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Minor Notes.

"SHADES," A PUBLIC-HOUSE BAR: ORIGIN OF THE WORD.-The word "Shades" emblazoned over the door of a gin-palace, brilliant with plate glass, mirrors, and lamps, must have frequently struck us from its inappropriateness; and, from the non-umbrageous character of the apartment designated by the mysterious word, we may have concluded that the title was selected on the lucus a non principle. Its origin is thus explained by the late Mr. J. Ackerson Erredge, in his History of Brighthelmstone, 1862, pp. 338-9:

"The Brighton Old Bank was at first in Steine Lane,

with a second public entrance by the side way to the Pavilion Shades; from whence, in 1819, it was transferred to the apartments now the coffee-room of the Pavilion Hotel, Mr. Edmund Savage, who had obtained the license in 1816, having arranged with the bankers that they should rebuild the house in the Castle Square front, so that they might have the bank on the ground floor of the new building, and give up the rooms in Steine Lane in exchange. The room where the banking business had been transacted Mr. Savage then appropriated to a smoking room, and converted the clerks' room into a gin-shop. But as Mrs. Fitzherbert was then living immediately opposite, in Steine Lane, he was fearful of offending her by placing any writing on the house; the thought, however, struck him, that inasmuch as the height of Mrs. Fitzherbert's house, to the south of him, prevented the sun from shining upon his house, he would adopt the word “Shades,” and place it over the door, where had before been written "Bank," that being the only word used to publish the place. An immense trade was soon carried on in that little room, where three young men found full employinent in serving at the counter, and two as porters were engaged besides. The extensive trade there obtained soon induced other publicans to adopt the word “Shades " to their bars; and at the present time there is scarcely a public house in the kingdom but uses the term. The only place previously where the word "Shades" was adopted was at a vault near Old London Bridge, where nothing was sold but wine measured from the wood." CUTHBERT Bede.

THE RIVER THAMES DESCRIBED BY SIR WALTER SCOTT.-In Kenilworth, chap. xv., speaking of the Thames at Deptford, Scott says,

"They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the broad Thames, upon which the sun now shone forth in all its splendour. "There are two things scarce matched in the universe,' said (Sir) Walter (Raleigh) to Blount, the

sun in heaven, and the Thames on the earth.''

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Then Scott subsequently makes Raleigh call it "the king of rivers." Londoners certainly cannot complain that this does not do ample justice to their river. But in chap. xiii. we have

"At length Wayland paused in the midst of a very narrow lane, the termination of which showed a peep of the Thames, looking misty and muddy."

Now it may be questioned whether the Thames was muddy three hundred years ago; for we find that a Sir John Packington, who "was remarkable for his stature and comely personage," and who

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Had the river at this time been muddy, it is unlikely that such a bet would have been proposed;. it would appear that swimming in the Thames was. beside, from the circumstance of its being made, not an unusual pastime with the court gallants, for probably what Elizabeth objected to was the amount of the stake, which was an enormous sum in those days. The account of the bet is taken from an old Baronetage, printed in 1720, and that professes to derive it from MS. Memoirs of Sir John, written by "Mr. Tomkins, Prebendary of Worcester, who personally knew this knight." It would be an interesting matter to ascertain when the mists and fogs of London are first mentioned. THOS. DE MESCHIN.

THE NAMES ARTHUR AND GUINEVERE. In a notice in The Times, October 22, of Miss Yonge's History of Christian Names, it is stated that

"One of the few British names found in Cornwall is Girfer or Jennefer, which seems to be a corruption of Guinevere. The name of Arthur's guilty queen has been carried all over the continent. In the Italian it is Genethe old song of the Mistletoe Bough; and it seems to vra, used by Rogers in his version of the story told in be the Généviève made familiar to us by Coleridge's poem. Arthur was as widely known, but seems never to have been so much used; while Uter or Uthyr, the father of the blameless king, is not found elsewhere."

