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Jura. He wrote a most wretched scrawl; and it was only by calling in the aid of a distinguished archæologist, and by our consulting the modern

NOTES:-The Swiss Ballad of "Renaud," 221-Sir John printed copies, that we could decypher the min

Henderson, 224-"Scoticisms:" Beattie: David Hume: Lord Hailes, 225.

MINOR NOTES:-Webster's "Devil's Law Case:" its Date -Tombstones and their Inscriptions-"Quarterly Reviews"- Mirabeau a Spy-Paper-Lady Madelina Palmer -Origin of the Saracen's Head-The End of Speech, 227. QUERIES: -"Don Quixote," 227 The Rev. William Jarvis Abdy-Rev. Richard Barry, M.A.-St. Anthony's Temptation-Sir Thomas Bartlet- Bible Translators Blount of Bitton-Thomas Brooks-Carew and Broke Carved Head in Astley Church George Edwards, F.R.S. Engravings of Religious Rites Rev. William Felton-Games: Merry-main-Heath Beer Heraldic Herbert of Cardiff-Maxims: Newbery: Goldsmith"May Maids" in Ireland, France, and Belgium-Mediatised German Princes - Phillips Family Scottish Games-Ancient Sundial - King William III, 227. QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:- Bishop Cox, of Ely, and Queen Elizabeth-The Whole Duty of Man"-Flamborough

Tower Norfolk and Suffolk Lines on London Dissent



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ing Ministers — Calis and Island Voyages-Washington Family-Mediaval Emblems-Epitaph on Dr. Vincent, REPLIES:- Boswell, 232-St. Patrick and the Shamrock, Toison d'Or, lb.-Titles borne by Clergymen, 235 Danish Invasion, Ib. The "Faerie Queene" unveiled, 236 The "Arcadia" unveiled, 237-St. Patrick and Venomous Reptiles in Ireland-"He died and she married the Barber"-Pomeroy Family-Sir Ferdinand LeeCowthorpe Oak A Lady's Dress in 1762 - Randolph Crewe Mævius The Bhagavadgita, &c. Suspended Animation - Jacob's Staff · Patrician Families of Louvain, 237.




The "Chanson de Renaud" is unquestionably of great antiquity, and may probably be referred to the Middle Ages. It belongs to the Jurassian district of Romande Switzerland, where traditional versions are sung both in the Romande language, and in old and modern French. The printed copies, which vary considerably — not merely in the text of the verses, but in the number of them are common broadsheets, for the country people. A Swiss antiquary, in 1858, printed a copy in modern French at Lausanne,

and said:


"La Chanson de Renaud est encore connue, aujourdhui, dans beaucoup de provinces du Jura. Je la donne telle que je l'ai entendu chanter dans le Jura, et sans me permettre la moindre alteration."

Although I call the Lausanne copy a modern French one, I must observe that it contains many old and obsolete French words, and also several Romande ones. Another very faulty copy may be found in the works of the late Gerhard de Nerval, Paris, 1856. The text varies considerably from the Lausanne copy, and is only about half the length. The following translation is from a Romande traditional copy, obtained (1857) from a professional fiddler that I met with in the

strel's hieroglyphics. To translate the Romande is no easy task, even to one who, like myself, has become somewhat familiar with it from long residence where it predominates. There is no standard for its orthography; and then it varies in every district, nay, almost in every parish. The following translation is tolerably literal, and many of the stanzas are word for word. In 1858, I printed a few copies of my first translation. It also appeared in the Durham Advertiser. It was copied by several other journals, and even found its way into some American papers. I also hear that it is in some "Selections." I regret this popularity, because I am now enabled to give a better rendering, and would desire to cancel the first impression. Robert White, Esq., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the author of some of the best ballads and songs in our language (vide Book of Scottish Ballads; The Fishers' Garland, &c., &c.), thus writes in the Durham Advertiser in a letter dated Dec. 28, 1858:

"So far as my recollection serves me, the Chanson de Renaud' does not resemble any of the popular ballads of this country. I know of none like it, especially after the earlier stanzas down towards the close. The commencement certainly reminds me of the beautiful dirge beginning

'A knight there came from the field of the slain,'which was written by John Finlay, and published in 1804. The only other resemblance is to a verse in 'Lord Randall,' in the Border Minstrelsy :—

'Mother, make my bed soon.'

