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Frogs of oceanic islands, 300
Fruit-bats, 119
Fruits of equatorial forcat trees, 38
Fruits, attractive colours of, 224

protective colours of, 238
grouter antiquity of protected than

attractive, 227



FENALE binis, greater brilliancy of

some, 211
Female insets, greater brilliancy of

somie, 203
Ferns, 46
Ferns, preponderance of in Tahiti and

Juan Fernandez, 269, 270
Fiji Islands, pale butterflies of, 259
Fire-ants, 83°
Fishes, causes of general coloration of,
Flowering-trunks, probable cause of, 34
Flowers, comparative scarcity of in

equatorial forests, 60
Flowers and insects, 64
Flowers of temperate zones brilliantly
coloured, 165
comparatively scarce in tropical

forests, 167
Flowers, attractive colours of, 229

fertilized by insects, 228
attractive odours of, 230
wben sweet-scented not congui.

cuously coloured, 230
attractive grouping of, 231
alpine, why so beautiful, 232
why allied svecies differ in beanty,

when wind-fertilized not colourat,

relation of colours of, to distribu.

tion, 235
and fruits, recent views as to action

of light on, 236
Flowers of Auckland and Campbell's

Isles, bright coloured, 238
Flying.lizards, 113
Foliage, two chicf types of, in tropical
forests, 33

colours of, 221
Foot of savages does not approach

that of .pes, 289 (note)
Forest-belt, cause of equatorial, 27
Forest-belts, temperato, 29
Forest-tree, section of a Bornean, 32

formed from climbers, 32
Forest-trees, characteristics of, 30
Forest-trees of low growth, 34
Forest-trees, uses of equatorial, 35
Forests, clict of or rainfall and drouglit,
devastatiou caused by destruction

of, 20
equatorial, 29

undergrowth of tropical, 34
Formica gigas, 81
Foxes, none in Isle of Wight in 1605,

Gataragon, colours of productions of

poor in flowers and insects, 935

wecdy vegetation of, :7!
Gardener, Dr., on a large water boa, 116
Geckos, 112
Ciciger, on ancient porception of colour,

Geranium pratense, (. pusillum, 913
Gibbons, 110
Ginger-wortn, 47
Gladstone, Mr, on the colour sense, 245
Clow-worm, line of Ila liglit, 200
Goliath cuckoo, 108
Cosso, Mr, on Jamaica humming birls,
132, 136

on the pugnavity of humming-binta,

on lood of humming himin, 187
Could, Jr, on the motions of humming

birds, 131
Grammatophylluns, 61
Green, why thu mual agreeable colour,

Ciniselach, on cunse of vivid colours of

arotie lower'n, 237
Guilielma nacional, 19
Guns from equatorial for at troos, 30


labiaurine chlorantha, 230
Hlabits of humaning birin, 130
llent due to condomsution of atino,
spheric vnpour, 14

changes colourn, 183
lleliconimie und Acnelar, local re.

semblances of, 250
Blindostan and Africa, resemblance of

fauna of, 328
looker, Sir J. on flowers of Auckland
Isles, 238
on deficient odour of Now Zealand

flowers, 277
Hornbills, 107
Florns of beetlex, probabilo niso of, 302
lowling-inonkeys, 118
llummingbirds, number of, 124, 133

distinctness of, 125, 129
structure of, 125


Frogs and toads, 116
Fiug, with briglii colours uneatable, 175

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llumming-birds, colours and ornaments
of, 127

descriptive names of, 129
motions and habits of, 130
display of ornaments by males, 134
food of, 135
nests of, 137
geographical distribution and varia.

tion of, 138
of Juan Fernandez, 140
influenced by varied conditions in

South America, 147
relations and affinities of, 148
sternum of, 151
eggs of, 152
feather-tracts of, 152
resemblance of swifts to, 152
nestlings of, 153
differences from sun-birds, 154


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Madagascar, white-marked butterflies

of, 260
Madagascar once united to Africa, 325
Madagascar and Malaya, resemblances

of fauna of, 328
Male birds, origin of ornamental plum-

age of, 205
Male birds which incubate, 212
Male humming-birds produce a shriller

sound, 215
Males, theory of display of ornaments

by, 207
Malva sylvestris, M. rotundifolia, 233
Mammals, 116
Manimalia, supposed variations of, com-
parable to those of butterflies, 261

local resemblances of, in Africa, 262
Mammalia of Palaarctic Region, 315

of Ethiopian Region, 317
of Oriental Region, 319
of miocene period in Euro-Asia,

Man, antiquity and origin of, 280

indications of extreme antiquity

of, 285
highly developed at very early

autiquity of intellectual, 290
Mangroves, 58
Manicaria saccifera, 41
Mantidæ, 91
Mantis resembling an orchis-lower, 173
Marantaceæ, 47
Marmosets, 118
Marshall, Messrs. on barbets, 106
Martins, M. Charles, on increased size

