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BY

ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE,

Dr. Hooker, in his auldress to the British Association, spoke thus :Of Mr. IVallace and his many contributions to philosophical biology it is not easy to speak without cnthusiasm ; for, putting aside their great merils, han throughout his writings, with a modesty as rare as I believe it to be unconscious, forgets his own unquestioned claim to the honour of having originated, indepen. dently of Mr. Daruin, the theories which he so ably defends."

THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO: THE LAND OF THE

ORANG UTAN AND THE BIRD OF PARADISE. A Narrative of Travel. With Studies of Man and Nature. With Maps and Illustrations, Sixth Edition. Crown 8vo. 78. 6.

“A vivid picture o tropical life, which may be read with unllagging interest, and a sufficient account of his scientific conclusions to stimulate our appetite without wearying us by details. In short, we may safely say that we have never read a more agreeable book of its kind." Saturday Review.

THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION.-CONTRI.

BUTIONS TO. A Series of Essays. New Edition. C'rown Svo. 88. Bd.

The Saturday is view says : “[Ic has combined an abundance of fresh and original facts with a liveliness and sagacity of reasoning which are not often displayed s effectively on so small a scalo."

With unmerous Illustrations by ZWECKER, and Maps. THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS,

WITH A STUDY OF THE RELATIONS OF LIVING AND EXTINCT FAUNAS AS ELUCIDATING THE PAST CHANGES OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Two Vols. medium 8vo42s.

"The most valuable contribution to zoological literature that has appeared for many a day." -Westminster Revievo.

** A book which contains the inost valuable information industriously put together, and certain to be of the highest importance to the zoological student."-Athenæum.

“Altogether it is a wonderful and fascinating story." -Times.

MACMILLAN AND CO., LONDON.

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Diagram of mean temperature at Batavia.
and London, 5
of rainfall at Batavia and London,

15
Dianthus alpinus, D. glacialis, 232
Distribution of humming-birds, 138
Dragons or flying-lizards, 113
Drugs from equatorial forest-trees, 36
Duke-of-York. Island, pale-coloured
insects of, 259
Islands, remarkable white plum.

aged birds of, 263
Dyes from equatorial forest-trees, 38
Dynastidæ, 95

probable use of horns of, 202

Colour-development, local canses of,
216

in animals, summary, 216
Colour-perception, supposed recent

growth of, 244
Colour-sense, origin of the, 211

need for, 243
not of recent origin, 246

not wholly explicable, 248
Colours, classification of organic, 172

protective, 172
warning, 174
sexual, 777
typical, 179
of animals, how produced, 184
theory of protective, 187
theory of warning, 189
theory of sexual, 192

theory of typical, 215
Colours and ornaments of humming.

birds, 127
Colours of fruits, attractive, 224

protective, 225
Colours, which first perceived, 213
Cometes sparganurus, very pugnacious,
Composite, arborescent in oceanic

islands, 276
Continent, past changes of the great

Eastern, 321
Continents of Tertiary period, proballe

aspect of, 343
Copridæ, 95

probable use of horns of, 202
Crematogaster, genus of ants, 83
Cross-fertilization of Howers, use of,

214

174

EARL, MR. GEORGE WINDSOR, on Jiri.

sion of Malay Archipelago, 307
Earth-sculpture or surface-geology, 250
Earth-works, North American, 292
Easter Island, sculptures on, 291
Eciton, genus of foraging ants, 87
Elateridre, luminous species perhaps

mimetic, 205
Emperor-moth, protective coloration of,
Environment, relation of living things

to, 254
Epicalia, sexes of, differently coloured,
Epilobium angustifolium, E. parvi.

jorum, 233
Epimachinæ, 150
Eynator, cause of uniform high tempera-
ture near, 6

short twilight at, 21
Egnatorial climate, general features of,
17
uniformity of in all parts of the

world, 18

local diversities of, 19
Equatorial forests, general features of,

178

228

complex arrangements for, 229
Cuckoos, 104

D.

29

DAXAIDE, warning colours of, 174
Dapainæ, Acreine and Heliconiine,

local resemblances of, 256
Daphne pontica, 230
Darwin, Mr., on mode of cross-fertiliza-
tion and its use, 228

not too highly rated, 252
on vegetation of Galapagos, 272
on use of scenteil leaves, 277
on former union of West Indian

islands and S. America, 306
on oceanic islands, 307
revolution in thought effected by,

284
Deserts on line of tropics, 28
Desmoncus, 41
De Vry, Mr., on the sugar-palm, 43
Dews, cause of heavy tropical, 10

Equatorial forest-belt, cause of, 27
Equatorial heavens, aspect of, 23
Ejuatorial zone, temperature of, 3
Ethiopian Region, 317
Eugenes fulgens, 134
Eunica and Siderone, resemblance of

species of, 257
Euplæa, pale species of, in Moluccas

and New Guinea, 258
Euro-Asiatic continent, miocene fauna

of, 323
Eustephanus, 141
Eustcphanus galeritus, 143
Eulerpe oleracea, 43
Evaporation and condensation, equa-

lising effects of, 16

Frogs of oceanic islands, 309
Fruit-bats, 119
Fruits of equatorial forest-trees, 36
Fruits, attractive colours of, 224

protective colours of, 225
greater antiquity of protected than

attractive, 227

163

FEMALE birds, greater brilliuucy of

some, 211
Female insects, greater brilliancy of

sonie, 203
Ferns, 46
Ferns, preponderance of in Tahiti and

Juan Fernandez, 269, 270
Fiji Islands, pale butterflies of, 259
Fire-ants, 83
Fishes, causes of general coloration of,