The Song of Renaud might form a part of a much larger ballad, though in itself it may be complete. Apparently tale, calling to remembrance some of the striking chapa specimen of the right kind, it graphically depicts a ters of Scriptural History. Such translations must be welcome to every lover of ballad poetry."

The "resemblances" alluded to by my friend Mr. White I have disposed of, by giving the original text. I will merely remark, en passant, that long before John Finlay was born, Dean Swift

wrote a satiric street ballad on the Duke of Marlborough, which began with —

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"Our Johnny has come from the wars." By turning to the first line of the "Chanson de Renaud," it will be seen that if we substitute "Our Johnny," for "Renaud," and put "guerre' in the plural, we have Dean Swift's line, word for word. It is not very probable that either Finlay or Swift was acquainted with the "Chanson de Renaud." I could point out several such resemblances. Those who have paid attention to the ballads of different countries are aware of the fact that there is always a remarkable similarity in ballad phraseology. Particular phrases and

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modes of expression seem to belong to no particular country; but, like certain terminations in music, to be common property. Plagiarism is an offence that is not easily brought home to the ballad-monger.

Since the original translation of the "Chanson de Renaud," I have consulted no less than ten different copies, of which two MS. traditional ones were in the Romande. With this language (for I cannot call it a patois) I am more familiar than I was in 1858; and I have recently translated from it another ballad, "The Battle of La Planta," and two or three popular songs and some Ranz de Vaches. The result of the revision of | the following ballad, is, greater purity of text, the insertion of some verses, and the rejection of others. I think it right to say that I am responsible for the * by which the breaks in the narrative are marked. They are not placed to give a fragmentary appearance to what I consider to be a perfect composition; but they seem necessary to mark the sudden transitions, and will make the tale better understood. The singers in the Jura find it necessary to give a little verbal explanation where I have placed asterisks.


What, it may be asked, is the origin of the ballad? Who was Renaud? Was he a real personage, or is he a mere creation of the old trouvère? In De Nerval's copy, he is everywhere styled "Jean Renaud;" but I find this "Jean" nowhere else. De Nerval has not stated any authority for an appellation that is at variance with every other copy, printed or traditional; and yet some have taken advantage of this, and contended that the

hero was a Swiss-Major John Reynaud-who
figured in the "Thirty-years' War," and died
from a wound received in fight. The mediæval
imagery, the general structure of the composition,
the various readings, and the want of any known
standard of appeal, are sufficient to make me re-
ject such an hypothesis; which, by-the-bye, neither
De Nerval nor the Lausanne editor take any
notice of. I am inclined to believe, that "The
Chanson de Renaud " is much older than two
hundred years; and that the hero was a Swiss, or
an Italian of Piedmont, who figured in some of
the Burgundian wars of the fifteenth century.
Renaud is the French form of Rinaldo: it must,
of course, be pronounced Reno. I shall be glad
of any information as to the origin of the ballad.
In conclusion, I have one remark to make. Of
late years, while I have been abroad, several com-
pilers, or rather "getters up" of "selections,"
have made very free with my labours. I have
seen traditional ballads and songs, published by
me for the first time, appropriated—and often
without the slightest acknowledgment; and a
religious Society has even shown this want of
courtesy. I will not permit this wholesale plun-
der any longer. In future, if any one think my
"Collections" worthy of a reprint, he must ask
my permission. I have for some time past been
compiling a Ballad Book, and the practice com-
plained of is calculated to affect my intended

Via Santa Maria, Florence, Italy,
August 13, 1863.

Renaud de la guerre s'en vint,
Il en revint, triste, et chagrint.
Renaud de la guerre revint,
Tenant ses tripes dans ses mains.

