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F.

Frogs of oceanic islands, 309

Fruit-bats, 119
FEMALE birds, greater brilliancy of Fruits of equatorial forest-trees, 36
some, 211

Fruits, attractive colours of, 224
Female insects, greater brilliancy of protective colours of, 225
sonie, 203

greater antiquity of protected than
Ferns, 46

attractive; 227
Ferns, preponderance of in Tahiti and

Juan Fernandez, 269, 270
Fiji Islands, pale butterflies of, 259

G.
Fire-ants, 83
Fishes, causes of general coloration of, Galapagos, colours of productions of,
171

163
Flowering-trunks, probable cause of, 34 poor in Mowers and insects, 235
Flowers, comparative scarcity of in wecdy vegetation of, 272
equatorial forests, 60

Garlener, Dr., on a large water-boa, 115
Flowers and insects, 64

Geckos, 112
Flowers of temperate zones brilliantly Geiger, on ancient perception of colour,
coloured, 165

245
comparatively scarce in tropical Geranium pratense, G. pusillum, 233
forests, 167

Gibbons, 116
Flowers, attractive colours of, 228 Ginger-worts, 47
fertilized by insects, 228

Gladstone, Mr., on the colour sense, 245
attractive odours of, 230

Glow-worm, use of its light, 205
when sweet-scented not conspii. Goliath cuckoo, 105
cuously coloured, 230

Gosse, Mr. on Jamaica humming-birds,
attractive grouping of, 231

132, 135
alpine, why so beautiful, 232

on the pugnacity of humming-birds,
wly allied srecies differ in beanty,

134
233

on food of humming-birils, 137
when wind-fertilized not coloured, Gould, Jr. on the motions of humming.
233

birds, 131
relation of colours of, to distribu. Grammatophyl!uins, 51
tion, 235

Green, why the most agreeable colour,
and fruits, recent views as to action 244
of light on, 236

Grisebach, on cause of vivid colours of
Flowers of Auckland and Campbell's arctic flowers, 237
Isles, bright coloured, 238

Guilielma speciosa, 42
Flying lizards, 113

Gums from equatorial forest-trees, 36
Foliage, two chief types of, in tropical
forests, 33
colours of, 221

11.
Foot of savayes does not approach
that of .pes, 289 (note)

llabonariu chlorantha, 230
Forest-belt, cause of equatorial, 27 llabits of humining birds, 130
Forest-belts, temperate, 29

lleat due to condensation of atmo.
Forest-tree, section of a Bornean, 32 spheric vapour, 14
formed from climbers, 32

changes colours, 183
Forest-trees, characteristics of, 30 lleliconiince and Acræin, local re-
Forest-trees of low growth, 34

semblances of, 256
Forest-trees, uses of equatorial, 35 Blindostan and Africa, resemblances of
Forests, cflectof on raiufall and drouglit, fauna of, 328
19

Blocker, Sir J. on flowers of Auckland
devastation caused by destruction Isles, 238
of, 20

on deficient odour of New Zealand
equatorial, 29

flowers, 277
undergrowth of tropical, 34 Jornbills, 107
Formica gigas, 81

Horns of beetles, probable use of, 202
Foxes, noue in Isle of Wight in 1605, Howling-inonkeys, 118
305

llumming-birds, number of, 124, 133
Frogs and toads, 116

distinctness of, 125, 129
Frug, with briglie colours uneatalle, 175 structure of, 125

Local causes of colour-development, 216
Locusts, richly coloured tropical, 94
Longicorns, 95
Lophornis ornatus, very pugnacions,

214
Lord Howe's Island, white rail in, 264
Lubbock, Sir John, on colour percep-

tion in insects, 255

llumming-birds, colours and ornaments
of, 127
descriptive names of, 129
motions and habits of, 130
display of ornaments by males, 134
food of, 135
nests of, 137
geographical distribution and varia.

tion of, 138
of Juan Fernandez, 140
influenced by varied conditions in

South America, 147
relations and affinities of, 148
sternum of, 151
eggs of, 152
feather-tracts of, 152
resemblance of swists to, 152
nestlings of, 153
differences from sun-birds, 154

1.

IGUASAS, 113
Indian peninsula once an island, 325

ancient fauna of, 325
Insects, wingless, 97

general observations on tropical, 98
Insular plants and insects, relations of,

267
Interference-colours in animals, 184
Islands, influence of locality on colour

in, 257

J.

