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LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1863.
NOTES: -“Juliet" Unveiled, 181-Random, 183 - The City Sceptre, Ib.
MINOR NOTES:- Relief for the Bewitched - LongevityOld Almanacs-Robert Greene, the Dramatist-Curious Imprint Crude: Cruel- Quantity of " pituita "-Mistakes of the Novelists, 184.
QUERIES:-"A Short Rule of good Life," 185-Atkinson, Governor of Senegal Lord Airth's Complaints - Bean Feast- Slingsby Bethel, Lord Mayor and M.P. for London, 1755-6-Boswell The Game of Cricket Court Costumes of Louis XIII. of France-Dates Wanted Peter Dos-Rev. William Eastmead - - Edgar- Prideaux Errington -The Fleur-de-Lis forbidden in France Laurence Halsted-"He died and she married the Barber" - Inscription on Crosthwaite Font - Isabel of Gloucester: one more Query-Lady Catherine Rebecca Manners-St. Patrick and the Shamrock-Potheen- Prayers for the Dead, &c., 185.
QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:-Sir Francis Drake-Porter, where first sold- Satirical Epitaph- Battle of Worcester, 1651- Corn. Schonæus-Joseph Harpur, LL.D., 189. REPLIES: The Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, 190 Strange Derivations: Treacle, 191 Treacle, and Oyster Grottoes, 192-Albion and her white Roses, 193-Aerostation, 194 Execution of Charles I., 195- Learned Dane on Unicorns Jacob's Staff Prince Christiern of Denmark-Greek Phrase" Faerie Queene" unveiled-Theta - The Earl of Sefton-Whitehall Place, &c. The American Partridge-Thomas, Earl of Norfolk: his Wives- Ben Jonson and Mrs. Bulstrode - Herod the Great Waldo Family-Sinavee or Sinavey Crush a Cup - Venus chastising Cupid, &c., 196. Notes on Books, &c.
After these long and, I hope, not uninteresting wanderings through the enchanted regions of Faerie Land and Arcady,* let us turn to the child of nature, Shakspeare; upon whose early productions we may rest assured, these two great poets, his instant predecessors, rained their celestial influence:
"And I in deep delight am chiefly drown'd, Whenas himself to singing he betakes."
As the writings of Sidney, like Spenser's, abound in allegory, the supposition naturally arises there may be something of an allegorical nature in those plays which have a reference to Sidney. It has already been pointed out in "Shakspeare, Sidney, and Essex" (3rd S. iii. 82, 103, 124), that an allegory may be contained in the tragedy of Hamlet; and it requires no stretch of fancy to imagine that, in the Two Gentlemen of Verona, the stately and aristocratic Silvia represents the goddess of chivalry, a second Stella; whilst there is falseness enough in pretty Julia to make a Lady Policy, a very proper wife for Maister Robert Cecil.
But be this as it may, on looking into Romeo and Juliet, we find an elderly gentleman married
Vide "The Arcadia Unveiled," 3rd S. iii. 441, 481, 501; "The Faerie Queene Unveiled," 3rd S. iv. 21, &c.
to a lady only twenty-eight years of age, and a daughter just fourteen. Now this play was produced in 1591, and Lady Penelope Devereux was born in 1563, just twenty-eight years before; her father died in September, 1576, earnestly wishing a marriage might take place between his daughter and Philip Sidney. If then, a poetical marriage had taken place at that time between Astrophel and Stella, a young muse would have been born in the summer of 1577, coincident with the birth of Juliet. Further, it is Benvoglio (Sidney) who urges Romeo to go to the masque, promising to show him a more beautiful maiden than his present love. Consequently, we are fully justified in regarding Juliet as the daughter of Stella.
In the same category must be placed Rosaline; each is the muse or feminine reflection of her lover. Is not Juliet the same wilful and passionate creature as her Romeo? Is not Rosaline the same saucy dominant spirit as Biron? Does she not bear the same relation to the princess as he to the king? And when Shakspeare wrote
"With two pitch balls stuck in her head for eyes," Love's Labour's Lost, he must have had in his recollection:
"Or seeing jets black, but in blackness bright." Astrophel and Stella, St. 91. Notwithstanding that certain nobles and courtiers of Queen Elizabeth's court are so distinctly marked in Romeo and Juliet, yet we clearly see, peering through their shadows, the forms and features of certain dramatists and in Tybalt and Mercutio we readily recognise our old friends Marlowe and Nash, reminding us of Don Armado and Moth in Love's Labour's Lost.* Capulets may be Greene and Lodge, authors of the Looking-glass of London; and John Lyly would be the Montague, father of Romeo, and uncle of Benvoglio. And to Shakspeare, on first coming to London, Lyly had been a second father, his best guide and dearest friend; and he might well stand as uncle to Sir Philip Sidney, being a man of Kent, and, as Mr. Bourne says
"To some extent, I imagine, the Arcadia owed its existence to John Lyly." "I have no doubt that the reading of Euphues, in 1579, led him many steps towards the writing of the Arcadia in 1580.”—P. 323.
