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In other departments of learning ingenious men discuss points of difficulty ; conflicting arguments are accumulated, until the preponderance on one side is such, that the question in debate is considered settled. Others employ themselves in collecting facts, in classifying them, and in deducing general principles. And when all this is done, the important truths of the science, collected from such a variety of sources, and suitably arranged and expressed, are laid before the student, in order that he may become acquainted with them. Very seldom any one thinks it advisable, that the pupil, in the course of an education limited to a very few years, should be obliged to attempt an acquaintance with every scientific tract and book, whether of greater or less value. It is neither desirable nor possible, that he should be made to consult all the Memoirs of Institutes and of Royal Societies; and still less to read the multitudes of half-formed suggestions, which are either struck out in the momentary heat of debate, or are developed from all quarters in the natural progress of the mind. It belongs rather to professional men and to public instructers, to engage in this minute and laborious examination, and to present those, whom they instruct, with the results of their inquiries. It may indeed be desirable to give them some knowledge of the history of a science, and to point out such authors as are particularly worthy of being consulted by those, whose inclination and opportunities justify more particular investigations. But this is all, that is either demanded, or can be profitable in the ordinary course of education. And this is what is attempted to be done in the present work.

It has been my desire and endeavour, as was intimated at the beginning of these remarks, to give a concise, but correct view of the prominent principles in Intellectual Philosophy, so far as they seemed at present to be settled. The statement of these principles is attended with a conspicuous summary of the facts and arguments, on which they are based ; together with occasional remarks on the objections, which have been made from time to time. In selecting facts in confirmation of the principles laid down, I have sought those, which not only had relation to the point in hand, but which promised a degree of interest for young minds. Simplicity and uniformity of style have been aimed at, although in a few instances the statements of the writers referred to have been admitted with only slight variations, when it was thought they had been peculiarly happy in them.

THOMAS C. UPHAM,

Bowdoin COLLEGE, (MAINE,) May, 1828.

CONTENTS,

27

30

Chap. I.-UTILITY OF INTELLEC- III.-ORIGINAL STATE OF THE
TUAL PHILOSOPHY.

MIND.
SECT.

SECT,

Prejudice against this science 1 of the thoughts of the soul in dis-

Of the metaphysics of the schools 2 tinction from the soul itself 23

Its supposed practical inutility 3|Of original or innate knowledge 24

Iis supposed practical inutility an- Opinions on this subject before

wered

4 the time of Locke

25

I should be studied because it tends Engmeration of innate or connat-

0 gratify a reasonable curiosity 5 ural principles

26

Teaches us how to direct our in- Argument on the subject of innate

quiries

6 knowledge

Remarks of Mr.Locke on this point 7 Locke's opinions on this subject 28
Heps us in the correction of mental Opinions of Plato and Aristotle 29
erroors

8 Opinions at the present time

A belp in directing in education 9

Instructs us not only as to our IV.-THE SENSES AND EXTERNAL

thoughts but language

10

PERCEPTION.

Has a connection with other de.

partments of science

11

Teaches us to revere the wisdom Of general classifications of the

of our Creator

12

31

intellectual powers

Of the mental effort necessary in.

Of the classification into the Under-

this study.

13 standing and Will

32

Of the classification into active

IL-IMPLIED OR PRIMARY TRUTHS.

and intellectual powers

33

Classification into external and in-

Importance of preliminary state-

ternal states of the mind, &c. 34

35

zents in Intellectual Philosophy 14 Meaning of perception, &c.

There are original and authorita- Of the primary and secondary qual-

tive grounds of belief

15 ities of matter

36

The reality and certainty of our Sense and perceptions of smell 37
personal existence

16 Sense and perceptions of taste 38

Certainty of personal identity. 17Sense of hearing and of sounds 39

The external, material world has Manner in which we learn the place

an existence.