JACA MARS, 105
Juan Fernandez, humming.birds of, 140

insects of, 270
abundance of humming-birds in,

273

M.
MACAWS, 100
Madagascar, white-marked butterflies

of, 260
Madagascar once united to Africa, 325
Madagascar and Malaya, resemblances

of fauna of, 328
Male birds, origin of ornamental plum.

age of, 205
Male birls which incubate, 212
Male humming-birds produce a shriller

sound, 215
Males, theory of display of ornaments

by, 207
Malva sylvestris, J1, rotundifolia, 233
Mammals, 116
Mammalia, supposed variations of, com-
parable to those of butterflies, 261

local resemblances of, in Africa, 262
Mammalia of Pala arctic Region, 315

of Ethiopian Region, 317
of Oriental Region, 319
of niocene period in Euro-Asia,

321
Man, antiquity and origin of, 280

indications of extreme antiquity

of, 285
highly developed at very carly

period, 286

autiquity of intellectual, 290
Mangroves, 58
Manicaria saccifera, 41
Mantidæ, 91
Mantis resembling an orchis-lower, 173
Marantacex, 47
Marmosets, 118
Marshall, Messrs. on barbets, 106
Martins, M. Charles, on irrcreased size

of leaves of arctic plants, 236
Mates readily found by birds, 200
Mauritia, palm, 40
Maximiliana regia, 41
Meiglyptes, 150
Meldola, Mr. R. on variable colouring

in insects, 170
Meliphagidæ in Auckland Isles pro.

bably flower-fertilizers, 239
Melliss, Mr. on flora of St. Helena, 275
Migrations between N. America and
Euro-Asia, 334
between N. America and South
America, 335

A A

L.

Lain and sea, peculiar distribution of,
311
existing distribution of, very

ancient, 312
Leaf-insects, 92
Leaves, supposed use of odours of, 277
Leinnria, an hypothetical continent,

not required, 328
Leopoldinia major, 45
Lepidoptera, diurnal, 72
Leptalis, a good case of mimicry, 189
Loptena crastus, 256
Light, theory of, as producing colours,
161

action of, on plants, 222
supposed direct action of, on colours

of flowers and fruits, 236
Lizards, 111

man, 284

Odontomachus, genus of ants, 8?
Odour deficient in New Zealand Nowers,

277
Odours absorbed unequally by dif-
ferently coloured stuffs, 266

of flowers attractive, 230
codoma crphalotes, 85
(Ecophylla siaraydina, 82
Ogle, Dr. on colour and sense-percep-

tion, 265
Oil from palms, 45
Oncidiums, 51
Optical theory of colour, 180
Orchids, 49
Oriental Region, 319
Ornamental humming birds, the most

pugnacious, 214
Ornaments, display of, by malo hum-

ming-birds, 134
Orthoptera, 91

Mesembryanthemum, stone, 223
Meteorological phenomena, intensity of,

at the equator, 23
Mimicry, theory of, 189
Jimosa pudlica, 59
Vivart, Professor, on animal origin of

on the divergent affinities of man

and apes, 288
Mongrellien, 'Jr. on showy and fragrant

flowers, 230
Jonkeys, 116
Monkeys and pigeons, 102
Moseley, Jr. on humming-birds of Juan

Fernandez, 143
Moseley, Mr. H. N. on birds conveying

seeds to islands, 268
Motlıs, conspicuously coloured cater.

pillars of, uneatable, 175
Motinois, 105
Mott, Mr. Albert, on antiquity of in.

tellectual man, 291
Jounds of N. America, antiquity of,

296
Mound-builders, a semi-civilized race,

297
Müller, Dr. Hermann, on fertilization
of alpine powers, 232
on fertilization of Martagon lily,

231
on variations of insect-fertilized

flowers, 275
on dillerences of allied species of

flowers, 233
Jlusa parrulisiaca, 48
Musace:e, 48
Mygale, a birl-catching spider, 97
Jysis chameleon, changes of colour of,
171

N.

P.

46

5

PALEARCTIC Region, 314
Palms, 40

height of, 41

clirubing, 41
Palm-wine, 43
Palm-trees, uses and products of, 42—
Panılanaceæ, 49
Papilio, pale varieties of, in Moluccas

and New Guinea, 258
Papilionid:e and Nymphalide, local

resemblances of, 255
Papilio nireus, changes of colour of

pupa of, 168
Parrots, 99

red in Moluccas and New Guinea,

264
black in New Guinea and Mada-

gascar, 264

VEARCTIC Regiox, mammalia of, 329

birds of, 330
Veotropical region, mammalia of, 331

birds of, 332
Vests of humming birds, 137
Newton, Professor, on appearance of

living humming-birus, 130
New Zealand, poor in flowers and in.

sects, 235
New World, regions of the, 329
North American earth-works, 292
Vuttall, Mr. on the rufous flame-bearer,

131
Vymphalidæ, local resemblances of
species of distinct genera of, 257

Passeres, 108
Phyllostoma, 120
Phasmide, 91-93
Phænic sylvestris, 45
Phatluornithine, 138
Pheasants, brilliant plumage of, in coll

countries, 163
Pheidole, genus of ants, 84
Philippine Islands, metallic colours of
butterflies of, 259

white-marked birds of, 263
Picariæ, 103
Pickering, Mr. on plants of Pacific

Islands, 269
Pierida and Lyaenida, local resem.

blances of, 256
Pigeons, 102
black in Australia and Madagascar,

264

0.