Sa mère, qui était aux chambres en haut,
Vit venir son filz Renaud.

"Renaud, il y a gran' joie ici;

Ta femme est accouchée d'un filz."

"Ni de ma femme, ni de mon filz, Je ne saurais me rejouir. "Allez, ma mère-allez devant: Faites moi dresser un beau lit blanc. "Mais faites le dresser si bas,

Que ma femme ne l'entende pas. "Pour que ma femme, en son accouchée, Ne sache point mon arrivée." Et quand ce fut le minuit, Pauvre Renaud rendit l'esprit.

Renaud comes from the field of fight,
A care-worn, sad, and a weary wight.
His manly breast is crimson dyed -
A hand is press'd to his wounded side.
From latticed chamber, high and dim,
A mother rush'd to welcome him.
"Welcome!" she cried, "this day of joy
Thy ladye fair hath borne a boy."
["See ye not my pallid brow,

And the life-blood flowing now?] "The joy in the castle is not for me; My boy and his mother I may not see. "Mother! go make me a bed to-night; Let the coverlet and the sheets be white. "But spread my couch in a distant tower, I must be far from my ladye's bower. "She must not know, while in child-bed lain, Her lord returns from the battle-plain."

At the time of deep mid-night,
Poor Renaud render'd up his sprite.

One copy reads, "d'un petit."

Les valets se mirent à pleurer, Et les vassaulx à soupirer.

"Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Qu'entends-je vous pleurez ici?"

"Ma fille, c'est un de nos blancs chevaux, Qui à l'écurie se trouve mort." "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Qu'entends-je donc taper ici?" "Ma fille, c'est le charpentier, Qui raccommode l'escalier."+ "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Qu'entends-je donc chanter ici?" "Ma fille, c'est la procession,

Qui fait le tour de la maison." "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie, Quand sortirai-je de ce lit?" "Ni aujourd'hui, ni demain;

Vous en sortirez après la semaine." "Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie,

Quelle belle robe mettrai-je?" "Le blanc et le rose vous quitterez, Le noir § et le violet vous mettrez."

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The serving-men surround the bed,
And vassals weep o'er the warrior dead.

"Mother! wherefore do ye sigh,

And your hand-maids standing by? "*

"Our fair white steed lies dead in the stallHe was the bravest barb of all!" "Mother! methinks the night-winds bring Sounds of a distant hammering?" "My child! it is the carpentere, Who mendeth the escalier."

"Mother! I hear a solemn strainIt swells-it falls-it comes again." "A procession winds along,

And chanters raise the holy song." "Mother! I fain would quit my room,

I'm sick at heart of the castle's gloom."‡ "You are too feeble to quit your bed, You must wait till a week hath fled."

"When I go out, O mother dear!

What are the robes that I shall wear?"

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In the chapel's vaulted aisle, They sat them down to rest awhile. Three sculptors, mid the solemn gloom, Were working at a marble tomb.** "Mother! that tomb is wondrous fair; What brave knight is buried there?" "The tomb is fair, and it should be so; It is that of my son Renaud." "Take my jewels, and rings of pride, I soon shall rest by my Renaud's side. "And I trust the grave is wide and deep, That my child may also beside us sleep." On the tomb by the gallant knight, Is the sculptur'd form of his ladye bright.

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This person, who was governor of two important fortresses for Charles I., is not once named by Clarendon, whose reason for silence respecting him may however be conjectured from what follows:

Mr. Carlyle calls him a renegade Scot. He was a soldier of fortune, having, according to his own account, spent thirty years, and lost much blood in Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. He was Governor of Dumbarton Castle, but the king not being able to supply it with victuals, he was forced to surrender it upon articles to the Marquis of Argyle, August 24, 1640. The king's instructions to him, by the name of Colonel Hendersham, as captain and governor of the Castle of Dumbarton, are given by Rymer (Fœdera, xx. 454.)

