic, D.Sc. (Camb.), B.Sc. (Lond.), F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S.; Fellow since 1886 and assistant tutor since 1890 of King's College, Cambridge; superintendent of University Museum of Zoology; author of papers on Zoological subjects; joint-editor of the 'Cambridge Natural History.' (S. F. H.) HARMON, Hon. Judson, LL.D.; ex U.S. Attorney-General; sometime President of the Ohio Bar Association. (J. HA.) HARMSWORTH, Alfred Charles; principal proprietor of the 'Daily Mail,' the 'Evening News,' etc. (A. C. H*.) HARPER, William Rainey, D.D., LL.D., Ph.D.; Pres. University of Chicago. (W. R. H.) HARRIS, Hon. Addison C., U.S. Minister to Austria; author of 'Indiana' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.' (A. C. H.) HARRIS, James Rendel, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.; Univ. Lecturer in Palæography, Camb., late Prof. at Johns Hopkins University; author of 'The Teaching of the Apostles and the Sibylline Books, Fragments of Philo,' 'The Origin of the Leicester Codex,' 'A Study of Codex Bezae,' 'The Apology of Aristides,' 'Life of Francis William Crossley'; editor 'The Gospel of the Twelve Apostles,' etc. (J. R. HA.) HARRIS, Thomas, M.D., F.R.C.P. Ed.; Hon. Physician of Manchester Royal Infirmary, and Lecturer on Diseases of the Respiratory Organs, Owens College, Manchester; author of numerous articles on diseases of the respiratory organs. (T. H*.) HARRISON, Charles Custis, LL.D. ; Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. (C. C. H*.) HARRISON, Frederic, M.A.; President of London Positivist Cominittee; Fellow and Tutor of Wadham Coll., 1854-56; Hon. Fellow, 1899; member of Royal Commission of Trades Unions, 1867-69; Secretary Royal Commission for Digesting the Law, 1869-70; Professor of Jurisprudence and International Law to Inns of Court, 1877-89; Rede's Lecturer, Cambridge, 1900; Vice-President Royal Historical Soc., author of 'Social Statics-Comte's Positive Polity,' The Choice of Books,' 'Oliver Cromwell,' 'Victorian Literature,' 'William the Silent,' 'The Millenary of King Alfred.' (F. H*.) HART, Charles Henry, Director of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia; author of Philadelphia' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Portraits of Great Americans,' 'Turner, the Dream Painter,' 'William Morris,' etc. (0. H. H*.) | HART, Maj.-Gen. Sir Reginald Clare, R.E., K.C.B., V.C.; commanding Quetta district in India; assistant Garrison Instructor, 1874-78; Garrison Instructor, 1885-88; Director Military Education in India, 1888-96; Afghan War, 1879; Ashantee Expedition, 1881; Egyptian War, 1882; commanded 1st Brigade Tirah Campaign, 1897-98; author of 'Reflections on the Art of War,' 'Sanitation and Health.' (R. C. H) HASSERT, Dr K., traveller; intimately acquainted with the Balkan States and author of numerous works of travel, etc. (K. H.) HASTINGS, Charles S., Ph.D.; Professor of Physics, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University. (C. S. H.) HASTINGS. E. J., Miss; contributor to "The Times' Gazetteer. (E. J. H.)

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HAWKINS, Charles Cæsar, M.A., M.I.E.E.; author of 'The Dynamo,' and of many papers, such as Armature Reaction,' 'The Theory of Commutation,' etc. (C. C. H.) HAXTON, H. R., author of 'The Adver tiser's Manual,' 'An Evening with "Punch," etc. (H. R. H*.) | HEADLAM, James Wycliffe, M.A.; late Fellow of King's Coll., Cambridge; author of 'Bismarck,' etc. (J. W. HE.) HEADLAM, Walter George; Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. (W. G. H.) HEAWOOD, Edward, M.A., Librarian to R.G.S.; aided in settlement of Santal Colony in Bengal Duars, 1890-92; author of 'Geography of Africa,' etc. etc. (Ě. ÉE.)

HEHNER, Otto; Past President of the Society | of Public Analysts; Public Analyst for Notting. hamshire, the Isle of Wight, etc.; Chairman of the London Section of the Society of Chemical Industry, etc.; author of works on Butteranalysis, Alcohol Tables, etc. (0. H*.) HEINEMANN, Mrs William ['Kassandra Vivaria']; authoress of 'Via Lucis,' The Garden of Olives,' etc. (M. HE.) HELE-SHAW, H. S., LL.D., F.R.S., M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., Assoc. Inst. N.A.; Senior Whitworth Scholar, 1876; Harrison Professor of Engineering in Univ. Coll., Liverpool.


(H. S. H.-S.)

HELMUTH, William Tod, M.D.,_LL.D.;
Professor of Surgery and Dean of the Homœo-
pathic and Medical College and Hospital, New
York, and President of the Collins State
Homœopathic Hospital; sometime President
of the American Institute of Homœopathy and
the New York State Homœopathic Medical
Society; author of Treatise on Diphtheria,'
'System of Surgery,' etc.
(W. T. H.)
HEMMING, Major Edward Hughes,
R. E., H.M. War Office.
(EX H)
HENDERSON, Col. George Frances
Robert, C.B.; Director of Military Intelli-
gence, South Africa; for many years Director
of Military Art and History at the Staff College
author of A Tactical Study of Fredericksburg,
'Life of Stonewall Jackson,' etc. (G. F. R. H.)
HENDERSON, T. F.; on editorial staff of the
Ninth Edition of the 'Ency. Brit.' (T. F. H.)
HENRICI, Olaus F. M. E., Ph.D., LL.D.,
F.R.S.; Professor of Mechanics and Mathe-
matics, City and Guilds of London Central
Technical Coll., author of 'Geometry' (pure and
projective), 'Projection,' in Ninth Edition of
Ency. Brit.,' 'Skeleton Structures, especially
in their Application to the Building of Steel
and Iron Bridges,' 'Congruent Figures,'
(0. H.)
HENRY, Hon. William Wirt, M.A.; late
Pres. of the Virginia Hist. Soc. and of the Am.
Hist. Ass.; author and editor of the 'Life,
Correspondence, and Speeches of Patrick
(W. W. H*.)
HENSON, Herbert Hensley, B.D.; Canon
of Westminster; author of Light and Leaven,'
'Apostolic Christianity,' editor 'Church Pro-
blems,' etc.
(H. H. H*.)
HERBERTSON, Dr A. J.; of the
School of Geography, Ashmolean Buildings,
(A. J. HE.)
HERDMAN, William Abbott, D.Sc.,
F.R.S.; Prof. of Natural History, Univ. Coll.
Liverpool; assist. to Sir Wyville Thomson in
'Challenger' Expedition office; Demonstrator
of Zoology in Edinburgh, 1880; President Zo-
ological Section Brit. Ass., 1895; has (along
with others) established a Marine Biological
Station at Port Erin, Isle of Man; author of
'Tunicata' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,'
'Report upon the Tunicata collected during
the voyage of the "Challenger,' "The Fauna
of Liverpool Bay,' 'Oysters and Disease,'
(W. A. HE.)
HERR, E. M., General Manager Westinghouse
Air Brake Company, Pittsburg. (E. M. HE.)
HERVEY, Arthur; musical critic of the
'Morning Post'; author of 'Masters of French
Music,' etc.
(A. HE.)

