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Bats, 118
Beetles, 94

abundance of, in New Forest-clear.

ings, 96

probable use of horns of, 202
Belt, Mr. on virgin forests of Nicaragua,

on aspects of tropical vegetation, 67
on leaf-cutting ants, 86
on an Acacia inhabited by ants, 89
on uses of ants to the trees they

live on, 90
on a leaf-like locust, 93
on tree-froys, 116
on the habits of humming birds,

133, 134
on uneatable bright-coloured frog,


on use of light of glow-worm, 205
Betel-nut, 45
Bill of humming-biris, 129
Biology, by-paths of, illustrated, 251
Birds, 99

how many known, 124
cases of local variation of colour

among, 262
influence of locality on colours of,

which fertilize flowers, 273, 274
and insects blown to uceanic islands,

of Palæarctic Region, 316
of Ethiopian Region, 318

of Oriental Region, 320
Bonelli, dir., on the Sappho comct

huniming.bird, 132
Bullock on food of humming-birds, 153
Buprestidæ, 94
Burchell, Dr., on the

"stone mes.
embryanthemum," 223
Butterflies, abundance of, in tropical
forests, 72
conspicuousness of in tropical

forests, 73
colours and form of, 74
peculiar hobits of tropical, 76
tropical and temperate compared as

to colour, 164
females do not choose their part-
with gaily-coloured females, 204
numbers and variety of, 255
influence of locality on colours of,

Buttressed trees, 31

Campyloplerus hemilcucurus, pugna-

cious and ornamental, 214
Cattleyas, 51
Cecropias, trees inhabited by ants, 89
Celebes, large and peculiarly formed
butterflies of, 259

white-marked birds of, 263
Centipedes, 97
Ceylon and Malaya, resemblances of

fauna of, 327
Chameleons, 113
Chameleon, cause of changes of its

colour, 170
Chemical action changes colours, 183
Chili, humming birds of, 141
Chiroptera, 119
Chrysobactron Rossii, 238
Clark, Rev. Hamlet on leaf-cutting

ants, 86
Climate of Equator, general features of,
Climates of Timor, Angola, and Scot-

land compared, 14
Climbing plants of tropical forests, 37

uses of, 39
Cockatoos, 100
Coelogynes, 51
Coloratiou of tropical birds, 110
Colour, cause of change of, in humning,

birds, 144
Colour in nature, problems of, 159

how far constant, 161

as affected by heat and light, 161
of tropical birds, 163
of tropical butterflies, 164
of temperate and tropical flowers,

changes of, in animals produced by

coloured light, 167
voluntary change of, in animals,

not usually influenced by coloured

light, 171
Colour, the nature of, -180

how produced, 183
changed by heat, 183
a normal product of organization,

as a means of recognition, 196
proportionate to integumentary de.

velopment, 198

not caused by female selection, 198
Colour absent in wind-fertilized flowers,
same theory of, in animals and

plants, 234
of flowers and their distribution,

Colour, nomenclature of, formerly im.

perfect, 247
Colour-development as illustrated by

humming-birus, 212

ners, 200

Callithea, imitated by species of Cata.

gramma and Agrias, 257
Callithca markii, 75

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Colour-devclopment, local canses of, Diagram of mean temperature at Batavia

and London, 5
in animals, summary, 216

of rainfall at Batavia and London,
Colour-perception, supposed recent

growth of, 244

Dianthus alpinus, D. glacialis, 232
Colour-sense, origin of the, 241

Distribution of humming-birds, 138
need for, 243

Dragons or flying-lizards, 113
not of recent origin, 246

Drugs from equatorial forest-trees, 38
not wholly explicable, 248 Duke-of-York”. Island, pale-coloured
Colours, classification of organic, 172 insects of, 259
protective, 172

Islands, remarkable white plum.
warning, 174

aged birds of, 263
sexual, 777

Dyes from equatorial forest-trees, 36
typical, 179

Dynastidæ, 95
of animals, how produced, 184

probable use of horns of, 202
theory of protective, 187
theory of warning, 189
theory of sexual, 192

theory of typical, 275
Colours and ornaments of humming. Eaku, Mr. GEORGE WINDSOR, on divi.
birds, 127

sion of Malay Archipelago, 307
Colours of fruits, attractive, 224 Earth-sculpture or surface.geology, 250
protective, 225