Is there not good reason for supposing that the name of Arthur was but another form of his father's name, Uther? This last is as often spelt with th as with t. The u which takes the place of the e, With regard to the change in the initial, one could has in the position occupied a similar sound. almost fancy that some ingenious scribe had simply reversed the ancient V, which represented U, making the word "Ather." Read as thus spelt, the sound would easily glide into Arthur. On referring to a grammar of the Welsh language, I see that u has the power of the English e in me, as well as that of i in thin; thus we obtain a nearer approach to the sound of the initial A. letter to The Times, Phenius, King of the ScyIn Wright's History of Ireland, quoted in a thians, is said to have commanded a digest of the Irish language, cultivated in the college he founded on the plain of Shenaar, to be made by Gadel, its president, the son of Eathur. Gadel divided the language into five several dialects; the fifth, or common idiom, used in general by the people, was named after the President Gavid healg. Is it not probable that we have here also

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"Oudit siege s'y avoit plusieurs bombardes et autres instruments pour abatre le mur, et entre les autres une grande bombarde de metail, tirant pierre de neuf espaulx et quatre dois d'entour, et pesant mille quatre cens cinquante une livres, les autres tirans dix ou douze centeners; lesquelles bombardes tiroient chascun jour de cent à sixvingt coups, et dura cecy cinquante-cinq jours: par quoy on compte qu'ils employerent chascun jour mille livres de poudre de bombarde," &c.

Have we any authentic records of cannon balls at all approaching this magnitude at so early a period? What was the measure of length known as the épaule? I do not find it in any early French dictionary. The circumference of a stone ball weighing 1451 lbs. English, would be about 92 inches, and this would give some 9.8 inches as the length of the épaule. J. ELIOT HODGKIN.

WESTALL'S WOODMAN. It is always interesting to know the originals of popular pictures, when they have been taken from real life. I therefore transcribe the following paragraph from the obituary of the Gent. Mag. in 1813:

"Aged 107, Michael Baily, a native of Sherbourn, co. York, and the person who sat for the painting called The Woodman. He was a very regular man, and from the age of fifty, when he first came to London, till he attained his hundredth year, he was a day-labourer."

I conclude that the picture in question is that by Richard Westall, R.A., and shall be glad to be informed who now possesses it. J. G. N.

BLAIR'S "GRAVE."—In that neglected repository of literary information, The European Magazine, there occurs the following letter relative to an obvious plagiarism by the author of The Grave, which is worth transferring to the "N. & Q."

pages of

"To the Editor of the European Magazine. "Sir,-Reading a few evenings since the ingenious Heranio's Leisure Amusements for the Month of January, I was forcibly struck with the very close resemblance of two lines in the stanzas he quotes from the poem written by Norris in 1696, under the title of "The Meditation," and two lines in Blair's "Grave."

The lines I allude to are the first two of the second verse quoted from Norris

"Some courteous ghost tell this great secrecy,
What 'tis you are, and we must be.'

"Blair's are, to the best of my recollection (for I have not been able just at this time to lay my hand on the poem itself)

'O that some courteous ghost would blab it out, What 'tis ye are, and we must shortly be!

almost word for word.

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WHO WRITE OUR NEGRO SONGS? - Is this cutting worth a place in " N. & Q. " ? —

"The principal writer of our national music is said to be Stephen C. Foster, the author of Uncle Ned,' 'Oh, Susannah,' &c. Mr. Foster resides near Pittsburgh, where he occupies a moderate clerkship, upon which, and the percentage on the sale of his songs, he depends for a living. He writes the poetry, as well as the music, of his songs. They are sung wherever the English language is spoken, while the music is heard wherever men sing. In the cotton fields of the South, among the mines of California and Australia, in the sea-coast cities of China, in Paris, in the London prisons, everywhere in fact, his melodies are heard. Uncle Ned' was the first. This was published in 1846, and reached a sale till then unknown in the music publishing business. Of The Old Folks at Home' 100,000 copies have been sold in this country, and as many more in England. My Old Kentucky Home' and Old Dog Tray,' each had a sale of about 70,000. All his other songs have had a great run." -Western Fireside, Madison, Wisconsin, April 25, 1857.