But it may be asked, how comes Mercutio (Nash) to be constantly in the company, the intimate friend, of Benvoglio (Sidney)? For the very plain and simple reason, that in 1591 Nash edited Sidney's poem of Astrophel and Stella. And as he made some caustic remarks in the Introduction against his fellow-dramatists, so young Juvenal receives a deserved castigation, as Mercutio acknowledges, "for mingling in your quarrels." The County Paris might be Daniel;
* Vide The Footsteps of Shakspere, p. 153.
who was not only a sonnetteer, but also the poet of Wilton House, of the Countess of Pembroke.
This two-fold view of certain nobles and dramatists being shadowed in the ever-living characters of Romeo and Juliet, receives confirmation from the fact, that to Nash's edition of Astrophel and Stella are appended twenty-eight sonnets by Samuel Daniel; and also "some poems by E. O., meaning, no doubt, the Earl of Oxford" (Shakspeare Society). Hence it becomes probable this publication, with the letter prefixed, wherein Shakspeare is satirised as "Ignorance with a leaden pen," combined with the queen's indignation at the marriage of Essex with Sidney's widow, gave rise to the tragedy.
But Shakspeare, as Romeo, in winning the love of the muse Juliet, does not arrogate to himself a superiority, as poet, over Daniel; he merely intimates thereby, that it was his love and admiration of Astrophel and Stella that turned him into a sonnetteer. And on looking into his sonnets, we cannot for a moment doubt Shakspeare oft lighted his pipe at Stella's eyes. I mean his oaten reed; for in the flavour of tobacco he rejoiced not, though he never abuses it, perhaps out of respect to his honoured friends John Lyly and Sir Walter Ralegh-two inveterate smokers.
Not only are we reminded of Astrophel and Stella by numerous phrases, but even whole stanzas have been imitated, or at least the hint has been taken from them: as, for instance, in Astrophel and Stella, the stanzas 38, 89, and 99, may have given rise to the sonnets 24, 27, 28, 43, and 61. Again, the stanza 52, "A strife is grown between Virtue and Love," may have given Shakspeare the hint for the sonnets 46 and 47: "Mine eye and heart are at a mortal war." All these sonnets are evidently addressed to a lady, and are so placed in the "Sonnets rearranged;" and it is only by yielding to a morbid sentimentalism, we can imagine them as addressed to his friend. The line,
"Deal thou with powers of thought, leave love to will," Astrophel and Stella, may have given our gentle Willy the idea of his three sonnets on Will. Nor can we doubt the beautiful sonnet 146, "Poor soul, the centre of my sinful earth," took its rise from the following
"Leave me, O Love! which reachest but to dust;
And thou, my mind, aspire to higher things: Grow rich in that which never taketh rust; Whatever fades, but fading pleasure brings." Miscellaneous Poems. Considering how Sidney was idolized by Spenser, and what a halo of glory surrounded his name, we need not be surprised Shakspeare was also deeply influenced thereby; and as Juliet is a daughter of Stella, so may the sonnet-lady, with her black and mournful eyes, also be an allego
rical figure-the Sonnet-Muse. She is not only connected with Stella by the sonnets 127 and 132, and by those previously mentioned, but more especially by the sonnets wherein Shakspeare complains of her tyranny and evil influence over him; which undoubtedly, I would say, have their origin in the Fifth Song.
As Spenser accuses his Rosalind of inconstancy, so the sonnet-lady is also faithless, bestowing her favours on other lovers-probably Daniel, Drayton, and Lodge, and especially on the young Earl of Southampton; of whom, in imitation of Spenser's fourth Grace, he says:
"Be thou the tenth Muse, ten times more in worth Than those old Nine, which rhymers invocate." Stanza 38.
