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3rd S. IV. JULY 18, '63.]




been the opinion of St. Gregory the Great, whose
authority is quoted in the following words of
Eugenio Robles, a Spanish writer of great autho-

NOTES: -Mozarabic Literature, 41-Exchequer: or Ex-rity on the Mozarabic Liturgy: -
checquer-Cheque, 43-"The Book of Days: " Translation
of St. Cuthbert, 41-Kemble's Version of" The Tempest,"
44-The Queen's Memorial to the late Prince Consort at
Balmoral, 45- Pope and Senault, 46.

MINOR NOTES:- The late Lord Hatherton


of Beggars at Bath in 1739- Mr. John Collet- Oxford Jeu d'Esprit, 46.


QUERIES:- Philosopher's Stone, 47- Anonymous
Charron, "De la Sagesse'
bury's Engravings
Douglas Case-Playing "Germands"-
Jamaica Epitaph on John
Heane-Hopton Family
a'Combe Captain Thomas Kerridge-Lockwood, Ed-
ward VI.'s Jester-"Miller of the Dee"-"The Nonsuch
Professor "-Peter's Pence - Quotation - Master Richard
(Ryder) of Leicester-Skyring Arms or Pedigree-Spain:
Mosque of Cordova-St. Stephen's Church, Walbrook-
Inscription at Trujillo, 47.

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: "A Helpe to Discourse"----
Dogs - Bryndley of Wistaston, &c., 50.
REPLIES:- On the Derivation of the Word "Theodolite,"
Marc de Vulson: Lucretia
51 Bell Literature, 52-
Maria Davidson, 53- Dennis: Arma Inquirenda, Ib.-
Ralegh Arms: Correction-Luther-Sheriff's of Cornwall
Parishes of England - Sir Charles Calthrope - Swift:


"Tale of a Tub"-Pizarro's Coat of Arms-To speak
by the Card"- Church used by Churchmen and Roman
Godolphin The Song of
Catholics Church v. King
the Battle of Hexham-Unipods: Musky H-
Platform Praed's Poems-Stradella-Prince Chris-
tiern of Denmark -Burning Alive - Black Monday-Sub-

stautia, &c., 54. Notes on Books, &c.



The remarks which appeared in "N. & Q" some time ago on the Complutensian Polyglot, would be incomplete in reference to the great literary zeal and abilities of Cardinal Ximenez, without some additional observations on the Mozarabic Liturgy which he undertook to restore in Spain, in the sixteenth century.

The following account is taken from Gomez, Eugenio Robles, Florez, Hefele, and the preface of Lorenzana, Archbishop of Toledo, to his edition of the Breviarium Gothicum, published at Madrid in 1775.

Gomez mentions (De Rebus Gestis à Francisco Ximenio, Compluti, 1569, lib. ii. fol. 41), that in the year 1502, while the cardinal was residing at Toledo, he discovered some valuable manuscripts These manuin the library of the cathedral. scripts were written in old Gothic characters, and related to the ancient Spanish liturgy. Florez assures us (Espana Sagrada, tom. iii.) that this liturgy was introduced into Spain by St. Torquatus and his seven companions, who were disciples of St. James the Less. It resembled the Roman Liturgy in every essential part. Several prayers and ceremonies appear to have been added by St. James, which were afterwards introduced Such seems to have into the Spanish liturgy.

"Tambien se averigua (San Gregorio, Epist. 67, lib. vii.) que la primera Missa que se celebró con solennidad de ceremonias y oraciones añadidas, fue instituyda y ordenada por el Apostol Santiago el Menor, Obispo de manera de celebrar, Jerusalem cuyo orden y nueva truxeron à nuestra España, introduziendola en ella, los siete Santos Discipulos de los Apostoles, viz., Torcato y sus Compañeros," &c. (De la Antigüedad del Oficio Santo Muzarabe, cap. xix. p. 204, Toledo, 1604.)

The resemblance, however, between the Roman and Spanish liturgy appears to have been soon lost, at least with respect to various prayers and ceremonies. Different popes made several alterations in the sacramentaries, viz. Leo the Great, Gelasius I. and St. Gregory the Great. And then, when the Suevi, the Vandals, and Visigoths conquered Spain, they introduced their own particular liturgy, which was infected with the Arian heresy. The Arian and ancient Spanish rite existed together for some time, until at last the Spanish Church, through the cruelties and intolerance of the Arians, saw herself reduced to such misery and destitution, that nothing but confusion existed in her rites and religious services. It is also probable, that the heresy of Priscillian had a considerable share in corrupting the ancient Spanish Liturgy.

But a very important change took place when the Visigoth kings were converted to the Catholic Church, at the end of the sixth century. In the fourth Council of Toledo, held in the year 633, the Spanish Bishops, with St. Isidore of Seville at their head, resolved to put an end to the diversity of rites which then existed, and to establish throughout the whole of the country one and the same liturgy. For this object, the bishops gave to each priest, at his ordination, a new ritual, which he was strictly obliged to follow, in the This ritual was still, in substance, the same as performance of his sacred duties and functions. the Roman. But St. Isidore, assisted by his brother St. Leander, had made certain alterations and additions in it, and suppressed whatever errors had crept in, through the malice and perfidy of

the Arians. Hence the work often bears the name of Ritus Isidorianus; seu, Breviarium et Officium, secundam Regulam Beatissimi Isidori. But it must be remembered, that St. Isidore was not the author of the reformed liturgy. Robles is quite correct in stating that St. Isidore merely enlarged the sacred office, &c. :—

"añadiendo á la

cosas muy

"Amplió este oficio Santa," he says, notables y devotas; expurgandole de algunas obras que antigua Missa muchas oraciones, y otras con la antigüedad del tiempo se avian introduzido, no tan conformes al uso y costumbre de la Yglesia."-P. 205, cap. xix.


