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flown away from them, but it woulil then instantly have fallen a prey to the numerous birds which always accompany these roaming hordes of ants to feed upon the insects that endeavour to escape. Far more commills than any of these imitative species are the large inn istá, with rich crimson or blue-ani-blark spottoil wings. Some of this are nearly a tot in expanse of wings: 'diy ily by day, and their strong spiny legs probably set as a protection against all the smaller birds. They cannot be said to be common; but when met with they fully sati:fy our notions as to the large size and gorgeous colours of tropical insects.

Linsects. Bretles. -- Considering the enormous uumli all! endless variety of the beetle tribe that are limonit , inhabit the tropics, they form los no 3:113 so prominent a featre in the vimallit of the equatorial zone is ilin might pt. Almost every entonologist is it litet disippointed with them. IIe finds that they have to be scarched for almost as much as at home, while those of large size (except one or two very common species) il re rarely met with. The groups which most attract attention from their size and beauty, are the Buprestida and the Longicorns. The former are usually smooth insects of an clongate ovate form, with very short legs and antennæ, and adorned with the most glowing metallic tints. They abound on fallen tree-trunks and on foliage, in the hottest suusline, and are among the most brilliant ornaments of the tropical forests. Some parts of the tenperate zone, especially Australia and Chili, abound in Buprestidae which are cqually beautiful; but the largest species are only found within the tropics, those of the Malay islands being the largest of all.

The Longicorns are elegantly shaped beetles, usually with long antennæ and legs, varied in form and structure in an endless variety of ways, and adorned with equally Vried colours, spots and markings. Some are large and massive insects three or four inches long, while others are po bigger than our smaller ants. The majority have sobei colours, but often delicately marbled, veined, or spotted; while others are red, or blue, or yellow, or adorned with the richest metallic tints. Their antenne are sometimes excessively long and graceful, often adorned with tufts of hair, and sometimes pectinated. They especially abound where timber trees have been recently felled in the primeval forests; and while extensive clearings are in progre-s their variety seems arielless. In such a locality in the i land of Borneo, birly 300 different species were found during one dry season, while the number obtained during eight years' collecting in the whole Malay Archipelago was about a thousand species.

Among the beetles that always attract attention in the tropics are the large, horned, Coprida and Dynastide, corresponding to our dung-beetles. Some of these are of great size, and they are occasionally very abundant. The immense horn-like protuberances on the head and thorax of the males in some of the species are very extraordinary, and, combined with their polished or rugose metallie colours, render them perhaps the most conspicuous of all the beetle tribe. The weevils and their allies are also very interesting, from their immeuse numbers, endless variety, and the extreme beauty of many of the species. The Anthribida, which are especially abundant in the Malay Archipelago, rival the


Longicorns in the immense length of their clegant autennæ; while the diamond beetles of Brazil, the Eupholi of the Papuan islands, and the Pachyrhynchi of the Philippines, are veritable living jewels.

Where a large extent of virgin forest is cut down in tlie carly part of the dry season, and some hot sumiy weather follows, the abundance and variety of beetles attracted by the bark aud foliage in various stages of drying is amazing. The air is filled with the hum of their wings. Golden and green Buprestidie are flying about in every direction, and settling on the back in full sunshine. Green and spotted rose-chafers lium along near the ground ; long horned Anthibidze are disturbed it every step; Chugut little Longicornis circle about the drying foliage, while larger species fly slowly from branch to brauch. Every füllen trunk is full of life. Strange mottled, and spotteil, and rugose Longicorns, endless Curculios, queer-shaped Brenthidae, velvety brown or steel-blue Cleridae, brown or yellow or whitish click beetles, (Elaters), and brilliant metallic Curabidae. Close by, in the adjacent forest, a whole host of new forms are found. Elegant tiger-beetles, leaf-hunting Cirabida, musk-beetles of many sorts, scarlet Telephori, and countless Chrysomelas Hispas, Coccinellas, with strange lIeteromera, and many curious species which haunt fungi, rotten bark or decaying leaves. With such variety and beauty the most ardent entomologist must be fully satisfied; and when, every now and then, some of the giants of the tropics fall in bis · way-grand Prionidæ or Lamiide several inches long, a massive golden Buprestis, or a monster horned Dynastes-he feels that his most exalted notions of the insect-life of the tropics are at length realized.




97 Wingless Insects.-Passing on to other orders of insects, the hemiptera, dragon-flies, and true flies hardly call for special remark. Among them are to be found a fair proportion of large and handsome species, but they require much searching after in their special haunts, and seldom attract so much attention as the groups of insects already referred to. More prominent are the wingless tribes, such as spiders, scorpions, and centipedes. The wanderer in the forests often finds the path closed by large webs almost as strong as silk, inhabited by gorgeous spiders with bodies nearly two inches long and leys expanding six inches. Others a remarkable for their hard flat bodies, terminating in horned processes which are sometimes long, slender, and curved like a pair of miniature cow's horns. Hairy terrestrial species of large size are often met with, the largest belonging to the South American genus Mygale, which sometimes actually kill birds, a fact which had been stated by Madame Merian and others, but was discredited till Mr. Bates succeeded in catching one in the act. The small jumping spiders are also noticeable from their immense numbers, variety, and beauty. They freqnent foliage and flowers, running about actively in pursuit of small insects; and many of them are so exquisitely coloured as to resemble jewels rather than spiders. Scorpions and centipedes make their presence known to every traveller. In the forests of the Malay islands are hugn scorpions of a greenish colour and cight or ten inches long ; while in huts and houses smaller species lurk under boxes and boards, or secrete themselves in almost every article not daily examined. Centipedes of immense size and deailly venom harbour in the thatch of houses and

canoes, and will even enseonce themselves under pillows and in beils, rendering a thorough examination necessary before retiring to rest. Yet with moderate precautions there is little danger from these disgusting insects, as may be judged by the fact that during twelve years wanderings in American and Malayan forests the author was never once bitten or stung by them.

Cremeral Observations on Tropical Lisets. The characteristics of tropical inserts that will post itract the ordinare traveller, are, their great m aders, and he large size and brilliant colours often met with. But in more etriebe uliservation leads to the r elusion that the average of size is probably no granin tropical than in temperate zones, and that, to make up for a certain proportion of very large, there is a corresponding increase in the numbers of very small speries. The much greater size reached by many tropical insects is no doubt due to the firct, that the supply of food is always in escess of their demands in the larva state, while there is no check from the ever-recurring roll of winter; and they are thus able to acquire the dimensions that may be on the whole most allvantageulls in the race, unchecked by the annual or periodical scilities which in less favourid climates would continually threaten their extinction. The colours of tropical insects are, probably, on the il Verage more brilliant than those of temperate countries, and some of the causes which may have led to this have been discussed in another part of this volume. It is in the tropics that we find most largely developed, whole groups of insects which are umpalatable to almost all insectivorous creatures, and it is among these

I 'apters V. and VI.-- The Colours of Animals and Planta.


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