And in the beautiful sonnet, "If music and sweet poetry agree," he again compliments his friend : "One knight loves both, and both in thee remain."
However fanciful these suppositions may appear, yet it is not easy to deny the connexion between the sonnet-lady and Stella; and it is only on this plea, the intimate connexion between Astrophel and Stella and the Sonnets, we can free our minds from the disagreeable impression, the latter contain a personal history, a tale of error and woe.
This opinion of the unreality of the sonnet-lady appears to be confirmed by the inscription prefixed to the Sonnets, where the word "begetter," we are given to understand, can only mean in the Elizabethan sense the dedicatee. Consequently, Thomas Thorpe, if he wrote the inscription, imagined Mr. William Herbert was the person; but if, according to Monsieur Philarète Chasles, the Earl of Pembroke wrote the first part, then all the Sonnets must have been dedicated or presented to the Earl of Southampton as "the onlie begetter."
In conclusion, I would respectfully draw attention to the opinion of Todd and others, that "our pleasant Willy," in the Tears of the Muses, is intended for Sir Philip Sidney, and that the poem was composed in 1580. In support of his arguments, I may adduce the similarity of passages in the Muse Thalia and in October. How peculiarly appropriate the name is to Sidney, we have seen in the Arcadia-himself the shepherd Philisides, and his friends all shepherds; in his humorous picturing of Harvey and Spenser in love, and catching the fair Urania in their arms at Barleybreak; the feeding by night the two wild beaststhe lion and the bear- in the place of their torals, alluding to the Shepherd's Calendar, which paswas composed in the district where the rebellion broke out; the putting Pamela as a shepherdess under the care of the clown Dametas, not merely for concealment sake, but as a sly satirical stroke
at Burghley's shabby patronage of literature and the Muses.
Todd is also of opinion that by Ætion, in Colin Clout's come Home again, Michael Drayton is designed. Certainly St. Michael, the archangel with the flaming sword, chief of the heavenly hosts, has poetically a far more heroical sound than Shake-speare:
"St. Michel's Mount who does not know,
THE CITY SCEPTRE.
And, possibly, the young dramatist was at that time only known as Mr. Shaxper.
One of the most remarkable municipal maces now in existence is that belonging to the Lord This pastoral was most probably written in Mayor of the city of London, a relic, in its 1590, on Spenser's return to Ireland; but after-present shape, of the jeweller's work of the fifwards, on publishing it, he may have added some passages and altered others, as with regard to Amyntas:
teenth century, and probably in part of still greater antiquity. It has been represented in the Illustrated London News, but more effectively in the Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archæological Society, vol. i. p. 356. A passage from the civic ordinale, or programme for the meetings of the Corporation throughout the year, there quoted, shows that it was termed the Scepter at least as early as 1604; and we may therefore presume that it was the same ensign of authority which is mentioned in the following passage of Stowe's Annales, where he is describing the Thanksgiving procession of Queen Elizabeth to St. Paul's after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588:
"There also is [ah no, he is not now!] But since I said he is, he quite is gone." As Nash also speaks of an Amyntas in Pierce Penniless in 1592, it is probable each poet refers to the same nobleman-Ferdinando, Lord Strange, Earl of Derby.
In our time, to fire at random is to fire without taking aim and a random shot is one which is not especially fired at what it hits. The word has undergone a very curious change since its first introduction. Of the origin I know nothing except that it must be connected with the French randonnée, which, as a term of hunting, meant the circuit made by a wounded animal; and in common life, any circuit, especially one to no purpose. There is an old French word, randon, which means impetuous motion.
The word, in old English, is randon. The randon was the angle of elevation at which the gun must be inclined to the horizon in order to hit the mark. To fire at a randon, one randon or another, was to fire at a particular angle, in order to secure a particular range. In time the word was used to signify the range itself, as in some of our mathematical dictionaries. The randon is used for the angle in both editions of Leonard Digges's Stratiotikos (1579 and 1590), in his Pantometria (1571), and in various other English works.
At what time the word became random I cannot tell. Ralphson (1702), Stone (1743), and Whiston and Ditton (1714), use the m; and all mean the range, and not its angle.
I cannot find the word, as a term of artillery, either in French or Italian: but I have not made much search. It is certainly not used either by Tartaglia, or by Cyprian Lucar, his English translator (1588).
