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whatever elevations and subsidences these countries may have undergone, they have not been connected either with Asia, Africa, or South America during the whole Tertiary period.

In conclusion, I would especially remark that the various changes in the outlines and mutual relations of our continents, which I have now endeavoured to establish, must not be supposed to have been all strictly contemporaneous. Some may have been a little carlier or a little later than others ; some changes may have been slower, others more rapid ; some may have had but a short duration, while others may have persisted through considerable geological periods. But, notwithstanding this uncertainty as to details, the great features of the geographical revolutions which I have indicated, appear to be established by a mass of concurring evidence; and the lesson they teach us is, that although almost the whole of what is now dry land has undoubtedly once lain deep beneath the waters of the ocean, yet such changes on a great scale are excessively slow and gradual; so that, when compared with the highest estimates of the antiquity of the human race, or even with that of most of the higher animals, our existing continents and oceans may be looked upon as permanent features of the earth's surface.

ERRATOI.

At page 59 I have said that there are only three or four species of Mimosa which are sensitive. This is a mistake, as the greater portion of the species in the extensive genus Mimosa, as well as some species of several other genera jf Leguminosa, and also of Oxalidaceæ, possess this curious property. I cannot find, however, that any one has suggested in what way the sensitiveness may have been useful to the species which first acquired it. My guess at an explanation may therefore induce botanists who are acquainted with the various species in a state of nature, to suggest some better solution of the problem.

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A.

Arrus-pheasant, wonderful plumage of,

205
Abrus prccatoria, perhaps a case of Arums, 48
mimicry, 226

Assai of the Amazon, 43
Absorption-colours or pigments, 183 Auckland Isles, handsome flowers of,
Acræidze, warning colours of, 174

238
Adaptive characters, 150, 155

Audubon, on the ruby humming-birds,
Affinities, how to determine doubtful, 130, 137
148

Australian Region, mammalia of, 340
African large mammalia, recent immi. birls of, 340
grants, 323

extinct fauna of, 341
Allen, Mr. Graut, on protective colours its supposed uuion with S. America,
of fruits, 223

341
Alpine Rowers, why so beautiful, 232 Azara, on food of humming birds, 135
Amboyna, large sized butterflies of, 258
American monkeys, 118
American Continents, past history of,

B.
332

BAJBOOS, 52
Ancient races of North and South uses of, 53-58
America, 298

Bananas, wild, 47
Andaman Islands, pale butterflies of, Banana, 18
260

Barber, Mrs. on colour changes of pupa
white-marked birds of, 263

of Papilio nircus, 168
Anderson, Mr. W. Marshall, on cranium Barbets, 105

froin N. American mound, 296 Bark, varieties of in tropical forests, 33
Andes, very rich in humming.birds, 139 Barometer, range of, at Batavia, 24
Animal colours, how produced, 134 Batavia, Meteorology of, 4
Jise in tropical forests, 70

and London, diagram of mean
Anthribidze, 95

temperatures, 5
Auts, wasps, and becs, 80

greatest rainfall at, 24
numbers of, in India and Malaya, range of barometer at, 24
81-88

Bates, Mr, on climate at the Equator, 24
destructive to inscct-specimens, 85 on scarcity of forest-flowers on
and vegetation, special relation Amazon, 61
between, 89

on animal life in Amazon valley, 70
Apatura and Heterochroa, resemblance on abundance of butterflies at Ega,

of species of, 257
Apes, 116

on importanco of study of butter
Aqueous vapour of atmosphere, its flies, 78
influence on temperature, 9

on leaf-cutting ants, 88
quantity at Batavia and Clifton, 10 on blind ants, 88
Aretic plants, large leaves us, 236

un bird-catching spider, 97
flowers and fruits brightly coloured, on use of toucau's bill, 108
237

on large serpouts, 115
Areca palm, 45

on the habits of humming birde,
Arenga saccharifera, 43

132

75

Bu foreste abundance of, in tropical

Bats, 118

Campyloplcrus hemilcucurus, pugnaBeetles, 94

cious and ornamental, 214
abundance of, in New Forest-clear Cattleyas, 51
ings, 96

C'ecropias, trees inhabited by ants, 89 probable use of horns of, 202 Celebes, large and peculiarly formed Belt, Mr. on virgin forests of Nicaragua butterflies of, 259 62

white-marked birls of, 263
on aspects of tropical vegetation, 67 Centipedes, 97
on leaf.cutting ants, 86

Ceylon and Malaya, resemblances of
on an Acacia inhabited by ants, 89 fauna of, 327
on uses of ants to the trees they Chameleons, 113
live on, 90

Chameleon, cause of changes of its on a leaf-like locnst, 93

colour, 170 on tree-frogs, 116

Chemical action changes colours, 183
on the habits of humming birds, Chili, humming-birds of, 141
133, 134