of leaves of arctic plants, 236
Mates readily found by birds, 200
Mauritia, palm, 40
Maximiliana regia, 41
Meiglyptes, 150
Meldola, Mr. R. on variable colouring

in insects, 170
Meliphagide in Auckland Isles pro-

bally flower-fertilizers, 239
Melliss, Mr, on flora of St. Helena, 275
Migrations between N. America and
Euro-Asia, 334
between N. America and South
America, 335


period, 286


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Varmluntbemum, sode, 223
leton logical pbi pomens, intensity of,

at the equator, 23
Mimicry, theory of, 189
Viinsa purim, 59
Mirart, Professor, on animal origin of
man, 284
on the direront affinities of man

and ares 8
Vungredien, Mr. on showy and fragrant

flowers, 230
Vonkers, 115
Monkers and pigeons, 102
I ostler, Jr. on hunming-binds of Juan

Periandez, 143
Moseley, Mr. H. N. on birds conveying

sets to islands, 268
Motiis, conspicuously coloured cater.

pillars i, uneatable, 175
Vótmoig, 105
Joit, Jir. Albert, on antiquity of in.

tellectual man, 291
Jlounis of N. America, antiquity of,

Moumi-builders, a semi-civilized race,

Miller, Dr. Herinann, on fertilization
of alpine flowers, 232
on fertilization of Martagon lily,

on variations of insect-fertilized

flowers, 275
on differences of allied species of

flowers, 233
Jusa paruisiaca, 48
Musacer, 48
Mygale, a biril-catching spider, 97
Jysis chameleon, changes of colour of,


O lontomachus, genns of anis s?
Olour deficient in New Zealand tours,

Olours absorbed unequally by dir.
ferently coloured stutts, 200

of tlovers attractive, 230
Economa crphaloles, 85
Ecophylla sinarardina, 82
Ogle, Dr. on colour and sense percepe

tion, 265
Oil from palms, 15
Oncidiumis, 51
Optical theory of colour, iso
Orchids, 49
Oriental Region, 319
Ornamental humming binds, the most

pugnacious, 214
Ornaments, display of, by malo hum

ming-birils, 134
Orthoptera, 91

PALXARCTIC Region, 314
Palms, 40

height of, 41

clirubing. 41
Palm-wine, 43
Palm-trees, uses and products of, 12 -

Pandanncere, 49
Papilio, palo varieties of, in Moluccan

and New Guinea, 268
Papilionide and Nymphalida, local

resemblances of, 256
Papilio nirens, changes of colour of

pupa of, 108
Parrots, 09

red in Moluccas and New Guinea,

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YEARCTIC Regiox, mammalia of, 329

birds of, 330
Yeotropical region, mammalia of, 331

birds of, 332
Vests of humming-birds, 137
Newton, Professor, on appearance of

living humming-birds, 130
New Zealand, poor in flowers and in-

sects, 235
New World, regions of the, 329
North American earth-works, 292
Nuttall, Mr. on the rufous llame-bearer,

Vymphalidæ, local resemblances of

species of distinct genera of, 257

black in New Guinea and Mada

gascar, 264
Passeres, 108
Phyllostoma, 120
l'hasmidlin, 01-93
Phænir sylvestris, 46
l'haethornithine, 130
l'honnants, brillinut pumnge of, in colil

countries, 103
l'hcidolo, genus of auta, 84
Philippine Islands, metallic colours of
butterflies of, 269

white marked birds of, 203
Picarie, 103
Pickering, Mr. on plants of Pacific

Islands, 269
Pieridic and Lycaenidae, local resom.

blances of, 256
Pigeons, 102

Back in Australia and Madngascar,


OCEANIC Islands, peculiar floras of, 209

theory of, 307

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Pigs, white poisoned in Virginia, black

not, 265
Pipes from N. American mounds, 295
Plantain, 48
Plantain-caters, 197
Plants, protective coloration in, 223
Platycerium, 47
Plumage of tropical birds, 109

of humming-birds, 128
Polyrachis, genus of ants, si
Polyalthca, tree with flowers on trunk,