It is not easy to trace the modern meaning to its source with certainty. It is a very common
notion that a gun is fired direct at the object to
"Over the gate of Temple Bar were placed the waites of the Citie: and at the same bar the Lord Mayor and his brethren the Aldermen, in scarlet, received and welcomed her Majesty to her City and Chamber, delivering to her hands the sceptre, which, after certain speeches had, her Highnes redelivered to the Mayor, and he again taking his horse, bare the same before her."
Mr. Peter Cunningham, in his Handbook for London (1849, p. 804), from the Sceptre being strange to him, has inserted in this passage between brackets the word [sword]; because the City Sword, and not the Sceptre, is now usually presented to the Sovereign upon his or her entrance into the City. In 1588 the Sword of State (not the City Sword) was borne before the Queen by the Lord Marquess (of Winchester). Progresses, &c. of Queen Elizabeth, ii. 542.
The City Sceptre, though of the highest curiosity as a work of ancient art, as I have already said, has latterly been little regarded. It has always, however, been borne by the Lord Mayor at Coronations; and the portrait of the Right Hon. John Thomas Thorp (the Lord Mayor), represents him carrying it, in Sir George Naylor's magnificent work on the Coronation of King George IV. At Pensax, an ancient mansion in Worcestershire, I last year saw an interesting portrait of Sir Allen Cotton, who was Lord Mayor at the Coronation of King Charles I., and which was painted to commemorate his attendance on that occasion, in the full costume of his office, and bearing the City Sceptre. Sir Allen was the
father of Martha, wife of John Chitton, Esq., and
"The other day a labouring man from Worplesdon called upon a chemist in Guildford, and gravely informed him that his wife had been bewitched two years ago, and that she had remained in that state ever since, much to the grief of her husband and family, and annoyance of her neighbours. He said that he had been informed that if he got a quarter of a pound of mercury, and mixed it up with the yoke of two eggs, and gave a dose to his wife night and morning in water over which the living and the dead had been carried,' she would soon recover. Of course the chemist tried to ridicule him out of his silly notion; but the foolish man went away as fully persuaded as before that his wife was bewitched, and avowing his intention of getting the mercury and the water before he quitted Guildford."
RELIEF FOR THE BEWITCHED. I forward the enclosed extract from a Surrey newspaper, as a curious instance of the superstition that still pre-lished his almanac. vails in some places amongst the lower classes, and one worthy, I think, to be preserved in the pages of "N. & Q. :'
Mercury, of course, has always formed a staple commodity of magicians and those who deal in mysteries; but my query is, What is the ground of the supposed magical power of "water over which the living and the dead have been carried"? Can it possibly have any connection with the right of way supposed to exist-rightly or wrongly I know not where the living and dead have gone? This kind of water is, I believe, held in the same veneration in the Highlands of Scotland. Jos. HARGROVE.
Clare Coll. Cambridge.
LONGEVITY.In The Times of Jan. 21, 1863, the decease of persons who have attained the following ages is recorded: 92, 90, 82, 82, 82, 80, 78, 78, 76, 74, 72, 72, 72, 70, 70. Four males and eleven females, in all fifteen persons. This gives the high average of seventy-eight years; and it is rather remarkable that the average of the female life is not eighteen months greater than that of the males; contrary to the received opinion.
OLD ALMANACS.-There seems to be some doubt whether the "Exhortation against the Turks" of 1455 is an almanac. But G. Fischer published in 1804 at Mayence a tract consisting of four leaves, and a large folding plate of simile, entitled
"Notice du premier Monument Typographique en Cacactères Mobiles avec date connu jusqu'à ce jour. Dérouvert dans les Archives de Mayence et déposé à la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris, 40."
"Interuallu ix ebdomide concurrentes una dies."
This is considerably earlier than Regiomontanus, who only followed his immediate predecessors in the form in which he printed and pubWM. DAVIS.
ROBERT GREENE, THE DRAMATIST. - I subjoin two notices of Greene, which I do not remember to have seen quoted anywhere:
"She reads Green's works over and over, but is carried away with the Mirror of Knighthood; she is many times resolv'd to runne out of her selfe, and become a Lady Errand."- Overbury's "Character of a Chambermaid." (Characters, edit. 1632, sign. K, 2nd verse.)
"If he can purchase but an old satten suit;
Time's Metamorphosis, by R. Middleton of York (printed with his Epigrams and Satyres, 1608.)