HEWINS, William Albert Samuel,
Director, London School of Economics and
Political Science, 1895; Tooke Professor of
Economic Science and Statistics at King's Coll.
London, 1897; Member of the Senate of the
University of London; Hon. Fellow R. Hist.
Soc.; Examiner in Political Economy in the
University of London, and in the Historical
Tripos, Cambridge; Lecturer at Univ. College,
Bristol, 1890; author of 'English Trade and
Finance in the 17th Century,' etc. (W. A. S. H.)
HIBBERT, Walter, A.M.I.C.E., F.I.C.,
F.C.S.; Lecturer on Electro-Technology, Poly-
technic, Regent Street; author of 'Notes on
Secondary Batteries,' etc.
(W. HT.)
HIGGINSON, Col. Thomas Wentworth,
LL.D.; author of 'Atlantic Essays,' 'Cheerful
Yesterdays,' 'History of the United States,' 'Bio-
graphy of Wendell Phillips,' etc. (T. W. H.)
HIGGS, HENRY, LL.B., F.S.S.; clerk in
H.M. Treasury; Sec. to the British Economic
Association and joint-editor of the 'Economic
Journal'; Life Governor of University College,
London; ex-Member of Council of Royal Stat.
Soc.; Pres. of sections of Political Economy
and Statistics, Brit. Ass., Dover, 1899; author
of 'The Physiocrats,' and many articles. (H. H*.)
HILL, E. P., M.I.C.E.; partner in Messrs. G.
H. Hill and Sons, engineers to the Corporation
of Manchester, etc.
(E. P. H*.)

HILL, Leonard Erskine, M.B., F.R.S. Lecturer on Physiology, London Hospital Demonstrator of Physiology, Oxford University; Assistant Professor of Physiology, University College, London; Hunterian Professor Royal College of Surgeons, author of 'The Physiology aud Pathology of the Cerebral Circulation,' 'Manual of Physiology.' (L. E. H.) HILL, Maurice, B.A.; Barrister, Inner Temple. (M. H*.) HILL, Robert Thomas, U.S. Geological Survey; formerly Professor of Geology, University of Texas; author of 'Texas' in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' 'Cuba, Porto Rico, and other Islands of the West Indies.' (R. T. H.) KILLIER, Alfred Peter, M.D., B.A., C.M.


in Mathematics.

one of the Reform Prisoners at Pretoria, 1896; author of 'South African Studies,' etc. (A. P. H.) HIME, Lieut.-Col. H. W. L.; Gold Medal Roy. Artillery. Inst., and Roy. United Service Inst.; Secretary Roy. Artillery Inst., 1880-86; author of 'Outlines of Quaternions,' 'Stray Military Papers,' 'Lucian, the Syrian Satirist,' (H. W. L. H.) HINTON, A. Horsley, editor of The Amateur Photographer'; author of 'A Handbook of Illustration,' 'Practical Pictorial Photography,' etc. (A. H. H) HIPKINS, Alfred James, F.S.A.; member of Council and Hon. Curator of R. C. of Music; engaged in Messrs Broadwood's pianoforte business since 1840; Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885, of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892, and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900; author of 'Harp,' 'Lyre,' 'Pianoforte,' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Musical Instruments,' 'A Description and History of the Pianoforte,' etc. (A. J. H.) HOBBES, John Oliver' (Pearl Mary Teresa Craigie); author of 'Some Emotions and a Moral,' 'A Study in Temptations,' 'The Gods, Some Mortals, and Lord Wickenham,' 'School for Saints,' Robert Orange, The Serious Wooing,' 'The Ambassador, "The Wisdom of the Wise,' etc. (P. M. T. C.) HOBSON, Ernest W., D.Sc., F.R.S.; Fellow of Christ's Coll. Cambridge; University Lecturer (E. W. H.) HODGE, Frederick Webb, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution; managing editor 'American Anthropologist." (F. W. H.) HODGKINSON, W. R. E., F.R.S. Edin., F.C.S., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. Würzburg; Professor of Chemistry and Physics, Ordnance Coll., Woolwich; late Professor of Chemistry and Physics, R.M.A., Woolwich; edited Valentine's 'Practical Chemistry,' etc. (W. R. E. H.) HOFFER, Leopold; chess editor of the 'Standard' (London); author of 'Chess,' etc. (L. H.) HOFMAN, Heinrich O., E.M., Ph.D.; Professor of Metallurgy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (H. O. H.) HOGARTH, David George, M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; explored Asia Minor, 1887, 1890, 1891, 1894; excavated at Paphos in Cyprus, 1888; appointed by Egypt Exploration Fund, 1893; Special Correspondent for The Times' in Crete and Thessaly, 1897; Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899; author of A Wandering Scholar in the Levant,' 'Philip and Alexander of Macedon,' "The Nearer East,' etc. (D. G. H.) HOLDEN, Prof. Edward Singleton, Sc.D., LL.D.; Director of the Lick Observatory, 1887-97; Member National Academy of Sciences; Associate Royal Astronomical Society of London, Astronomical Society of France, etc.; author of 'Astronomy for Students,' 'Life of Sir Wm. Herschel,' 'Nebula of Orion,' etc. (E. S. H.) HOLDICH, Col. Sir Thomas Hungerford, R.E. (retired), K.C.I.E., C.B.; Abyssinia, 1867; Afghan War, 1878-80; also served on political duty with Afghan Boundary Commission, 1884-86; Supt. Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-98; Asmar Boundary Commission, 1894; Pamir Commission, 1805; as H.M. Commissioner for Perso-Beluch Boundary in 1896; author of 'Kandahar,' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'The Indian Borderland,' various papers on military surveying, etc. (T. H. H*.) HOLLAND, Hon. Sydney, LL.D.; Presi dent of the Life Saving Society of England; Chairman of the London Hospital; Knight of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. (S. H*.) HOLLINGSHEAD, John, staff of 'Household Words,' under Charles Dickens; staff of Cornhill Magazine, under W. M. Thackeray,