One David Alexander, a poor Scot, in October, 1642, gave information to the parliament that Sir John Henderson had urged him to assassinate Sir John Hotham, and to blow up the magazine of the parliament army. The substance of the statement was embodied in the Declaration issued by both Houses concerning the advance of the king's army to London; it being added that they were credibly informed Sir John Henderson was a Papist.

In the Declaration of the Lords and Commons, Oct. 22, 1642, it is stated that Sir John Henderson and Col. Cockrom, men of ill report both for religion and honesty, had, as the Houses had been credibly informed, been sent to Hamburgh and Denmark to raise forces for the Earl of Newcastle. The king in his answer alludes to this statement as a vile scandal.

When Newark was garrisoned for the king, Sir John Henderson was appointed governor of the castle and town. Early in 1642-3 he seized Belvoir Castle for the king, and in July, 1643, he escorted the queen from Newark to Oxford. On the way to Nottingham, the royal escort of 5000 men was attacked by Lord Grey, whom he routed and put to flight.

On Oct. 11, 1643, occurred the famous fight at Winceby, near Horncastle, when Sir John Henderson was defeated by the parliament forces.

In or shortly before Jan. 1643-4, he sent letters by a trumpeter from Oxford soliciting a pass from the parliament for himself, his wife, and children to go into Holland, and settle there. The letters were addressed to Lord Maitland, Alexander Henderson, and Sir Henry Vane, the elder. The latter laid the application before the House of Commons, who refused the pass.

When Newark was relieved by Prince Rupert in March following, he left Sir Richard Byron (afterwards Lord Byron) as governor. Why Sir John Henderson was superseded does not appear.

In or about the beginning of May, 1645, he arrived in England with letters from the King of Denmark to the parliament interceding for peace with Charles I. He was also the bearer of a letter to that monarch from the King of Denmark; he was taken into custody, and on May 25 the Commons sent him to the Tower for levying civil war against the king and parliament. On Oct. 16 he was required to return to Denmark in fourteen days, taking back with him the letter he had brought for the English king, the parliament determining to send an answer to the King of Denmark's letter to them by commissioners of their


On Oct. 14, 1647, he applied to the House of Lords for permission to deliver letters from the King of Denmark to the king, he having recently arrived from Denmark, and having instructions to return there in haste. The Lords acceded to the request.

He was imprisoned at Edinburgh, but obtained his release by the favour of Cromwell. This was apparently in or before 1650. A curious letter from him to Cromwell, dated Cannigate, Sept. 19, 1650, is given in Nickolls's Original Letters and Papers of State, 21.

Subsequently, going to the continent, he became a hired spy of the Protector, acquainting his government from time to time with all the movements and designs of the Royalists abroad. Information respecting him during this period may be gathered from Thurloe's State Papers.

Hearing of the Protector's preparation for a foreign war, he in 1655 offered his services to him, stating that if they were declined he intended to address himself to the King of Sweden for entertainment under him, having refused a proper employment from the emperor, from whose court he had lately come.

When or where he died is not known, but amongst the petitions to Charles II., supposed to pertain to the year 1662, are four, which are thus abstracted by Mrs. Green (Cal. Dom. State Papers Charles II., ii. 624):

"Clara Magdalena, widow of Major-General Sir John Henderson. For relief to transport her to her native country as promised at request of the queen-mother. Her husband served the late King in the war as governor of Newark, agent in Denmark, Germany, &c., and had an order for 2001, which was never paid."

"The same. That 2007. due to her late husband as

former agent in Germany may be paid from the privy seal for relief of loyal sufferers."

transport herself to her own country from the 2000Z or"The same. For payment of her debts and means to

dered by privy seal dormant of March 19 last."

"The same. To the same effect,-being promised aid from the privy purse on recommendation of the queenmother."

Lady Henderson must have had no little assurance in seeking favour from Charles II., for it is clear that she was aware of her husband's treachery

to that monarch; indeed she had herself rendered of some few individuals on whose judgment he assistance in worming out the secrets of the Roy-placed great weight. The two brochures are of alists for transmission to Cromwell.