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ALLEGORICAL PAINTING.-Can any reader of "N. & Q." give me an explanation of the curious old painting, which I will attempt to describe? In the centre is a female figure, dressed in a scarlet gown, and wearing a hat decorated with many feathers. Her hair is yellow, falling in curls on her shoulders. The dress is low on the bosom. In it are set three brooches, the centre one being larger than the other two. From these are looped strings of pearls. Falling over the right shoulder is a green scarf. She is seated in a gilt chair with a bold scrolled back. Beside it is an elegantly formed gilt chauldron, from which smoke is arising. On the edge of this vessel the left foot is placed; the right, upon which is worn a high-heeled boot of some white material, and decorated in front with a large rosette of the same colour, is placed upon some instrument, to which is attached a chain. On her right hand is a kind of stand, upon which is displayed apparently a quantity of silver coin. Beyond this is a table, upon which stands a vase of flowers, containing, among others, a rose and a tulip, and falling from the table and scattered about are various rich vessels of gold and silver. At her foot is an imperial crown. On the floor is a pack of playingcards, the ace of spades, which is plain, being exposed on the top; and scattered about are the ace of clubs and diamonds, the tray of hearts, the five of diamonds, and one or two others. Behind the principal figure, or rather perhaps on her left hand, is a table upon which is a skull surmounted by a winged hour-glass, and near it a lighted candle in a golden candlestick. Leaning against the table is a large viol with a carved head, and beside it a boy seated, apparently blowing a bubble. The picture measures 6 feet by 3 feet. It is not devoid of merit in the execution, but is in very bad condition. Some of the details I have not described. I shall be glad to know whether this curious old composition has ever been engraved, and by whom it was painted. JOHN MACLEAN.


BEALBY FAMILY. - Can any of your correspondents inform me whether there is any record of the connection of a family called Bealby with that of the poet Milton? I believe the Bealbys to have had their origin in Yorkshire.

Magdalen College, Oxford.


name of Polyplasiasmos. No pencil was employed in their production. Can any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." refer to contemporary notices of these pictures, which were produced in large quantities, and sold at moderate prices? or state where any specimens are now preserved? HUGH W. DIAMOND.

CONGREVE OF CONGREVE.-What was the Christian name of a Congreve of Congreve and Stretton, co. Stafford, who was a member of parliament in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and introduced, it is believed, the bill exempting members of parliament from arrest for debt?


DE QUINCEY'S WORKS.-In his admirable series of papers on "The Cæsars," De Quincey omits all mention of Tiberius, except in a foot-note to Chapter III., which is devoted to (as he strangely states) "the next three emperors, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero; i. e. next after Augustus! And yet in the foot-note De Quincey speaks of "Tiberius, who succeeded his adopted father, Augustus." Was there any unexplained reason for this omission? D. BLAIR.


DIENLACRES, STAFFORDSHIRE. - I am particularly anxious to obtain as correct a list as possible of the abbots of this monastery. The following, compiled from Dugdale and other sources, is, I am well aware, very incomplete; and any one able to amend or add to it, will much oblige by corresponding direct with me: —

1. Richard was the 1st Abbot, 1214.

2. Adam, Abbot of Denlacres and Pulthun, in a deed

penes Mr. Warburton of Arley.

3. Stephen occurs 28th Henry III.

4. William temp. Thomas, who was Abbot of Chester, 1249-65.

5. Hamon in 1266, and

6. Robert, in 1299, are in deeds penes Marquis of Westminster.

7. Walter de Morton, temp. Matt. de Cranarch.

8. Nicholas occurs A.D. 1318.

9. John, 16th Henry VI.

10. Thomas, A.D. 1499.

11. Adam de Whytmore, and

12. John Newton, 14th Henry VII. (See Ormerod's Cheshire.)

13. William (Albon?), 11th Henry VIII.

1557, desires that he may be buried in Westminster 14. Thomas Whitney, the last Abbot, in his will, dated Abbey.

Thornbridge, Bakewell.


GUNPOWDER IN THE REIGN OF RICHARD II. — In Stowe's London (p. 448, ed. 1603), he gives an JOSEPH BOOTH'S POLYGRAPHIC EXHIBITION. account of the burning of the Savoy Palace by the Mr. Joseph Booth, a portrait painter of Lewisham rebels of Kent and Essex in 1381. He says:in Kent, exhibited in 1791 a series of reproduc- which they thought had been gold or silver, and throwThey found there certaine barrels of gunpowder, tions of celebrated pictures, copied "by a chymi-ing them into the fire, more suddenly than they thought, cal and mechanical process," and which had been the halle was blowne uppe, the houses destroyed, and themoffered to the public two years before under the selves very hardly escaped away."