Earth-works, North American, 292
Colours, which first perceived, 213 Easter Island, sculptures on, 291
Comeles sparganurus, very pugnacious, Eiton, genus of foraging ants, 87

Elateridae, luminous species perhaps
Composite, arborescent in oceanic mimetic, 205
islands, 276

Emperor-moth, protective coloration of,
Continent, past changes of the great 174
Eastern, 321

Environment, relation of living things
Continents of Tertiary period, proballe

to, 254
aspect of, 343

Epicalia, sexes of, differently coloured,
Copridæ, 95

probable use of horns of, 202 Epilobium angustifolium, E. parvi-
C'rematogaster, genus of ants, 83

florum, 233
Cross-fertilization of flowers, use of, Epimachine, 150

Ejnator, cause of uniform high tempera-
complex arrangements for, 229 ture near, 6
Cuckoos, 104

short twilight at, 21
Equatorial climate, general features of,

uniformity of in all parts of the

world, is

local diversities of, 19
DASAIDE, warning colours of, 174 Equatorial forests, general features of,
Dadainæ, Acraeina and Heliconiine, 29
local resemblances of, 256

Equatorial forest-belt, cause of, 27
Daphne pontica, 230

Equatorial heavens, aspect of, 23
Darwin, Mr., on mode of cross-fertiliza. Equatorial zone, tenperature of, 3
tion and its use, 228

Ethiopian Region, 317
not too highly rated, 252

Eugenes fulgens 134
on vegetation of Galapagos, 272 Eunica and Siderone, resemblance of
on use of scenteil leaves, 277

species of, 257
on former union of West Indian Euplæı, pale species of, in Moluccas
islands and S. America, 306

and New Guinea, 258
on oceanic islands, 307

Euro-Asiatic continent, miocene fauna
revolution in thought effected by, of, 328

Eustephanus, 141
Deserts on line of tropics, 28

Euslephanus galerilus, 143
Desmoncus, 41

Euterpe oleracan, 13
De Vry, Mr., on the sugar-palm, 43 Evaporation and condensation, equa.
Dews, cause of heavy tropical, 10

lising effects of, 16




Frogs of oceanic islands, 309

Fruit-bats, 119
Female birds, greater brilliuucy of Fruits of equatorial forest-trees, 36
some, 211

Fruits, attractive colours of, 224
Female insects, greater brilliancy of protective colours of, 225
sonie, 203

greater antiquity of protected than
Ferns, 46

attractive, 227
Ferns, preponderance of in Tahiti and

Juan Fernandez, 269, 270
Fiji Islands, pale butterflies of, 259

Fire-ants, 83
Fishes, causes of general coloration of, GALAPAGOS, colours of productions of,

Flowering-trunks, probable cause of, 31 poor in Mowers and insects, 235
Flowers, comparative scarcity of in wecdy vegetation of, 272
equatorial forests, 60

Garlener, Dr., on a large water-boa, 115
Flowers and insects, 64

Geckos, 112
Flowers of temperate zones brilliantly Geiger, on ancient perception of colour,
coloured, 165

comparatively scarce in tropical Geranium pratense, G. pusillum, 233
forests, 167

Gibbons, 116
Flowers, attractive colours of, 223 Ginger-worts, 47
fertilized by insects, 228

Gladstone, Jr., on the colour sense, 245
attractive odours of, 230

Glow-worm, use of its light, 205
wben sweet-scented not conspi. Goliath cuckoo, 105
cuously coloured, 230

Gosse, Mr. on Jamaica humming-birds,
attractive grouping of, 231

132, 135
alpine, why so beautiful, 232

on the pugnacity of humming-birds,
why allied svecies differ in beanty,


on rooid of humming-birils, 137
when wind-fertilized not colouro, Could, Jr. on the motions of lumining.