'Good Words,' under Dr Norman Macleod, 'Daily News, etc.; founded Gaiety Theatre, 1868; Theatrical Licensing Reform, 1866 and 1892; Copyright Reform, 1874; author of 'Plain English, Underground London,' 'Ragged London,' 'According to My Lights,' etc. (J. HD.) HOLROYD, Charles, F.R. Soc. Painter Etchers; Keeper National Gallery of British Art (Tate Gallery); assistant to Professor Legros, Slade School of Art, for four years; author of Michael Angelo and His Works,' 'Etchings,' etc. (C. HD.) HOOPER, Franklin H., A.B.; assistant editor of The Century Dictionary.' (F. H. H.) HOOPER, Wynnard, M.A., author of 'Popu lation,' Statistics,' 'Suicide,' in the Ninth Edition of the 'Ency. Brit.' (W. Ho.) (S. D. H.) HOPKINSON, S. D. HOSE, C., LL.D., D.Sc.; Resident in the Boram

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District, Sarawak; author of A Descriptive Account of the Mammals of Borneo,' etc. (C. H.) HOUGHTON, A. E.; Correspondent of the 'Standard' in Spain. (A. E. H.) HOUSMAN, Laurence, author of "The Writings of William Blake,' 'Arthur Boyd Houghton,' 'Green Arras,' etc.; illustrated 'Goblin Market, The End of Elfintown,' 'The Were Wolf, "Jump to Glory" Jane, The Sensitive Plant.' (L. Ho.) HOWE, Henry Marion, A.M.; Professor of Metallurgy, Columbia University, New York; Past President Am. Institute of Mining Engineers; President Jury of Mines and Mining, World's Columbian Exposition; Bessemer Medallist, British Iron and Steel Inst., and Gold Medallist, Franklin Inst. of Philadelphia, 1895; author of 'Metallurgy of Steel,' 'Copper Smelting,' etc. (H. M. H) HOWELL, Hon. Clark; editor of 'The Constitution, Atlanta, Georgia. (C. Ho.) HOWELL, William H., Ph.D., M.D.; Dean of the Medical Faculty and Professor of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University. (W. H. H.) HUBBARD, Wilfranc. (W. HD.) HUDSON, James Fairchild, editor of the 'Pittsburg Dispatch'; author of 'Railways of the Republic,' etc. (J. F. H.) HUGHES, Rev. Hugh Price, M.A.; Pres. Wesleyan Conference, 1898-99; editor of 'Methodist Times'; Past Pres. of National Council of Evangelical Free Churches; author of 'Social Christianity,' 'Ethical Christianity,' etc. (H. P. H.) HUGHES, Rupert, A.M.; formerly assistant editor of the Criterion,' New York; author of 'American Composers,' 'Gyges Ring,' etc. (R. HU.) HULL, Commander Thomas A., R.N., F.R.G.S.; employed in the search for Sir John Franklin, survey of Palestine, Corfu, etc.; late Superintendent of Admiralty charts; author of 'Practical Nautical Surveying' editor and reviser 'The Pilot's Handbook for the English Channel,' and 'The Practice of Navigation and Nautical Astronomy,' etc. (T. A. H.) HUMMEL, J. J., F.I.C.; Professor of Dyeing, Yorkshire Coll., Leeds; author of 'The Dyeing (J. J. H.) of Textile Fabrics.'

HUNT, Rev. William, M.A.; examiner in History, 1877 to 1880, Oxford; author of 'The English Church, 597 to 1066, The Church of England in the Middle Ages'; editor with E. A. Freeman of 'Historic Towns,' etc. (W. Hu.) HUNT, Hon. William H., Governor of Porto Rico; sometime Justice of the Supreme Court of Montana. (W. H. H*.) HUNTER, Sir Robert, M.A.; Solicitor to the Post Office; author of 'The Preservation of Open Spaces and of Footpaths and Other Rights of Way.' (R. H*.) HUNTER, Walter, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E.; engineering director of the Grand Junction Water Works Co., and joint engineer of the Staines Reservoir Joint Committee. (W. H*.)


HUTCHINSON, Horatio Gordon, B.A.; amateur golf champion, 1886-87; author of 'Golf' in Badminton Library, 'Creatures of The Book of Golf and Golfers,' Circumstance,' (H. G. H.) HUTTON, Rev. Arthur Wollaston, M.A.; Rector of Spridlington, 1878-76; received into Roman Catholic Church by Dr Newman, 1876; resumed clerical functions in the Church of England, 1898; author of 'Our Position as Catholics in the Church of England,' 'The Anglican Ministry,' 'Cardinal Manning'; edited Arthur Young's 'Tour in Ireland,' 1892, Maitland's Essays on the Reformation,' Newman's 'Lives of the English Saints,' etc. (A. W. Hu.)


IDE, Hon. Henry Clay, Member of U.S. Philippine Commission; formerly U.S. Commissioner to Samoa, and later Chief Justice of Samoa. (H. C. I.)

ILBERT, Sir Courtenay Peregrine, K.C.S.I., C.I.E.; Clerk of the House of Commons; formerly Parl. Counsel to the Treasury, 1899-1902; Legal Member of Council of Governor-General of India, 1882-86; Assistant Parl. Counsel to the Treasury, 1886-99; Member of Statute Law Committee; author of The Government of India,' 'Legislative Method and Forms.' (C. P. L.) INAMA-STERNEGG, Karl Theodor von; Professor of Political Science, Vienna; President of the Austrian Royal Statistical Central Commission; author of 'Outlines of Germanic Philology,' 'Economy,' etc. (K. T. I.-S.) IRVINE, William Fergusson; Hon. Sec. Record Society of Lanc. and Chesh., author of 'Notes on the Ancient Parish of Bidston editor 'Liverpool in King Charles II.'s Time,' etc. (W. F. I.)


Times' in South Africa.