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HERALDIC QUERY: ELKANAH SETTLE.-I have before me a very fine copy of one of the numerous occasional pieces of the once celebrated city poet, Elkanah Settle. It is entitled

"Eusebia Triumphans. Carmen Gratulatorium Auspicatissimæ Inaugurationi Hanoveranæ Successionis, in Augustimo Principe Georgio, Dei Gratiâ, Magne Britanniæ, Franciæ et Hiberniæ Rege," &c. Londini, anno MDCCXV., folio.

This volume is in rich old purple morocco, with the armorial bearing impressed in gold on each side. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, ermine; 2nd and 3rd, argent (or blank). It has the appearance of having been bound for presentation, and I should be glad to know to whom the arms, which I suspect to be imperfectly blazoned, may be inscribed.

I am here reminded of another query. I do not see that the Dean of Canterbury, in his recent interesting papers in Good Words on the "Queen's English," has included the proper name "Elkanah" among the instances of pulpit mispronunciation which he reprobates. But how is it that on the 3rd Sunday after Trinity, we are told through the length and breadth of the land, that "Elkanah went to Ramah to his house." What authority is there for so pronouncing this name? The penultimate is unquestionably unaccented in Hebrew, and in the time of Young, he and his clerical brethren properly accented the first syllable. Thus this poet asks

"What if the figure should in fact prove true!
It did in ELKANAH, why not in you?
Poor ELKANAH, all other changes past,
For bread in Smithfield dragons hist at last,
Spit streams of fire to make the butchers gape,
And found his manners suited to his shape:
Such is the fate of talents misapplied;
So lived your prototype- and so he died."

Epistle to Pope. Poor Settle died in the Charter House, Feb. WILLIAM BATES.



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ORATORIOS.-Who are authors or selecters of the words of the following oratorios? 1. "Israel Restored," by W. R. Bexfield, Lond. 1852. 2. “The Resurrection and Ascension," by G. J. Elvey, Mus. Doc. 3. "Jerusalem," by Wm. Glover." 4. "The Crucifixion and Resurrection," by J. C. Whitfield, Mus. Doc. 5. "The Crucifixion," by J. Rippon, London (?). 6. "Job," by W. Russell, Mus. Bac. (about 1806.)


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End of France, the Abbey of St. Matthew, deafened by "How many Englishmen have stood on that Land's the roar and churning of the Atlantic in the wild caves of the Baie des Trespasses, that abbey within sight of which pagan gods had their last European altar, their last priests, and their last sacrifices, and that down to 1690." -Christian Remembrancer, Oct. 1863, p. 425.

I should be glad to be informed what is known of those pagan rites to which the writer of a very interesting article on French Ecclesiology alludes in the above passage, or of the conversion to the Christian faith of those who still adhered to them at so late a period. E. H. A.


PEAT BOGS. I was recently struck with the vast quantity of peat in the valley of the Somme and its tributaries, extending to a distance of forty miles and upwards from the sea. According to Sir Charles Lyell, it averages about thirty feet in depth, and has accumulated above the fluviatile deposit, in which such remarkable discoveries have been made within the last few years.

Is such an extensive system peculiar to the Somme? and are there any river valleys covered to a like extent with that vegetable deposit? The peat-bogs in the British islands appear more

usually to be connected with a system of lakes
than rivers.


The Rev. FrederICK SHERLOCK POPE was for many years minister of the episcopal chapel in Baxtergate, Whitby, and afterwards curate or incumbent of Trinity, Micklegate, York. last year in which I can trace him in the Clergy List is 1853, when no abode is given. I shall be glad to know the place and time of his death. He published a sermon on the death of Mrs. Cole, Whitby, 8vo, 1842. I am told that he also published a sermon on the death of Thomas Bateman, M.D., which occurred in 1821. Information on this latter point is also requested. S. Y. R.