birds, 131
relation of colours of, to distribu Grammatophyl!uins, 51
tion, 235

Green, why the most agrecable colour,
and fruits, recent views as to action 214
of light on, 236

Grisebach, on cause of vivid colours of
Flowers of Auckland and Campbell's arctic flowers, 237
Isles, bright coloured, 238

Guilielma speciosa, 42
Flying lizards, 113

Guns from cquatorial forest-trees, 36
Foliage, two chicf types of, in tropical
forests, 33
colours of, 221

Foot of savages does not approach
that of -pes, 289 (note)

llabcnariu chlorantha, 230
Forest-belt, cause of equatorial, 27 llabits of humıning birds, 130
Forest-belts, temperate, 29

lleat due to condensation of atmo-
Forest-tree, section of a Bornean, 32 spheric vapour, 14
sormed from climbers, 32

changes colours, 183
Forest-trees, characteristics of, 30 lleliconiince and Acræinæ, local re-
Forest-trees of low growth, 34

semblances of, 256
Forest-trees, uses of equatorial, 35 Blindostan and Africa, resemblances of
Forests, cffect of oa rainfall and drouglit, fauna of, 328

llooker, Sir J. on flowers of Auckland
devastatiou caused by destruction Isles, 238
of, 20

on deficient odour of New Zealand
equatorial, 29

flowers, 277
undergrowth of tropical, 34 Hornbills, 107
Formica gigas, 81

Hlorns of beetles, probable use of, 202
Foxes, uone in Isle of Wight in 1605, Hlowling-inonkeys, 118

Humming-biris, number of, 124, 133
Frous and toads, 116

distinctness of, 125, 129
Fing, with bright colours uneatable, 175 structure of, 125

Local causes of colour-development, 216
Locusts, richly coloured tropical, 94
Longicorns, 95
Lophornis ornatus, very pugnacious,

Lord Howe's Island, white rail in, 264
Lubbock, Sir John, on colour percep-

tion in insects, 255

llumming birds, colours and ornaments
of, 127

descriptive names of, 129
motions and habits of, 130
display of ornaments by males, 134
food of, 135
nests of, 137
geographical distribution and varia.

tion of, 138
of Juan Fernandez, 140
influenced by varied conditions in

South America, 147
relations and affinities of, 148
sternum of, 151
eggs of, 152
feather-tracts of, 152
resemblance of swifts to, 152
nestlings of, 153
differences from sun-birds, 154


Indian peninsula once an island, 325

ancient fauna of, 325
Insects, wingless, 97

general observations on tropical, 98
Insular plants and insects, relations of,

Interference.colours in animals, 184
Islands, influence of locality on colour

in, 257


Juan Fernandez, humming-birds of, 140

insects of, 270
abundance of humming-hirus in,


Macaws, 100
Madagascar, white-marked butterflies

of, 260
Madagascar once united to Africa. 325
Madagascar and Malaya, resemblances

of fauna of, 328
Male birds, origin of ornamental plum.

age of, 205
Male birus which incubate, 212
Male humming.birds produce a shriller

sound, 215
Males, theory of display of ornaments

by, 207
Malva sylvestris, 11. rotundifolia, 233
Mammals, 116
Mammalia, supposed variations of, com-
parable to those of butterflies, 261

local resemblances of, in Africa, 262
Mammalia of Palaarctic Region, 315

of Ethiopian Region, 317
of Oriental Region, 319
of niocene period in Euro-Asia,

Man, antiquity and origin of, 280

indications of extreme antiquity

of, 285
highly developed at very early

period, 286

antiquity of intellectual, 290
Mangroves, 58
Manicaria saccifera, 41
Mantidæ, 91
Mantis resembling an orchis-Power, 173
Marantaceæ, 47
Marmosets, 118
Marshall, Messrs. on barbets, 106
Martins, M. Charles, on increased size

of leaves of arctic plants, 236
Mates rendily found by birds, 200
Mauritia, palm, 40
Maximiliana regia, 11
Meiglyptes, 150
Meldoli, Mr. R. on variablc colouring

in insecte, 170
Meliphagidæ in Auckland Isles pro-

bably flower-fertilizers, 239
Melliss, Mr, on flora of St. Helena, 275
Digrations between N. America and
Euro-Asia, 334
between N. America and South
America, 335