JACKS, Rev. L. P. (L. P. J.) JACKSON, Lieut.-Col. Louis, R.E.; late instructor in Fortification, R.M.A., Woolwich ; instructor in Fortification and Military Engineering, School of Military Engineering, Chatham; Assoc. Memb. of Ordnance Committee, etc. (L. J.) JACOB, Francis, M.I.E.E., F.P.S. Lond. ; chief electrician to Messrs Siemens Bros. and Co. (F. JA.) JAMES, Edmund Janes, A.M., Ph.D.; President North-Western University; late Professor of Public Administration and Director of the Extension Division, University of Chicago; past Pres. Am. Acad. of Political and Social Science; author of 'Our Legal Tender Decisions,' 'The Education of Business Men,' etc. (E. J. J.) JAMES, Lionel; War Correspondent of "The (L. J*.) JAMIESON, George, C.M.G.; Director of the Pekin Syndicate and Yangtse Valley Company; Consul and Judge of Supreme Court, Shanghai, 1891; Consul-Gen., 1897-99; author of various papers on the Revenue and Statistics of China; (G. J.) prize essay on Bimetallism. JEBB, Sir Richard Claverhouse, Litt.D., D.C.L., LL.D., M.P.; Regius Professor of Greek, Camb.; Hon. Professor Ancient History, Roy. Acad., since 1898; Fellow and Lecturer of Trinity College, 1863; Public Orator of the University, 1869; Professor of Greek, University of Glasgow, 1875-89; Lecturer at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1892; Member of Royal Commission on Secondary Education, 1894; of Royal Commission on Irish University Education, 1901; Member of Consulting Committee of Board of Education, 1900; Fellow of London University, 1897; Member of London University Commission, 1898; Bampton Lecturer, 1899; author of 'Aristophanes,' 'Demosthenes, Euripides,' etc., in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Sophocles,' 'Electra' in Catena Classicorum, Ajax,' Characters of Theophrastus, Attic Orators,' 'Modern Greece,' 1880; Bentley,' 'Sophocles,' with Critical Notes, Commentary, and Translation; 'Humanism in Education, etc. (R. C. J.) JEFFERSON, Joseph, LL.D.; actor; author of Autobiography,' etc." (J. J*.) JEKELFALUSSY, Józef von Jekel- und Margitfalva, Dr. Juris, the late; DirectorGeneral of the Royal Hungarian Statistical Bureau; Member of the Royal Hungarian Academy of Sciences; edited 'The Millennium of Hungary and its People,' etc. (J. JE.) JENKS, Jeremiah Whipple, Ph.D.; Professor of Political Science, Cornell University; Member of the U.S. Committee to investigate Trusts; author of 'Henry C. Carey,' 'Road Legislation for the American State,' and numerous magazine contributions in Germany, England, and the United States. (J. W. J.) JENKYNS, Sir Henry, the late, K.C.B.; Parliamentary Counsel to Treasury. (H. JE.) JERVIS-SMITH, Rev. Frederick J., M.A., F.R.S.; University Lecturer in Mechanics; Millard Lecturer, Trinity College, Oxford; Member of Com. on Explosions, Home Office, 1895-96; received Medal French Exhibition for Dynamometer; silver medal Inventions Exhibitions for Integrator. (F. J. J.-S.) JEUNE, Rt. Hon. Sir Francis Henry, K.C.B., K.B.; appointed a Judge of the High

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Court, 1891; President of Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division; Judge-Advocate-Gen., 1892. (F. H. J.) JEUNE, Lady; contributor to leading reviews and magazines; author of 'Lesser Questions,' etc. (M. J.) JOHNSTON, Sir Harry Hamilton, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.; Special Commissioner, Commander-in-Chief and Consul-General for Uganda Protectorate; explored Portuguese West Africa and River Congo, 1882-83; commanded Scientific Expedition of Royal Society to Mt. Kilimanjaro, 1884; H.M. Vice-Consul in Cameroons, 1885; Acting Consul in Niger Coast Protectorate, 1887; Consul for province of Mozambique, 1888; expedition to Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika (founding of the British Central Africa Protectorate), 1889; author of River Congo,' 'Kilimanjaro, History of a Slave,' 'Life of Livingstone,' 'British Central Africa,' etc. (H. H. J.) JORDAN, David Starr, Ph.D., LL.D.; President of Leland Stanford Junior University; sometime Assistant to the U.S. Fish Commission, and Professor of Zoology, and President of Indiana University; Commissioner and Expert for the United States to investigate the Fur Seal Question, 1896-97; author of 'Vertebrate Animals of Northern U.S.,' 'Fisheries of North and Middle America,' 'Factors of Organic Evolution,' etc. (D Š. J.) JORDAN,Richard; DraughtsChampion of Scotland, 1896, and of the World since 1896. (R. J.) JUDSON, Harry Pratt, A.M., LL.D.; Professor of Political Science, and Dean of the Faculties of Arts, Science, and Literature, University of Chicago; author of 'Europe in the Nineteenth Century,' 'Growth of the American Nation,' etc. (H. P. J.)

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KAN, C. M.; Professor of Geography, University of Amsterdam; author of Holland' in Ninth Edition of the 'Ency. Brit.,'' A History of Discoveries in the Indian Archipelago,' editor The International Colonial Review, etc. (C. M. K.) KARAGEORGEVITCH, Bojidar, Prince; artist and art critic. (B. K.) KEANE, Augustus Henry, F.R.G.S.; Emeritus Professor of Hindustani, Univ. Coll. London; late Vice President Anthrop. Institute; author of Kirghiz,' 'Soudan,' 'Somali,' 'Yoruba,' etc., in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.' Stanford's 'Asia, Africa,' 'Ethnology, Man, Past and Present,' etc. (A. H. K.) KELSEY, C. H., President of the Title Guaranty (C. H. K.) and Trust Company, New York. KELTIE, John Scott, F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.), LL.D. St Andrews; Secr. Royal Geog. Soc.; Knight of Swedish Order of North Star, 1898; Hon. Memb. Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, Brussels, Amsterdam, Geneva, Lisbon, Buda - Pest, Philadelphia, etc.; for several years sub-editor of 'Nature'; inspector of geographical education, R.G.S., 1884; Librarian R.G.S., 1885; President Geographical Section, Brit. Ass., 1897; author of Finland,' 'Sir John Franklin,' etc., in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'History of Scottish Highlands and Clans,' 'Applied Geography,' 'The Partition of Africa'; editor of 'Statesman's Year Book' since 1880; editor of the 'Geographical Journal'; joint-editor of 'World's Great Explorers' Series, and 'The Systematic Atlas.' (J. S. K.) KEMPE, Harry Robert, A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E.; principal technical officer, Postal Telegraph Dept., England; author of Handbook of Electrical Testing,' 'The Electrical Engineer's Pocket Book,' The Engineer's Year (H. R. K.) Book,' etc. etc. KENNEDY, Sir Charles Malcolm, K.C.M.G., C.B.; Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-93; Lecturer on International Law, Univ. Coll. Bristol; Commissioner in the Levant, 1870-71; at Paris, 1872-86; Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882; author of 'Kennedy's Ethnological and Linguistic Essays' (editor), 'Diplomacy and International Law.' (C. M K*.) KENNEDY, Hon. Sir William Rann; Judge of the King's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice; Fellow, and afterwards Hon. Fellow of Pembroke Coll. Camb. (W. R. K.) KEYNES, John Neville, M.A., D.Sc.; University Lecturer in Moral Science, Cambridge, 1884; Member of the Council of the Senate of the University of Cambridge; author of 'Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic,' 'Scope and Method of Political Economy.' (J. N. K.)