PORTRAITS OF NOTORIOUS LADIES OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE IV.-There are well-engraved portraits in quarto, published in colours, of which one is entitled MRS. Q. with a view of Downing Street in the background: drawn by Huet Villiers, engraved by W. Blake, and published by J. Barrow, Watson Place, St. Pancras, June 1, 1820. Another, entitled WINDSOR CASTLE, drawn by J. B., engraved by G. Maile, published (as before) June 1, 1821. Who were these ladies? and are there more of the same set of prints? N.

PROGNOSTICATIONS. - In Bohn's Guinea Catalogue I find the following_entry: -"A curious volume of early Italian Prognostications, some Black Letter, for the years 1478, 1507, 1524, &c., to 1552. 4to, Bologna." Thirteen old almanacs for fifteen shillings, a very good bargain. My query is, What Prognostication was printed in Italy in 1478? In Holland, yes; but I can't find any in Italy so early. Can any of your readers assist? In the new edition of Brunet, he mentions M. Warzée, Auteur de Recherches Bibliograph. sur les Almanacs Belges, see Bibliophile Belge; but neither of these is in the Museum. WM. DAVIS.

LADY RERES.-Is there anything further known respecting Lady Reres, who is several times mentioned, not much to her credit, in the story of Mary Queen of Scots ? She is said to have been at the outset the main channel of communication between the Queen and Bothwell. In the first of Mary's alleged letters to Bothwell, Darnley says to her at Glasgow: "Quant à Reres, il dit: Je prie Dieu que les services qu'elle vous fait vous soient à honneur." See also a curious passage relative to her in Laing (Dissertation to the Murder of Darnley, vol. ii. p. 8, ed. 1804), and also Buchanan's "Detection in Anderson (Collections, vol. ii. p. 8). In the well-known letter from

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[ Lady Reres was niece to Cardinal Beton, and sister to Lady Buccleuch, whom Sir Walter Scott made the heroine of the Lay of the Last Minstrel. "Both sisters," says Miss Strickland, "were the objects of political slander, the charges against them being grossly improbable."-Queens of Scotland, v. 197.-ED.]

James Beton to his brother, the Archbishop of
Glasgow, in June, 1567, it is mentioned that the
Queen selected, as her messenger to the Captain
of Edinburgh Castle, "the young Laird of Rires."

HUGH ROSE, BOTANIST.-Hugh Rose, author of the Elements of Botany, was an apothecary at Norwich. He was, in 1780, deprived of sight through a gutta serena, and died soon afterwards. The precise date of his death will oblige

S. Y. R. SINGAPORE.-This is one of the most prosperous of our Eastern settlements; for which we are mainly indebted to the untiring labours of the Chinese, who have been attracted to it by its freedom from commercial restrictions, and advantages of position. In 1859 there was a population single European who understood their language. of 70,000 Chinamen in that colony, and not a See Oliphant's Narrative of Lord Elgin's Mission to China and Japan, p. 20.

Will any of your readers, acquainted with Singapore, be kind enough to inform me if this ignorance of the Chinese language still continues amongst the European residents in that colony? The ignorance of the European residents of the Chinese language is so extraordinary, I am inclined to think Mr. Oliphant has been imposed upon. If the European residents were all Englishmen, it is probable not one of them would submit to the excessive toil of learning the Chinese language. Englishmen are proverbial for their indisposition to learn any other language than their own. May I ask if they had interpreters ? And may I further ask, were the above 70,000 Chinamen in Singapore at the time it came into British possession? FRA. MEWBUrn. Larchfield, Darlington.

TENURES OF LAND IN IRELAND.-Blount's Antient Tenures of Land (London, 1679,) is an interesting book of its kind. Where is similar information to be had, in separate form or otherwise, respecting "ancient tenures of land" in Ireland?' I am, of course, acquainted with Lynch's Feudal Dignities, &c. (London, 1830.)


ROBERT WALLACE was author of Antitrinitarian

Biography, Lond. 3 vols. 8vo, 1850, dedicated to
the Rev. Charles Wellbeloved, of York, with
whom the author had just completed his studies
for the ministry. In a recent publication, this
work is referred to as that of the late Rev. R.
Wallace. May I ask when and where Mr. Wallace
died, and whether he was the author of any other
S. Y. R.
LANDS (1 S. xii. 504.) — Aubrey, in his Miscel-
lanies (1696, p. 69), tells us that

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