Middleton's allusion is of course to Greene's
Quip for an Upstart Courtier, 1592. It may be worth mentioning that Gabriel Harvey, in his copy of Gascoigne's Posies, 1575 (now, I believe, in the Bodleian), wrote a MS. note instituting a comparison between the forlorn conditions of Gascoigne and Greene. This note is, unless I am mistaken, printed entire in Bibliotheca Heberiana, part IV., art. "Gascoigne's Posies."
W. CAREW HAZLITT.
"The wishing Commonwealth's Man: a queint Dialogue between Cautious, a Countryman, and Wish-well, a Citizen Printed in the year of Drums, Trumpets, Pikes, and Muskets, 1642."
QUANTITY OF "PITUITA."— A correspondent of the Gent. Mag. (vol. xlv. p. 330), after praising the Latin version of "A froggy would a wooing go," adds-unfortunately, however, a gross false quantity occurs in one of the stanzas, "Vexat fac-pituita molesta.”
Now, it is true, that the first syllable of pituita is long, but why should it not be considered a word of three syllables, as it must be in Horace?
JOB J. BARDWell Workard, M.A. CRUDE: CRUEL.-It is curious to note the common origin of these words. Crudus immature, unploughed. Cruor murder (Horace), and its Greek root púos. The moral is obvious. J. D. CAMPBELL.
'Præcipue sanus nisi cum pituita molesta est." Epist. i. 1, last line.
The version appeared in the number for the preceding March. Unfortunately it contains also a real false quantity
"Inde cito dominæ perventum est muris ad aulam.”
Cito, when an adverb, has always the second syllable short. See Bland's Elements, p. ix., Introduction, 1840. Ovid, to say nothing of other poets, constantly makes it short
"Sic cito sum verbis capta puella tuis," &c. Medea Jasoni, line 92. Accordingly, in our public schools, it is forbidden to make it long, and the old rule, "O finita communia sunt," is, so far at least, disregarded. the same volume of the Gent. Mag., p. 442.
MISTAKES OF THE NOVELISTS. There is a gross error in Marryat's Snarley-yow, which has been allowed to last even down to the shilling edition of last year. He gives all the children of George and Anne to William and Mary. As in chap. 33, "of the many children born to the heretic William . one only remains, the present Duke of Gloucester": and again (chap. 43), "the death of the young Duke of Gloucester, the only surviving son of King William."
In Peacock's Headlong Hall, ch. vi., the philosophers are made to talk of the "precession of the equinoxes" where they mean the "variation of the obliquity." This mistake is enhanced by a setting of knowledge unusual in a novel; thus it is said that "Laplace has demonstrated that the precession of the equinoxes is a regular equation of long period." A. DE MORGAN.
"A SHORT RULE OF GOOD LYFE."
With life and lymbe to hazarde their renownes.
"A SHORT RULE OF GOOD LIFE."
In the year 1849 was published The Life and Death of Margaret Clitherow, the Martyr of
Some time ago I purchased a volume in MS., York, now first published from the original MS., which is prefaced as follows:
and edited by William Nicholson. London,
"For all these things yf they be had at last,
Serue but as staues to seruyle bodyes use, And ere they be possest, are gonne and past,
And booteless helpes; their masters must refuse When as the Quintessence this booke conteyns, And pearlesse gemme for euer more remaynes.
"A Collerie to cleare and cure the sight,
A cordiall good to helpe, and heale the harte,
A rare preseruatyue preuentinge smarte,
Which serues but ther to paue the Pallace floores,
Is onlye usd to make the dornes and dores,
And haue it oft in hande, more oft in harte,
Till Wyll doe take the understandinge parte.
"Conuertantur qui oderunt Sion."
The work proceeds the foundation and the rules thereof, with dissertations on Christian duties, an order for holy days, high feasts, confession, considerations to settle the mind in the course of virtue, devotion to saints, and other exercises of devotion. The MS. is written in a good round hand on 91 pages, 8vo. size.
In the same hand is written a title as follows:"The Manner of the apprehension of Margaret Clytherowe, late of Yorke, in the yere of our Saviour's Incarnation, 1586, and the 28th of the reigne of Queene Eliz: being the 10 day of March, with her Arreigement, condemnatio and execution."
This account takes up 35 pages, and is in a different handwriting.
ATKINSON, GOVERNOR OF SENEGAL. - Could any of the readers of " N. & Q." inform me if any person of the name of Atkinson was at any time