KHNOPFF, Fernand: chevalier de l'ordre | de Leopold, de St Michel de Bavière; VicePres. de Cercle artistique et littéraire de Bruxelles, etc. (F. K*.) KIDD, Benjamin; formerly of Inland Revenue Department; author of 'Social Evolution,' 1894 (translations: German, 1895; Swedish, 1895; French, 1896; Russian, 1897; Italian, 1898; Czech, 1900; Danish, 1900); The Control of the Tropics, 1898. (B. K*.) KIRK, Edward C., D.D.S.; Dean of the Department of Dentistry, and Professor of Clinical Dentistry, University of Pennsylvania; Member of the National Dental Association and the American Academy of Dental Science; editor of 'The American Text-book of Operative Dentistry,' and of 'The Dental Cosmos' Magazine. (E. C. K.) KNIGHT, Major John G. D., Corps of Engineers, U.S.A., A.M.; Commandant U.S. Engineer School; in charge of U.S. Engineer Depot, 1895-1901, of Torpedo Defence, E. entrance N.Y. Harbour, 1898-1901; on Board of U.S. Torpedo System, 1896-1901. (J. G. D. K.) KNOTT, Cargill Gilston, D.Sc.; Lecturer

on Applied Mathematics, Edinburgh University; Assistant to Professor of Natural Philosophy, Edinburgh University, 1879-83; Prof. of Physics, Imperial University, Japan, 1883-91; conducted Magnetic Survey of Japan, 1887; awarded Keith Prize (Roy. Soc. Edin.) for work on magnetic strains, 1897; author of 'Ice,' 'Pneumatics,' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit., 'Physics,' etc. (C. G. K.) KNOWLING, Richard John, D.D.; Professor of New Testament Exegesis in King's College, London, 1894; Fellow, 1899; Examiner for Hall-Houghton Prizes at Oxford, 1897, and in Theology at Durham, 1895-96; Select Preacher at Cambridge, 1895; author of 'Witness of the Epistles," Acts of the Apostles,' (R. J. K*.)


KOREN, John; author of 'Economic Aspects of the Liquor Problem,' etc. (J. K.) KRAUS, Professor Dr F. X., the late; Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of Freiburg in Bresigau. (F. X. K.) KROPOTKIN, Prince Peter Alexeivitch; Gold Medal of Russian Geographical Society, 1864; crossed North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, 1864; Secretary to Physical Geography Section of Geographical Society; author of 'Lithuanians,' 'NijniNovgorod, Nova Zembla, Poland, Siberia, 'Tomsk,' 'Warsaw,' etc., in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'General Sketch of the Orography of East Siberia,' 'In Russian and French Prisons,' 'Recent Science in Nineteenth Century,' 'The State, its Part in History,' 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist.' (P. A. K.)


LABBE, Alphonse, Docteur ès sciences; chief of the Laboratory of Zoology, University of Paris; author of La Cytologie expérimentale,' 'Recherches zoologiques et biologiques sur les parasites du sang des vertèbres,' etc. (A. L*.) LAMB, Horace, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.; Chairman of Convocation, and of the General Board

of Studies, Victoria University; Professor of Mathematics, Owens Coll., Victoria Univ., Manchester; member of Council of the Royal Society, 1894-96; President of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 1899-1901; Fellow and Assistant Tutor, Trinity Coll., Camb., 1872-75; Professor of Mathematics, University of Adelaide, 1875-85; author of 'Motion of Fluids,' 'Hydrodynamics,' 'Infinitesimal Calculus. (H. LB.) LANE-POOLE, Stanley, M.A., Litt. D.; Professor of Arabic at Trin. Coll. Dublin; employed in Coin Department of British Museum, 1874-92; sent by Government on archæological missions to Egypt, 1883, and Russia, 1886; employed by Egyptian Government on archæological research at Cairo, 1895-97; corr. member of the Imperial Russian Archæological Society; lecturer at the Royal Institution, 1900; author of 'Catalogue of the Oriental and Indian Coins in the British Museum,' 'Lord Stratford de Redcliffe,' 'E. W. Lane,' 'Saladin,' 'Histories of the Moors in Spain,' 'Turkey,' 'The Barbary Corsairs,' 'The Mahommedan Dynasties,' 'The Mogul Emperors,' Egypt in the Middle Ages,' Egypt,' 'The Art of the Saracens of Egypt,' 'Cairo,' etc., edited 'Lane's Arabic Lexicon,' 'Arabian Society in the Middle Ages,' 'Life of General Chesney.' (S. L.-P.)

LANESSAN, J. M. A. de; Agr. de la faculté de Médicine; French Minister of Marine; formerly Governor-General of Indo-China; author of 'La Tunisie,' 'L'expansion coloniale de la France,' 'L'Indo-Chine française,' 'Du Protoplasme végétal,' ,'La Matière, la Vie et les êtres vivants.' (J. M. A. DE L.)


LANG, Andrew, M.A., LL.D.; Hon. Fellow of Merton Coll., Oxford; author of 'Apparitions, Ballad, Family, Molière, in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' 'Oxford,'' Helen of Troy,' 'Custom and Myth,' 'Myth, Ritual, and Religion,' 'Life, Letters, and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote,' Pickle the Spy,' 'The Book of Dreams and Ghosts,' Translations of 'Odyssey' (with Professor Butcher), and 'Iliad (with Myers and Walter Leaf); The World's Desire' (with Rider Haggard), 'The Making of Religion,' 'The Companions of Pickle,' 'A History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation,' 'Prince Charles Edward,' 'Magic and Religion,' 'The Mystery of Mary Stuart,' etc. (A. L.) LANG, W. H., M.B., D.Sc.; lecturer in botany, Queen Margaret's Coll., Glasgow author of 'Memoirs on Morphology,' Development of the Higher Cryptogams,' (W. H. L.)