Sir John Henderson had six children. One son was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, but obtained his freedom. After which, against his father's will, he took an engagement under Middleton on behalf of Charles II.

There appear to have been four successive governors of the royal garrison at Newark, viz. Sir John Henderson, Sir Richard Byron, Sir Richard Willis, and Lord Bellasis. It is very remarkable that two of them (Henderson and Willis) acted treacherously to Charles II. when in exile. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER.



Dean Ramsey, in his amusing Sketches of Scotish Life, observes that he has two rather rare works on Scoticisms. One by Dr. Beattie, and another by the late Sir John Sinclair. The former is, I presume, the following work:

"Scoticisms; arranged in Alphabetical Order, designed to correct Improprieties of Speech and Writing. Edinburgh: Printed for William Creed, Edinburgh; and T.

Cadell, London, 1787."

Some months since, I picked up a very fine uncut copy of the former at a stall, interleaved and annotated to a considerable extent by some unknown individual, whose observations and additions are exceedingly valuable. Every attempt to ascertain from the handwriting, the author has hitherto failed-a circumstance to be regretted; but the MS. additions themselves indicate that he must have been a person of education and research.

The most singular circumstance, however, is this that at the end are bound thirty or forty pages of additional MS. material, together with a tract of eight leaves, apparently printed for private circulation; bearing the title of "Scoticisms," but having no title-page. The last leaf is descriptive of "Books published by the same Author;" and upon investigating the contents of the three books described, they turn out all to be from the pen of David Hume. Thus the inference is obvious, that the author of the History of England and the Essays was the author of the Scoticisms; but why they appeared in this odd form, is not very intelligible-unless it was intended by Hume as a sort of specimen, to be circulated among his private friends, whose favourable reception might be an inducement for his subsequently reproducing it in a more enlarged form.

great rarity, and exist only in very few libraries. One of them is entitled, A Specimen of Notes on the Scotish Law of Scotland, small 8vo. In the Address, which is signed by his Lordship, he mentions he had, without effect, called the attention of the learned to an explanation of the obsolete words used through the Scotch Magazine; and only received a communication from "one" gentleman. He thereupon privately printed the specimen; the object of which he discloses in the following paragraph:

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My purpose is to explain uncommon and obsolete words, to offer conjectures as to the import of obscure effusions, to illustrate law by history, and, as far as may be practicable, to delineate the state of Scotland and the manners of the Scotish nation, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries."

No assistance, however, was given; and, to the loss of the present race of historical students, the

lucubrations of this most accurate and accom

plished historian went no farther.

printed, was A Glossary of the Scotish Language. The other work of Lord Hailes, also privately This was circulated in the same form; and it is supposed that there are not half-a-dozen copies in existence. After a perusal, these two rarities would be thrown aside; and in course of time

would become almost unknown, excepting to a few literary antiquaries. The " specimen" is verified by Lord Hailes: the copy before me being a presentation one to "Mr. John Douglas, Mr. Thomas Thomson, Deputy Clerk Registrar, Advocate." Of the authorship of the Glossary, had no doubt. He found a copy at New Hailes, when contemplating a complete edition of the miscellaneous works of this learned judge and worthy man.

Minor Notes.

J. M.

WEBSTER'S "DEVIL'S LAW CASE; " ITS DAte. This play was published in 1623, and the REV. MR. DYCE justly remarks that it must have been written but a short time before, since in Act IV. Sc. 2, there is an allusion to the Dutch massacre of the English in Amboyna in Feb. 1622. The argument is the stronger in that the passage does not read like an after interpolation; but as this objection can always be raised against any such single proof, I may perhaps be allowed to strengthen it by another. In Act II. Sc. 3, Ariosto makes some remarks upon the defiant and ill-omened names given by Romelio to his ships, whence says he, "he never looked they'd prosper, since they were surely cursed from their cradles." Now if any one will turn to the ObSir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, in two in-servations of Sir Richard Hawkins in his Voyage stances adopted this mode of eliciting the opinion into the South Sea (pp. 8-10, Hakluyt Soc. edit.),

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