OCEANIC Islands, peculiar floras of, 269

theory of, 307

l'igs, white poisoned in Virginia, black Scorpions, 97
not, 265

Screw-pines, 49
Pipes from N. American mounds, 295 Scythrops, 105
Plantain, 48

Seeds, how protected, 226
Plantain-caters, 197

Sensitive-plants, 59
Plants, protectire coloration in, 223 Sexes of butterflies differently coloured
Platycerium, 47

for recognition, 196
Plumage of tropical birds, 103

Sexual colours, 177
of humming-birls, 128

theory of, 192
Polyrachis, genus of ants, 81

Sexual selection not a cause of colour,
Polyalthca, tree with flowers on trunk, 198
35

neutralized by natural selection,
Polygonum bistorta, P. ariculare, 233

210
Pontia rapar, changes of colour of Sickle-bill humming binl, 136
chrysalis of, 168

Size, correspondence of, in tropical
Ponera clavatı, terrible sting of, 82 flowers and insects, 238
Portraits on sculptured pipes from Sky, colour of not mentioned in old
mounds, 295

books, 245
Prosthemadera in the Auckland Isles, Smith, Mr. Worthington, on mimicry
239

in fungi, 223
Protective colours, theory of, 187 Smyth, Professor Piazzi, on the Great
Psittacula diopthalma, sexual difference Pyrainid, 298
of colour of, 178

Snakes, 114
Pterylography, 151

Sobralias, 51
Pyramid, the Great, 298

Soil, heat of, 8
the Great, indicates an earlier influence of temperature on climate,
civilization, 300

8
Pythons, 115

Solenopsis, genus of ants, 84
Sorby, Mr., on composition of chlo.o-

phyll, 221
R.

South America, extinct fauna of, 338

geographical changes of, 338
RABBITS, why white-tailed, 197

its parallelism with Africa, 339
Rainbow, how described by ancient an area of preservation of ancient
writers, 245

types, 339
Rainfall at London and Batavia, dia Spices from equatorial forest-trees, 38

Spiders, 97
Rainfall, greatest recorded at Batavia, Spruce, Dr. Richard, on number of
24

ferns at Tarapoto, 47
Ramsay, Prof. on ancient fresh-water on inconspicuousness of tropical
deposits, 313

flowers, 61
Raphia tadigera, 41

on use of aromatic secretions of
Raitan-palms, 42

leaves, 278
Recognition aided by colour, 190 Stainton, Mr., on insects attacking
Reed, Jr., on humming-birds in Juan scented leaves, 277
Fernandez, 146

Stick.insects, 92
Mr. Elwyn C., on insects of Juan St. Helena, indigenons Nowers of, 275
Fernandez, 270

St. John, Mr., on large python, 115
Reptiles, 111

Structure of humming-birds, 125
Reptiles of oceanic islands, 309

Sugar from palm-trees, 44
Rhamphococcyx, 105

Sunda Islands and Japan once joined to

Asia, 326
Sun-birds, differences from humming.

birils, 154
S.

Sun's noonday altitude in Java and

London compared, 8
Salvin, MR. on the pugnacity of Sun's rays, heating effect of, 7
humming.birds, 134, 214

Sunrise in the equatorial zone, 22
Sauba ant, 85

Swifts, resemblances of to humming
Saxifraga longifolia, 233

birds, 152
S. cotyledon, 233

Symmachia trochilus, 75
S. oppositifolia, 233

colubris, 76

gram of, 15

T.

Variation, how influenced, 112

Vegetation, equatorial, 27
Tauti, preponderance of ferns in, 269 Vipers, green, 114
Temperature of London and Batavia Vitality

a cause of bright colour, 193
compared, 6
of different latitudes, various causes

of, 7
Temperature, influenced by heat of soil,

W.
8
influenced by aqueous vapour of Warniso COLOURS, theory of, 189
atmosphere, 9

Wasps and bees, 90
Temperature of tropical and temperate Wave-lengths of coloured rays, 180
zones, cause of, illustrated, 12

Weale, Mr. J. P. Mansel, ou plants of
Tertiary faunas and their relations, 344, Karoo, 223
347

on Ajuga ophrydis, 223
Thaumastura corn, very pugnacious, 214 Webber Jr. on food of humming-birds,
Timor and Scotland, climates com 137
pared, 14

West-Indian Islands, large and brilliant
Timor and Flores, white-marked birds butterflies of, 261
of, 263

peculiarly coloured birds of, 262
Toucans, 106

Whip-snakes, 114
Tree-frogs, 116

White animals poisoned where black
Tristan d'Acunha, bright · coloured
Pelargoniuin of, 275

White colours influencing sense-percep-
Trochilidæ, 125

tion, 265
Trogons, 105

Whito colour doubly prejudicial to
Tropical vegetation, concluding re animals, 206
marks on, 65

White tropical birus, 110
probable canses of its luxuriance

Wilson, Dr.on pottery from N. American
and variety, 66

mounds, 295
Mr. Belt on, 67

Winds, influence of on temperature, 11
Tropical birds, dull-coloured, 110

direction of near equator, 11, 12
coloration of, 110

cause of cold near equutor, 12, 13

Wolves in England show its union with
Tropics, limitation of, 3

continent, 305
aspects of animal life in, 121 Woods from equatorial forest-trees, 36
Trunks, variety of, 31, 33

probable cause of flowering, 34
'Twilight, short at cquator, 21
Typical colours, 179

Z.

escape, 265

green, 110

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