LANKESTER, Edwin Ray, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.; Hon. Fellow of Exeter Coll., Oxford; Correspondent of the Institute of France; Director of the Natural History Department of the British Museum; Fullerian Professor of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy in the Royal Institution of London, 1898-1900; Fellow and Lecturer, Exeter Coll., 1872; Professor of Zoology and Compar. Anat. Univ. Coll., London, 1874-90; Regius Professor Natural History, Edinburgh, 1882; Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford, 18911898; Royal Medallist Royal Society, 1885; Vice-President Royal Society, 1896; Founder (1884), President (1892) Marine Biological Association (Plymouth Laboratory); Correspondent of the Institute of France; Corr. Mem. Imp. Acad. Sciences, St Petersburg; For. Mem. Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences, of the New York Academy of Sciences, of the Academy of the Lincei of Rome, of the Royal Belgian Academy, and of the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia; editor since 1869 of 'Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science' author of Hydrozoa, Mollusca, Mussel,' 'Polyzoa,''Protozoa,' 'Vertebrata,' 'Zoology,' in Ninth Edition of Ency. Brit.,' 'A Monograph of Cephalaspidian Fishes,' 'Comparative Longevity, Developmental History of the Mollusca,' Degeneration,' 'The Advancement of Science,' 'Zoological Articles'; jointeditor of 'Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley.' (E. R. L.) LARMOR, Joseph, M.A., D.Sc., Sec. R.S.; Fellow of St John's Coll., Camb.; University Lecturer in Mathematics; Professor of Natural Philosophy, Queen's Coll., Galway, and in the Queen's University in Ireland, 18801885, and formerly Fellow of the Royal University; Examiner in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the Univ. of London; lately President of the Cambridge Philosophical Society; Treasurer of the London Mathematical Society; author of Ether and Matter,' and various Memoirs on Mathematics and Physics. (J. L*.) | LAUGHTON, John Knox, M.A.; Professor Modern History, King's Coll., London; Secretary of the Navy Records Society; served in Baltic during the Russian War, 1854-55; in China, 1856-59; afterwards in Mediterranean and Channel; Mathematical and Naval Instructor, Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, 1866-73; also at Greenwich, and lecturer on Meteorology, 1873-85; Pres. R. Met. Soc. 18821884; Honorary Fellow, Caius College, Cambridge, 1895; author of 'Farragut, Fitzroy,' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit., Physical Geography in its Relation to the Prevailing Winds and Currents,' 'Studies in Naval History,' 'Nelson and his Companions in Arms, Life of Henry Reeve,' 'Sea Fights and Adventures,' 'Letters and Despatches of Lord Nelson,' 'Defeat of the Spanish Armada.' (J. K. L.) LAWRENCE, Rt. Rev. William, D.D., S.T.D.; Bishop of Massachusetts; sometime Professor of Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, and Dean Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, U.S.A.; author of 'Life of Amos A. Lawrence, Proportional Representation in the House of Clerical and Lay Delegates,' 'Visions and Service.' (W. L.) LAYARD, George S.; English art writer; author of Charles Keene,' 'Mrs Lynn Linton,' 'Portraits of Cruikshank by Himself,' 'Tennyson and his Pre-Raphaelite Illustrators,' etc. (G. S. L.) LECLERE, Léon; Professor of Universal History and History of Philosophy, University of Brussels. (L. L.) LEE, Sidney, B.A., Litt.D.; editor of Dictionary of National Biography and Supplement; Clark Lecturer in English Literature, Trin. Coll., Cambridge, 1901; author of 'Stratfordon-Avon from the Earliest Times to the Death

of Shakespeare,' 'Lord Herbert of Cherbury's Autobiography, with a continuation of his Life,' 'A Life of William Shakespeare.' (S. L.) LEE-WARNER, Sir William, K.C.S.I., M.A.; Secretary in the Political and Secret Departments of the India Office; Fellow of the University of Bombay; entered Indian Civil Service, 1869; political agent at Kolhapur; Under-Secretary in Foreign Office of India; Secretary to the Government of Bombay in Political and Judicial Departments; Chief Commissioner of Coorg and Resident in Mysore; additional member of the Viceroy's Council; served on Education Commission, the Financial Commission, etc.; author of "The Protected Princes of India,' 'The Citizen of India.' (W. L.-W.) LEGGE, J. G.; Chief Inspector of Reformatory and Industrial Schools, Home Office. (J. G. L.) LEGGE, Robin H.; editor of Music in the Nineteenth Century.' (R. H. L.) LEONARD, Rt. Rev. Abiel, A.M., S.T.D.; Bishop of the Diocese of Salt Lake. (A. LE.) LEVEY, George Collins, C.M.G.; London Correspondent of Melbourne Age'; editor and proprietor of Melbourne Herald,' 1863-68; editor and contributor to 'Melbourne Age, 1869-81; Secretary to Commissioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia, Melbourne, 1873, 1876, 1878, 1880-S1; Executive Commissioner, Amsterdam, 1883; Secretary Royal Commission, Hobart Exhibition, 1894-95; Secretary Colonial Adelaide Exhibition, 1887; Committee of Royal Commission to Paris Exhibition, 1900; member of Board of Advice to Agent-General of Victoria; author of 'Handbook to Australasia,' 'Australian Encyclopædia.' (G. C. L.)

LEWES, Vivian B., F.I.C., F.C.S.; Professor of Chemistry, Royal Naval College; Chief Superintending Gas Examiner to the Corporation of the City of London. (V. B. L.) LEWIS, Charlton T., Ph.D.; President N.Y. Prison Association, N.J. State Charities Aid Association; Chairman of Commission to revise Penal Laws of New Jersey; Lecturer on Life Insurance, Harvard and Columbia Universities, and on Principles of Insurance, Cornell Uni versity; author of 'History of Germany. Essays, Addresses, etc. (C. T. L.) LEYLAND, John; writer on naval questions. (J. LD.) LIAS, Rev. John James, M.A.; Professor of Modern Literature, St David's Coll., Lampeter, 1871-1880; examining chaplain to Bishop of Llandaff, 1887-98; Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral; author of 'Science in Relation to Miracles,' 'The Nicene Creed,' 'A Plea for Rationality in Ceremonial,' etc. (J. J. L*.) LIDDELL, F. F., M.A.; Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford; Barrister, Lincoln's Inn; editor of Manual of Military Laws.' (F. F. L.) LIGHTFOOT, T. B., M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E. ; author of 'The Mechanical Refrigeration of Air,' 'Preservation of Foods by Cold, etc. (T. B. L.) LILLIE, Arthur; champion Grand National Croquet Club, 1872; author of "Croquet,' 'Croquet Up to Date,' etc. (A. L.) LITTLEJOHN, Henry Harvey, M.B., B.Sc., F.R.C.S. Ed.; Lecturer in Medical Jurisprudence, School of Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Edinburgh. (H. H. L.) LLOYD, Lt. Col. E. M., R.E.; author of 'Vauban, Montalembert, Carnot: Engineer Studies,' etc. (E. M. L.)

LLOYD, Henry Demarest, Wealth against Commonwealth, partnership,' etc.

author of

Labor Co(H. D. L*.) LOCH, Charles Stewart, B.A.; Secretary to the Council of the London Charity Organization Society since 1875; Member Royal Commission on Aged Poor, 1893-95; Dunkin Trust Lecturer, Manchester College, Oxford, 1896; Vice President Royal Statistical Society, 1894, 1895, 1897, 1901; author of 'Charity Organization,' 'Old Age Pensions and Pauperism.' (C. S. L.) LOCOCK, Col. Herbert, C.B.;_ retired Colonel of Royal Engineers; Assist. Director of Works at Headquarters, 1881-86; Depy. Inspector-General of Fortifications at Headquarters, 1887-96. (H. Lo.) LODGE, Oliver Joseph, F.R.S.. D.Sc., LL.D.; Principal of the University of Birmingham; Professor of Physics, University Coll., Liverpool, 1881-1900; author of 'Elementary Mechanics,' 'Modern Views of Electricity,' 'Pioneers of Science,' 'Signalling without Wires,' etc. (O. J. L.) LORD, J. K., Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, Dartmouth College,