18 of sounds

40

Conidence is to be reposed in the Of bearing and language

41

memory

19 The sense & perceptions of touch 42.

Ludan testimony is to be received The idea of externality suggested

43

by the sense of touch

Of the distinction between primary Benefits of the sense of sight 44
and altimate truths

20

* a ground of knowledge

21 Statement of the mode or process

Admission of primary truths agree-

in visual perception

45

able to rigbt feelings towards Connection which the brain has

22

the Supreme Being

46

with perception

49

Impressions on the senses are ante- Ideas of existence and unity

cedents of perceptions

47||of ideas by means of the senses

Estimation of distances by sight 48 which are not strictly external 76

Estimation of distance when uneid- Evidence in favour of this account

ed by intermediate objects

of the origin of our ideas 77

Of objects seen on the ocean, &c. 50

Idea of extension not originally VII.-COMPLEX IDEAS OF SUB-

from sight

51

STANCES.

Measurements of magnitude by

the eye

52

Relation of simple ideas to complex 7

Knowledge of the figure of bodies

Division of complex ideas into

by the sight

53

three kinds

The senses reciprocally assist each

Complex ideas of substances

other

54

Spiritual existences included under

Supposed feelings of a being called

this class

8]

into existence in the full posses.

sion of his powers

Our knowledge of spirit the same

55

as of matter

The senses considered as the foun-

Of cohesion of bodies and motion

dation of belief and knowledge 56

by impulse

Historical notices on this subject 57 Explanations on certain ideas of

this class

V.-INTERNAL ORIGIN OF

Remarks on complexity in the states

THOUGHT.

of the mind

Connection existing between mete-

The senses are not the only source rial substances to be copsidered &

of our ideas.

58 ||of chimerical ideas of substances

The great sources of our knowledge

Of what is meant by real ideas

are twofold, external and internal 59|Importance of having real ideas
Writers who have objected to this Of our ideas of angels

twofold origin of our knowledge 60 Origin of the idea of God
Of what can truly be ascribed to

the senses and what not 61 || VIII-SIMPLE AND MIXED MODES

Instances of notions, which have an

internal origin

62 | Meaning of modes and classes of

Other instances of a like kind

them

Of certain ideas which are to be re-

Complex ideas called simple modes $

ferred to both sources

64|Of simple modes from number

Origin of our idea of power 65 Of simple modes from duration

Simple modes from extension

VI.— NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION Nature of the idea of infinity

Complex ideas called mixed modes

Of the different ways of forming

Division of ideas as they are more mixed modes

or less complex

66 Not the same mixed modes in all

Manner of determining what are languages

simple ideas

Futility of the definitions of the IX-COMPLEX IDEAS OF RELATION
Schools

68

Some ideas must necessarily be Of the susceptibility of perceiving

unsusceptible of definition 69

or feeling relations

10

Division of our simple ideas 70 Occasions on which feelings of re-

Simple ideas from one sense only* 7! lations may arise

Ideas from more than one sense 72 Of the use of correlative terms 10

Simple ideas from reflection 73 of the great number of our ideas

Simple ideas from both of the above of relation

mentioned sources

741 Of proportional relations

63

67

sect. || XII.—LANGUAGE. (1) NAT. SIGNS.

Certain terms are relative which

are supposed to be positive 106

Our mental states are to be made

Of ideas of Batural relations 107

known

Of ideas of instituted or conven-

138

Thoughts first expressed by ges-

tional relations

108

Cause and effect ideas of relation 109 || Mustrations of the great power

tures and the countenance 139

Ideas of relation implying or in-

of natural signs

140

volving cause and effect 110)

Pantomime

141

Place is an idea of relation

among the Romans

111

Chronological dates involve ideas

System of signs among the North

American Indians

142

of relation

112

Modes, substances, and relations

Symbolic exhibitions of Hebrews 143

Instinctive interpretation of cer-

resolvable into simple ideas 113

tain natural signs

144

The mind should be furnished

Use of natural signs

145

with a store of ideas

114

X.-OF CONCEPTIONS.

XIII.--LANGUAGE. (2) ORAL SIGNS.

Original formation of oral signs 146

Meaning of conceptions and how

Oral signs in general arbitrary 147

they differ from certain other

Words at first few in number

148

states of the mind

115

Formation of general names 149

Conceptions of objects of sight 116

Formation of appellatives the re-

Of the influence of habit on our

conceptions

sult of a feeling of resemblance 150

117

Our earliest generalizations often

Of the subserviency of our con-

incorrect

151

ceptions to description

118

Illustrations of our first classifica-

Of conceptions attended with a

tions from Savages of Wateeoo 152

momentary belief

119

Formation of verbs

153

Conceptions which are joined

Formation of adjectives, &c: 154

with perceptions

120

Of the origin of conjunctions 155

Of our conceptions at tragical

representations

Further remarks on their meaning 156

121

157

Application of these principles to

Of the origin of proper names

diversities in mental character 122

Principle of selection and signifi-

cancy of proper names 158

XI.-PARTICULAR AND GENERAL

XIV.-LANGUAGE. (3) WRIT. SIGNS.