171
Flowering-trunks, probable cause of, 34
Flowers, comparative scarcity of in

equatorial forests, 60
Flowers and insects, 64
Flowers of tenperate zones brilliantly
coloured, 165
comparatively scarce in tropical

forests, 167
Flowers, attractive colours of, 228

fertilized by insects, 228
attractive odours of, 230
wben sweet-scented not congpj.

cuously coloured, 230
attractive grouping of, 231
alpine, why so beautiful, 232
why allied s vecies differ in beauty,

233
when wind-fertilized not coloured,

233
relation of colours of, to distribu.

tion, 235
and fruits, recent views as to action

of light on, 236
Flowers of Auckland and Campbell's

Isles, bright coloured, 238
Flying. lizards, 113
Foliage, two chief types of, in tropical
forests, 33

colours of, 221
Foot of savages does not approach

that of .pes, 289 (note)
Forest-belt, cause of equatorial, 27
Forest-belts, temperate, 29
Forest-tree, section of a Bornean, 32

formed from climbers, 32
Forest-trees, characteristics of, 30
Forest-trees of low growth, 34
Forest-trees, uses of equatorial, 35
Forests, effect of oa rainfall and drought,

Galapagos, colours of productions of,

poor in Mowers and insects, 235

wecdy vegetation of, 272
Garilener, Dr., on a large water-boa, 115
Geckos, 112
Geiger, on ancient perception of colour,

245
Geranium pratense, G. pusillum, 233
Gibbons, 116
Ginger-worts, 47
Gladstone, Jr., on the colour sense, 245
Glow-worm, use of its light, 205
Goliath cuckoo, 105
Gosse, Mr. on Jamaica humming-birds,
132, 135
on the pugnacity of humming-birds,

134

on food of humming-birils, 137
Gould, Jr. on the motions of humming-

birds, 131
Grammatophyl!uins, 51
Green, why the most agrecable colour,

244
Grisebach, on cause of vivid colours of

arctic flowers, 237
Guilicima speciosa, 42
Gums from cquatorial forest-trees, 36

II.

19

Juvenariu chlorantha, 230
llabits of humining-birds, 130
lleat due to condensation of atmo.
spheric vapour, 14

changes colours, 183
lleliconijue and Acræiue, local re-

semblances of, 256
llivdostan and Africa, resemblances of

fauna of, 328
looker, Sir J. on flowers of Auckland
Isles, 238
on deficient odour of New Zealand

flowers, 277
Hornbills, 107
Horns of beetles, probable use of, 202
Howling-inonkeys, 118
Ilumoning birds, number of, 124, 133

distinctness of, 125, 129
structure of, 125

devastatiou caused by destruction

of, 20
equatorial, 29

undergrowth of tropical, 34
Formica gigas, 81
Foxes, uoue in Isle of Wight in 1605,

305
Frogs and toads, 116
Frug, with bright colours uneatable, 175

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Humming-birds, colours and ornaments
of, 127

descriptive names of, 129
motions and habits of, 130
display of ornaments by males, 134
food of, 135
nests of, 137
geographical distribution and varia.

tion of, 138
of Juan Fernandez, 140
influenced by varied conditions in

South America, 147
relations and affinities of, 148
sternum of, 151
eggs of, 152
feather-tracts of, 152
resemblance of swifts to, 152
nestlings of, 153
differences from sun-birds, 154

IGUASAS, 113
Indian peninsula once an island, 325

ancient fauna of, 325
Insects, wingless, 97

general observations on tropical, 98
Insular plants and insects, relations of,

267
Interference-colours in animals, 184
Islands, influcnce of locality on colour

in, 257

JACAMARS, 105
Juan Fernandez, humming.birds of, 140

insects of, 270
abundance of hummingbirds in,

273

M.
Macaws, 100
Madagascar, white-marked butterflies

of, 260
Madagascar once united to Africa, 325
Madagascar and Malaya, resemblances

of fauna of, 328
Male birds, origin of ornamental plum-

age of, 205
Male birds which incubate, 212
Male humming-birds produce a shriller

sound, 215
Males, theory of display of ornaments

by, 207
Malva sylvestris, M. rotundifolia, 233
Mammals, 116
Mammalia, supposed variations of, com-
parable to those of butterflies, 261

local resemblances of, in Africa, 262
Mammalia of Palaarctic Region, 315

of Ethiopian Region, 317
of Oriental Region, 319
of niocene period in Euro-Asia,

321
Man, antiquity and origin of, 280

indications of extreme antiquity

of, 285
highly developed at very early

period, 286

antiquity of intellectual, 290
Mangroves, 58
Nanicaria saccifera, 41
Mantidæ, 91
Mantis resembling an orchis-Dower, 173
Marantacex, 47
Marmosets, 118
Marshall, Messrs. on barbets, 106
Martins, M. Charles, on irrcreased size

of leaves of arctic plants, 236
Mates readily found by birds, 200
Mauritia, palm, 40
Maximiliana regia, 41
Meiglyptes, 150
Meldola, Mr. R. on variable colouring

in insects, 170
Meliphagidæ in Auckland Isles pro-

bably flower-fertilizers, 239
Melliss, Mr. on flora of St. Helena, 275
Migrations between N. America and
Euro-Asia, 334
between N. America and South
America, 335

A A

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