N.H.; author of New Hampshire' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.' (J. K. L*.) LOUIS, Prof. Henry, The Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England; author of A Handbook of Gold Milling,' etc. (H. L*.) LOUIS, Paul; French statistician; staff of the 'Revue Blanche." (P. L.) LOVE, Augustus E. H., M.A., F.R.S.; Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy, Oxford, since 1899; Fellow of St John's Coll., Camb.; University Lecturer in Matheinatics. (A. E. H. L.) LOW, A. P.; of the Geological Survey of Canada; author of 'Report on the Exploration in the Labrador Peninsula,' etc. (A. P. Lo.) LOW, Hon. Seth, LL.D.; Mayor of New York City; formerly President of Columbia University; Mayor of Brooklyn, 1881-85; President of the Archæological Institution of America. (S. L*.) LOW, Sidney James, M.A., L.C.C.; Lecturer on History, King's College, 1883-86; editor of the 'St James's Gazette, 1888-97; co-editor of the 'Dictionary of English History'; author of contributions to Nineteenth Century,' 'National Review,' 'Fortnightly Review,' etc. (S. J. L.) LOWE, Major F. M., R.A.; Senior Experimental Officer, Shoeburyness, 1884; Asst. Inspector, Army Inspection Dept., 1888; Gunnery Instructor, Brit. N. America, 1893; Gunnery Instructor, Coast Defence School, and Asst. Superintendent of Experiments at Shoeburyness. (F. M. L*.) LUGARD, Brig.-Gen. Sir Frederick John Dealtry, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O.; High Commissioner of Northern Nigeria; served Afghan War, 1879-1880; Soudan Campaign, 1885; Burma Campaign, 1886-1887; commanded expedition against slave traders on Lake Nyassa, 1888; employed by British East African Company; in command of Exploration of the Sabakhi, and Administrator of Uganda, 1889-92; employed by Royal Niger Company, 1894-95; West Charterland, 1896-97; H.M. Commissioner Hinterland of Nigeria and Lagos, 1897-99; Commandant of West African Frontier Force, 1897-99; author of 'Our East African Em(F. D. L.) pire.' LUMMIS, Charles Fletcher, editor of the 'Land of Sunshine' magazine, Los Angeles, California; author of 'The Right Hand of the Continent' (California), and numerous publications dealing with the western and southwestern States; formerly editor of the Los (C. F. L.) Angeles Daily Times.' LUNGE, George, Ph.D.; Professor of Technical Chemistry at the Polytechnic, Zürich; author of 'Acid and Alkali Manufacture,' etc. (G. L.) LUSHINGTON, Sir Franklin, M.A., the late; Chief Police Magistrate for London; author of Wagers of Battle.' (F. L*.) LYALL, Sir Alfred Comyn, K.C.B., G.C.I.E., Hon. D.C.L. Oxford, and LL.D. Cambridge; Member of Council of Secretary of State for India since 1888; Lieut.-Gov. North-West Provinces, India, 1882-87; author of 'British Dominion in India,' 'Asiatic Studies,' 'Life of Warren Hastings.' (A. C. L.)

LYDEKKER, Richard, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.; Geological Survey of India, 1874-82; author of 'Geology of Kashmir,' 'Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles, and Birds in British Museum,' 'Phases of Animal Life,' 'Royal Natural History,' 'A Manual of Palæontology' (with late Professor A. Nicholson), "The Great and Small Game of Europe, N. and W. Asia, and America,' 'Descriptions of South American Fossil Animals.' (R. L*.) LYNES, G. B., A.M.; sub-editor of the New Volumes of 'Ency. Brit.'; formerly literary editor of the 'Baltimore News,' and instructor in History and Acting Librarian, Union College, Schenectady, N.Y.; author of A Syllabus of Modern European History,' etc. (G. B. L.) LYONS, H. G.; Major R.E.; Director of the Survey Department, Egypt; editor of 'A Handbook of Travellers in Egypt;' author of 'Report on the Island and Temples of Philæ,' etc. (H. G. L.)

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'Introduction to Animal Morphology,' 'Morphology of Vertebrate Animals,' 'Text-Book of Human Anatomy,' etc. (A. MA.) MacALISTER, Donald, M.A., M.D., B.Sc., F.R.C.P., Fellów and Senior Tutor of St John's Coll., Camb.; University Lecturer in Medicine; Physician to Addenbrooke's Hospital; Univ. Memb. and Business Chairman General Medical Council; Chairman of British Pharmacopoeia Committee; Examiner in Medicine, Univ. Birmingham, and R. Coll. Physicians, London; Hon. President International Congress of Hygiene, Madrid, 1898; Lecturer in Natural Philosophy, St Bartholomew's Hospital, 1879; Goulstonian Lecturer, Royal College of Physicians, 1887; first Croonian Professor, 1888; Thomson Lecturer, Aberdeen, 1889; Examiner Victoria Univ. 1896-98; author of 'Ziegler's Pathological Anatomy, 'Nature of Fever,' 'Advanced Study and Research in Cambridge,' "The Practitioner' (with editorial committee), 'The British Pharmacopoeia,' etc. (D. M*) MACAULAY, W. H., M.A.; Fellow and Lecturer of King's Coll., Cambridge; late University Lecturer in Applied Mechanics, Cambridge. (W. H. M.) MacCOLL, D. S., M.A.; painter; art critic of the Saturday Review.' (D. S. M.) MacCORMAC, Sir William, Bt., the late; President of the Royal College of Surgeons, 1896-1901; Serjeant-Surgeon to King Edward VII. (W. MAO C.) MACDONELL, John, C.B., LL.D.; Master of the Supreme Court; author of 'The Law of Master and Servant,' etc. (J. Mt.) MACFARLANE, J.; formerly assistant, British Museum. (J. M'F.) MACGREGOR, Sir William, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.D. Aberdeen, B.Sc. Cámb., LL.D. Aberdeen; Governor of Lagos; Resident Surgeon and Resident Physician Glasgow Royal Infirmary, and Royal Lunatic Asylum, Aberdeen; Assistant Government Medical Officer, Seychelles, 1873; Surgeon Civil Hospital, Port Louis, Mauritius, 1874; Chief Medical Officer, Fiji, 1875; late Receiver-General and Administrator of the Government, and Acting High Commissioner and Consul General for the Western Pacific; Administrator of British New Guinea, 1888; Lieut.-Governor, 1895. (W. M'G.) MACKAY, T.; author of 'Methods of Social (T. M*.) Reform.' M'KENDRICK, John Gray, M.D., LL.D. (Hon. Aberdeen), F.R.S., F.R.S. Edin., F.R.C.P.; Professor of Physiology Glasgow University; Examiner in Physiology University of London, Victoria University, and University of Birmingham; formerly Examiner in Univ. of Oxford and Camb.; Fullerian Professor of Physiology at Royal Inst. of Great Britain; one of the lecturers in connexion with the Gilchrist Trust; has served on the Council of the Royal Society; member of Council of Royal Society of Edinburgh; President of Physiological Section of British Association; author of 'Narcotics,' 'Sleep,' 'Smell,' 'Stammering,' 'Stereoscope," "Taste, "Touch,' 'Voice,' 'Vascular System, in Ninth Edition of Ency, Brit., Animal Physiology,' 'A Text-Book of Physiology, Life in Motion, or Muscle Nerve,' Physiology,' 'Life of Helmholtz,' (J. G. M.) M'LAUGHLIN, Andrew Cunningham, A.M., LL.B.; Professor of American History, University of Michigan; author of 'History of Higher Education in Michigan,' 'Civil Government in Michigan,' 'Lewis Cass,' (A. C. M.) MACMAHON, Major Percy Alexander, R.A., Sc.D., F.R.S.; Professor of Artillery, Woolwich; President of London Mathematical Society, 1894-96; accompanied Government Expedition to observe eclipse of sun, Norway, 1896; author of numerous papers on Pure Mathematics, etc. (P. A. M.)