Chiroptera, 119
on uneatable bright-coloured frog, Chrysobactron Rossii, 238
175

Clark, Rev. Hamlet on leaf-cutting on use of light of glow-worm, 205

ants, 86 Betel-nut, 45

Climate of Equator, general features of, Bill of humming-birds, 129

17 Biology, by-paths of, illustrated, 251 Climates of Timor, gola, and Scot. Birus, 99

land compared, 14 Jiow many known, 124

Climbing plants of tropical forests, 37 cases of local variation of colour

uses of, 39 among, 262

Cockatoos, 100 influence of locality on colours of, Coelogynes, 51 255

Coloratiou of tropical birds, 110 which fertilize flowers, 273, 274 Colour, cause of change of, in humning, and insects blown to uceanic islands, birds, 144 308

Colour in nature, problems of, 159 of Palearctic Region, 316

how far constant, 161 of Ethiopian Region, 318

as affected by heat and light, 161 of Oriental Region, 320

of tropical birds, 163 Bonelli, Mr., on the Sappho comet of tropical butterflies, 164 humming-biru, 132

of temperate and tropical flowers, Bullock on food of humming-birds, 153

165 Buprestidæ, 94

changes of, in animals produced by Burchell, Dr., on the “stone mes.

coloured light, 167 einbryanthemum," 223

voluntary change of, in animals,

170

not usually influenced by coloured conspicuousness of in tropical light, 171 forests, 73

Colour, the nature of, 180 colours and form of, 74

how produced, 183 peculiar lobits of tropical, 76

changed by heat, 183 tropical and temperate compared as a noriual product of organization, to colour, 164

185 females do not choose their part as a means of recognition, 196 ners, 200

proportionate to integumentary de. with gaily-coloured females, 204

velopment, 198 numbers and variety of, 255

not caused by female selection, 198 influence of locality on colours of, Colour absent in wind-fertilized flowers, 255

233 Buttressed trees, 31

same theory of, in animals and

plants, 234

of flowers and their distribution, C.

235 CALAMUS, 41

Colour, nomenclature of, formerly im. Callithea, imitated by species of Cata perfect, 247 gramma and Agrias, 257

Colour-development as illustrated by Cullithea markii, 75

humming birds, 212

INDEX.

A.

Arylis-pheasant, wonderful plumage of,

205 Abrus precatoria, perhaps a case of Arums, 48 mimicry, 226

Assai of the Amazon, 43 Absorption-colours or pigments, 183 Auckland Isles, handsome flowers of, Acræidæ, warning colours of, 174

238 Adaptive characters, 150, 155

Audubon, on the ruby humming-birds, Affinities, how to determine doubtful, 130, 137 148

Australian Region, mammalia of, 340 African large mammalia, recent immi. birils of, 340 grants, 323

extinct fauna of, 341 Allen, Mr. Grant, on protective colours its supposed uuion with S. America, of fruits, 223

341 Alpine flowers, why so beautiful, 232 Azara, on food of humming-birds, 135 Amboyna, large sized butterflies of, 258 American monkeys, 118 American Continents, past history of,

B. 332

BAMBOOS, 52 Ancient mces of North and South uses of, 53-58 America, 298

Bananas, wild, 47 Andaman Islands, pale butterflies of, Banana, 48 260

Barber, Mrs. on colour changes of pupa white-marked birds of, 263

of Papilio nireus, 168 Anilerson, Mr. W. Marshall, on cranium Barbets, 105

froin N. American mound, 296 Bark, varieties of in tropical forests, 33 Andes, very rich in humming.birds, 139 Barometer, range of, at Batavia, 24 Animal colours, how produced, 181 Batavia, Meteorology of, 4 life in tropical forests, 70

and London, diagram of mean Anthribide, 95

temperatures, 5 Auts, wasps, and becs, 80

greatest rainfall at, 24 numbers of, in India and Malaya, range of barometer at, 24 81-88

Bates, Mr. on climate at the Equator, 24 destructive to insect-specimens, 85 on scarcity of forest-flowers on and vegetation, special relation

Amazon, 61 between, 89

on animal life in Amazon Valley, 70 patura and Heterochroa, resemblance on abundance of butterflies at Ega, of species of, 257

75 Apes, 116

on importance of study of butterAqueous vapour of atmosphere, its flies, 78 influence on temperature, 9

on leaf-cutting ants, 88 quantity at Batavia and Clifton, 10 on blind ants, 88 Arctic plants, large leaves uf, 236

un biru-catching spider, 97 flowers and fruits brightly coloured, on use of toucau's bill, 108 237

on large serpents, 115 Areca palm, 45

on

he habits of humming birus, Arenga saccharifera, 13

132

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