Lasn and sea, peculiar distribution of,
existing distribution of, very

ancient, 312
Leaf-insects, 92
Leaves, supposed use of odours of, 277
Lemuria, an hypothetical continent,

not required, 328
Leopoldinia major, 45
Lepidoptera, diurnal, 72
Leptalis, a good case of mimicry, 189
Loptena crastus, 256
J.ight, theory of, as producing colours,

action of, on plants, 222
supposed direct action of, on colours

of flowers and fruits, 236
Lizards, 111

man, 284

Odlontomachus, genus of ants, 8?
Odour deficient in New Zealand Norrers,

Odours absorbed unequally by dif-
ferently coloured stuffs, 266

of flowers attractive, 230
Ecodoma crphulotes, 85
(Ecophylla smaraydina, 82
Ogle, Dr. on colour and sense percep-

tion, 265
Oil from palms, 45
Oncidiums, 51
Optical theory of colour, 150
Orchids, 49
Oriental Region, 319
Ornamental hunming-birls, the most

pugnacious, 214
Ornaments, display of, by malo humà

ming.birds, 134
Orthoptera, 91

Mesembryanthemum, stone, 223
Meteorological phenomena, intensity of,

at the equator, 23
Mimicry, theory of, 189
llimosa pudlica, 59
Mirart, Professor, on animal origin of

on the divergent allinities of man

and apes, 288
Mungredien, Jr. on showy and fragrant

flowers, 230
Monkeys, 116
Jonkeys and pigeons, 102
Moseley, Jr. on humming biruls of Juan

Fernandez, 143
Moseley, Jr. II. N. on birds conveying

seeds to islands, 268
Moths, conspicuously coloured cater.

pillars of, uneatable, 175
Motmots, 105
Mott, Mr. Albert, on antiquity of in.

tellectual man, 291
Mounds of N. America, antiquity of,

Mound-builders, a semi-civilized race,

Miller, Dr. llermann, on fertilization
of alpine flowers, 232
on fertilization of Martagon lily,

on variations of insect-fertilized

flowers, 275
on dillerences of allied species of

flowers, 233
Jusa parrulisiaca, 48
Musace:2, 48
Mygale, a birl-catching spiller, 97
Jysis chameleon, changes of colour of,



VEArctic Regiox, mammalia of, 329

birds of, 330
Veotropical region, mammalia of, 331

birds of, 332
Vests of huming-birus, 137
Newton, Professor, on appearance of

living humming-birus, 130
New Zcaland, poor in flowers and in-

sects, 235
New World, regions of the, 329
North American earth-works, 292
Vuttal, Mr. ou the rufous llame-bearer,

Vymphalidae, local resemblances of
species of distinct genera of, 257

PALEARCTIC Region, 314
Palms, 40

height of, 41

climbing, 41
Palm-vine, 43
Palm-trees, uses and products of, 12–

Panılanaceæ, 49
Papilio, pale varieties of, in Moluccas

and New Guinea, 258
Papilionid:e and Nymphalide, local

resemblances of, 255
Papilio nireus, changes of colour of

pupa of, 168
Parrots, 99

red in Moluccas and New Guinea,

black in New Guinea and Mada-

gascar, 264
Passeres, 108
Phyllostoma, 120
Phasmidr, 91--93
Phænic sylvestris, 45
Phaethornithinæ, 136
Pheasants, brilliant plumage of, in colul

countries, 163
Phcidole, genus of ants, 84
Philippine Islands, metallic colours of
butterflies of, 259

white-marked birds of, 263
Picarie, 103
Pickering, Mr. on plants of Pacific

Islands, 269
Pierida and Lycænidæ, local resem.

blances of, 256
Pigeons, 102

black in Australia and Madagascar,



OCEANIC Islands, peculiar floras of, 269

theory of, 307

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