ABSTRACT IDEAS.

Causes which led to the forma-

Origin of abstractions, &c. 123

tion of written signs

159

Class of particular abstract ideas 124 The first artificial signs, address-

Formation of the same

125

to the eye, were pictures

160

Of generalizations of the same 126 |Of hieroglyphical writing

161

or particular abstractions in

Written characters of the Chinese 162

poetry, painting, &c.

127 The Chinese character an im-

Of general abstract ideas 128

163

provement on bieroglyphical

Relative suggestions

129|| Written marks as signs of sounds 164

Of classifications of objects 130 Formation of syllabic alphabets 165
Of general abstract ideas in con-

nection with numbers, &c 131 XV.-RIGHT USE OF WORDS.

Speculations of philosophers 132

Diferent opinions formerly pre- Imperfections of words

166

vailing

133||Not to be used without meaning 167

Of the opinions of the Realists 134 Should stand for distinct ideas

168

Of the opinions of the Nominalists 135 The same word not to be used at
Opinions of the Conceptualists 136 same time in different senses 169
Histories of philosophical opinions 137 || Meaning of words as used by

SECT.

different persons

170 ent objects of perception

Words to be employed agreeably Historical remarks on the doctrine

to good and reputable use 171 of association

20

What constitutes this use

172

The nature of the subject is to

XVIII.-CASUAL CONNECTIONS O)

be considered

173

THOUGHT.

Not words for all our ideas 174

Of the definition of words 175 | Association sometimes misleads

Of an universal language

176

our judgments

Remarks of Condillac on the Ideas of extension and time

changes, &c, of language 177 ||Of high and low notes in music 20

Ideas of extension and colour 20

XVI.- CHARACTERISTICS OF Whether there be heat in fire, &c. 20

LANGUAGE.

Whether there be meaning in

words

211

Remarks on peculiarities of style 178|| Benefit of examining such con-

Characteristics of style in unciv- nections of thought

211

ilized nations

179 || Power of the will over mental as-

Origin of apologues, &c.

180 sociations

211

Style of civilized nations 181 | Associations controlled by an in-
Characteristics of language de- direct voluntary power

21
pend on the habits of the people 182

Languages help us in forming an XIX.

-OF INTELLECTUAL HABITS

idea of national character 183
Correspondence between national Nature and extent of habits 214

intellect &progress of language 184 Habits of perception, &c. 21

Different languages suited to dif- Habits of external perception in

ferent minds, &c.

185 connection with the improve-

Views of Hermes in respect to

ment of the senses

21

the English, &c. languages 186Habits in connection with associa. 21
Same author in respect to Greek Habits of volition or willing 21

& Roman character & literat. 187 || Habits of will or volition further
Requisites of an interpreter 188 considered

215

Habits of reasoning & imagination 22

XVII.-.

-LAWS OF MENTAL Habits in connection with the

ASSOCIATION.

emotions and passions

22

Of the intellectual habits of men 22

Meaning of mental association 189 in active life

Resemblance its first general law 190

Not in every particular necessary 191 XX.-OF ATTENTION.

Resemblance in the effects 192

Resemblance in sounds of words 193 | General nature of attention 22

Contrast the second general law 194 | Different degrees of attention

Practical applications of this Dependence of memory on atten. 21

principle

195 Further illustrations of the same 22

This principle of association the Relation of this principle to the

foundation of antithesis 196 views of Reid & Hartley in re-
Contiguity the third general law 197 spect to muscular habits
Cause & effect fourth primary law 198|Objections to the views of Reid
Secondary laws of association 199 and Hartley

23

Of genius, &c.

200|Of attention in legerdemain, &c. 22

Prevailing laws of association in Whether the mind can attend to

poetry and in the sciences

201

more than one object at the

Dependence of transitions in style

same time?

231

on association

202||On attending at the same time to

Associations suggested by pres- different parts in music

23

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