Polygonum bistorta, P. ariculare, 233
Pontia raper, changes of colour of

chrysalis of, 168
Ponera claruta, terrible sting of, 82
Portraits on Sculptured pipes from

mounds, 295
Prosthemadera in the Auckland Isles,

Protective colours, theory of, 187
Psittacula diopthuimn, sexual difference

of colour of, 178
Pterylography, 151
Pyramid, the Great, 298

the Great, indicates an earlier

civilization, 300
Pythons, 115


Scorpions, 97
Screw-pines, 49
Scythrops, 105
Seeds, how protected, 226
Sensitive-plants, 59
Sexes of butterilies differently coloured

for recognition, 196
Sexual colours, 177

theory of, 192
Sexual selection not a cause of colour,

neutralized by natural selection,
Sickle-bill humming-birl, 136
Size, correspondence of, in tropical

flowers and insects, 236
Sky, colour of not mentioned in old

books, 245
Smith, Mr. Worthington, on nimiery

in fungi, 223
Smyth, Professor Piazzi, on the Great

Pyramid, 298
Snakes, 114
Sobralias, 51
Soil, heat of, 8

influence of temperature on climate,

Solenopsis, genus of ants, 84
Sorby, Mr., on composition of chloro-

phyll, 221
South America, extinct fauna of, 336

geographical changes of, 338
its parallelism with Africa, 339
an area of preservation of ancient

types, 339
Spiccs from equatorial forest-trees, 36
Spiders, 97
Spruce, Dr. Richard, on number of
ferns at Tarapoto, 47
on inconspicuousness of tropical

flowers, 61
on use of aromatic secretions of

leaves, 278
Stainton, Mr., on insects attacking

scented leaves, 277
Stick-insects, 92
St. Helena, indigenous flowers of, 275
St. John, Mr., on large python, 115
Structure of humming birds, 125
Sugar from palm-trees, 44
Sunda Islands and Japan once joined to

Asia, 326
Sun-birus, differences from humming.

birils, 154
Sun's noonday altitude in Java and

London compared, 6
Sun's rays, heating effect of, 7
Sunrise in the equatorial zone, 22
Swists, resemblances of to humming.

birds, 162
Symmachia Irochilus, 75

colubris, 76

RABBITS, why white-tailed, 197
Rainbow, how described by ancient

writers, 245
Rainfall at London and Batavia, dia.

gram of, 15
Rainfall, greatest recorded at Batavia,

Ramsay, Prof. on ancient fresh-water

doposits, 313
Raphia tordigera, 41
Raitan-palms, 42
Recognition aided by colour, 198
Reell, Mr., on humming-birds in Juan
Fernandez, 146
Mr. Edwyn C., on insects of Juan

Fernandez, 270
Reptiles, 111
Reptiles of oceanic islands, 309
Rhamphococcyx, 105


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l'ariation, how influenced, 142

Vegetation, cquatorial, 27
Tauti, preponderance of ferns in, 269 Vipers, green, 114
Temperature of London and Batavia Vitality a cause of bright colour, 193
compared, 6
of dillerent latitudes, various causes

of, 7
Temperature, influenced by heat of soil,

influenced by aqueous vapour of WarNiNG COLOURS, theory of, 189
atmosphere, 9

Wasps and bees, ou
Temperature of tropical and temperate Wave-lengths of coloured rays, 180

zones, cause of, illustrated, 12 Weale, Mr. J. P. Mansel, ou plants of
Tertiary faunas and their relations, 344, Karoo, 223

on Ajuga ophrydis, 223
Thaumastura corn, very pugnacious, 214 Webber Mir, on food of humming-birds,
Tinior and Scotland, climates com

pared, 14

West-Indian Islands, large and brilliant
Timor and Flores, white-marked birds butterflies of, 261
of, 263

peculiarly coloured birds of, 262
Toucans, 106

Whip-snakes, 114
Tree-frogs, 116

White animals poisoned where black
Tristan d'Acunha, bright · coloured escape, 265
Pelargoniuin of, 275

White colours influencing sense percep.
Trochilide, 125

tion, 265
Trogons, 105

White colour doubly prejudicial to
Tropical vegetation, concluding re animals, 266
marks on, 65

Whita tropical birds, 110
probable causes of its luxuriance Wilson, Dr.on pottery froin N. American
and variety, 66

mounds, 295
Mr. Belt on, 67

Winds, influence of on temperature, 11
Tropical birds, dull-coloured, 110

direction of near equator, 11, 12
coloration of, 110

cause of cold ncar equator, 12, 13
green, 110

Wolves in England show its uuion with
Tropics, limitation of, 3

continent, 305
aspects of animal life in, 121 Woods from equatorial forest-trees, 36
Trunks, variety of, 31, 33

probable cause of flowering, 34
Twilight, short at equator, 21
Typical colours, 1799

ZEBRA, possible use of its stripes, 197

Zingiberacer, 47

Zoological regions, 314
Vanda louii, 51

Zoological regions of the New World
l'anipyre-bats, 119


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