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MCMASTER, John Bach, Ph.D., Litt.D.; Professor American History, University of Pennsylvania; author of A History of the People of the United States.' (J. B. Mc M.) MCMILLAN, Walter G., F. C. S., M.I.M.M.; Sec. Inst. Elect. Engineers; late lecturer on Metallurgy, Mason Coll., Birmingham; author of A Treatise on Electro-Metallurgy, part author of 'Metals,' translator of Electric Smelting and Refining.' (W. G. M.) MACMORRAN, Alexander, K.C., A.M.I.C.E.; became editor of 'Justice of the Peace,' 1879, and has so continued; author of editions of 'Lumley's Public Health,' works on "The Public Health (London) Act, 1891,' the 'Local Government Act, 1888,' the 'Local Government Act, 1894,' the London Government Act, 1899, Poor Law Orders,' 'Poor Law Statutes,' etc. (A. M'M.)

MAC MUNN, Charles Alexander, M.A. M.D., F.C.S., F.R.M.S.; Hon. Pathologist and Physician, Wolverhampton General Hospital; author of The Spectroscope in Medicine,'' Outlines of Clinical Chemistry,' etc. (C. A. MAC M.) M'CORMICK, William Symington, M.A.; Professor of English Literature at University College, Dundee; author of 'Lectures on Literature,' joint - editor of the Globe 'Chaucer,' etc. (W. S. M.) MCCRADY, Edward, President of the Historical Society of South Carolina; author of 'History of South Carolina under the Proprietary Government,' and 'History of South Carolina under the Royal Government.'

M'Vey, Frank L., Ph.D.; fessor of Political Science, Minnesota.


MacWILLIAM, Robert, Professor at Gill Coll., Somerset East, Cape Colony. (R. M'W.) MAGNUS, Sir Philip: Superintendent of and Technological Examinations Secretary of Examinations Department, City and Guilds of London Institute; organising Director and Secretary of City and Guilds of London Institute, 1880-88; member Royal Commission on Technical Instruction, 1881-84; is Member of the Senate and Fellow of the London University; Vice-President and Fellow of College of Preceptors; Member of the Mathematical and author Physical Societies; of 'Technical Education' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.,' 'Lessons in Elementary Mechanics,' 'Hydrostatics and Pneumatics,' 'Industrial Education.' (P. M*.) MAITLAND, Frederic William, LL.D., D.C.L. (Oxford, Glasgow, Cracow); Professor of English Law, Cambridge; Reader of English Law at Cambridge, 1884; Corresponding Member of Roy. Prussian Academy; author of 'Justice and Police,'' Bracton's Note-Book,' 'History of English Law' (with Sir F. Pollock), 'Domesday Book and Beyond,' 'Township and Borough, 'Canon Law in England,' etc. (F. W. M.) MAITLAND, J. A. Fuller, M.A., F.S.A.; musical critic of 'The Times'; author of 'Life of Robert Schumann,' 'Masters of German Music,' 'The Musician's Pilgrimage,' Spitta's 'Life of Bach' (joint-translation with Mrs C. Bell); edited the Appendix to Grove's 'Dictionary of Music and Musicians,' 'English County Songs' (with Miss L. E. Broadwood), "The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book' (with W. B. Squire). (J. A. F. M) MANSON, Edward; Barrister, Middle Temple; author of 'Law of Trading Companies,' The Law of Debentures and Debenture Stock,' Practical Guide to Company Law,' etc. (E. MA.) MANSON, James Alexander; sub-editor of the New Volumes of the Ency. Brit.'; dramatic critic, 'Weekly Dispatch,' 1890-92; literary editor of the 'Daily Chronicle,' 1891; author of 'In Memoriam edition of Burns's Poetical Works,' 'Valour for Victoria,' 'Sir Edwin Landseer (Makers of British Art Series), etc. (J. A. M.) MARKBY, Sir William, K.C.I.E., D.C.L; Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and of Balliol College; judge of High Court, Calcutta, 1866-78; Reader in Indian Law, Oxford, 18781900; author of 'Lectures on Indian Law,' 'Elements of Law considered with Reference to General Principles of Jurisprudence.' (W. MA.) MARKHAM, Sir Cléments Robert, K.C.B., F.R.S.; President of the Royal Geographical Society, of the International Geographical Congress, 1894-99, and of the Hakluyt Society, and of the Geographical, Elizabethan, and Royal Society Clubs; entered the Navy in 1844; served in the Arctic Expedition of 1850-51; geographer to the Abyssinian Expedition; Assistant Secretary in the India Office, 1867-77; author of Geography (historical), 'Peru,' 'Polar Regions,' in Ninth Edition of 'Ency. Brit.'; 'Life of the Great Lord Fairfax,' 'The Fighting Veres,' 'History of Peru,' 'History of Persia,' 'History of the Abyssinian Expedition,' Lives_of Columbus, John Davis, and Major Rennell, 'The Paladins of Edwin the Great'; edited volumes for the Hakluyt Society, the Navy Records (C. R. M.) Society, the Roxburghe Club, etc. MARSHALL, George M., Ph.B.; Professor of English Language and Literature, University of Utah. (G. M. M.) MARTEL, Major C. P., R.A.; Sec. to the Ordnance Committee; late Professor of Artillery, Ordnance Coll. (C. P. M.) MARTIN, T. C.; editor of 'Electrical World and Engineer,' New York. (T. C. M.) MARTIN, Capt. W. R., R.N.; author of Nautical A Treatise on Navigation and (W. B. M*.) Astronomy,' etc.

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