This liturgy soon came into general use. seems to have extended in every direction, without being influenced, in any way, by the reform of Pope Gregory the Great. According to Father Lesley, a learned Jesuit, who published an edition of the Mozarabic Liturgy at Rome in 1755, St. Leander, the predecessor of St. Isidore, was the first who revised the ancient Spanish rite for the use of the Goths, to which additions were afterwards made by his brother, St. Isidore. (See Alban Butler's Life of St. Isidore, April 4th.) This liturgy continued in use until the invasion of Spain by the Moors, at the commencement of the eighth century.


At that unfortunate period, while numbers of Spaniards fought valiantly for their faith, and some retired amongst the sierras of the north, others submitted to the conquerors under certain conditions, the chief of which were, that they should be allowed to preserve and practise their religion without danger or molestation. To these conditions the Moors generously agreed. Robles tells us, that when Toledo was surrendered by the Christians after a most obstinate resistance and defence, one of the conditions was, "that the Christians should live according to their own law, and that six or seven churches should be given up to them, wherein the holy offices might be continued." (P. 207.) Those who lived under the Moorish power received, according to the statement of Dr. Hefele, the name of "Mostarabuna " -an Arabic participle, signifying mixed with Arabs, while their liturgy was soon called the Mostarabic, the Muzarabic, Mozarabic, or Mixed Arabic:

"Da nun aber die unter Maurischer Herrschaft leben

den Spanier, den Namen Mosterabuna - d. i. die Arabisirten oder Vermischten erhielten," &c. (Die Mozarabische Liturgie, xiii. H.S. 152.)

The same etymology of the word is given, both by Gomez and Robles; the first writer says: "Nonnulli tamen quibus patrii domesticique lares cariores libertate fuerunt, cōditione accepta, sub Arabum et Maurorum imperio sacris suis retentis, in urbe manserunt. Ergo ejusmodi homines quòd Arabibus permisti viverent, Mistarabes appellati sunt, et illorum Ecclesiasticus-ritus-officium Mistarabum. Quæ vox, cùm temporis diuturnitate tum barbarorum lingua est corrupta, et in Mozarabum degeneravit, quâ nunc vulgus utitur." (De Rebus Gestis Francisci Ximenii, lib. ii. fol. 41.)

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"Mozárabe, or Muzárabe, is the Arabic Musta'rab, meaning a man who tries to imitate or become an Arab in his manners and language: and who, though he may know Arabic, speaks it like a foreigner."

This etymology of the word seems very probable, for the Christians were so mingled up with their conquerors and masters, that in process of time they were distinguished from the Arabs amongst whom they lived by little except their faith. (Conde, Hist. de la Dominacion de los Arabes en España. Madrid, 1820, tom. i. p. 229.)

When Toledo was recovered from the Moors, and annexed again to the crown of Castile, in the eleventh century, the Gregorian rite was adopted in the place of the Mozarabic. This choice was confirmed in a council held in that royal and ancient city, in the year 1088. But the approval of the council raised such a powerful opposition amongst those who still adhered to the use of the Mozarabic Liturgy, that it was considered necessary to decide the dispute by the "Judgment of God." A copy of both liturgies was accordingly thrown into a blazing fire. The Gregorian copy rebounded from the pile of wood and fell by the side of it, while the Mozarabic remained uninjured in the midst of the flames. The inhabitants of Toledo exulted over the victory; but the King Alfonso VI. decided that, as both liturgies appeared to be respected by the fire, so they should both be allowed in his kingdom. This decision gave rise to the proverb, "Allà van leyes, donde quieren Reyes"-"Where kings wish, there the laws go."

But though the king recognised both liturgies, he did not think proper to grant them equal rights. The Mozarabic Liturgy was confined to only six parish-churches in Toledo, while all the other churches of the city and of the kingdom were obliged to use the Gregorian rite.

But in course of time the Mozarabic Christians in Toledo lost all attachment to their ancient liturgy, in consequence of which the Gregorian began by degrees to be adopted in the six parish churches above mentioned, and the Mozarabic was used only on certain festivals.

Such was the state of matters when Ximenez became Archbishop of Toledo, in 1495. His predecessor, the great Cardinal Mendoza, had already commenced the work of restoring the Mozarabic rite; but as death prevented him from accomplishing his object, Ximenez completed the work. He carefully collected all the best manuscripts of the said Liturgy, and chose Alfonso Ortiz-a Canon of the Cathedral of Toledo-together with three parish priests attached to the churches of the Mozarabic rite, with power to revise the manuscripts, and to change the ancient Gothic characters for the Roman letters. The Cardinal, when everything was arranged, published at his sole expense a great number of Mozarabic Mis

3rd S. IV. JULY 18, '63.]


sals and Breviaries, copies of which are now seldom or ever to be met with in Spain, though the Roman reprint of 1755, and the edition by Lorenzana of the Breviarium Gothicum in 1775, are to be found in most good libraries.

But in order that the Mozarabic Liturgy might rest on a secure foundation, Ximenez erected a beautiful chapel in the Cathedral, under the title of "Corpus Christi," and endowed a college for thirteen priests to officiate according to the Mozarabic rite these were called Mozarabes Capellani, and the head-chaplain was named Capellanus Major. These celebrated the divine office every day, and recited the canonical hours according to the same rite. While the Roman Liturgy is now happily used throughout the whole of Spain, the Mozarabic is still kept up in the Cathedral of Toledo, the funds for this purpose which were left by Ximenez having been fortunately preserved, to a considerable extent.

It would be unsuitable for the pages of "N.&Q." to enter into any details connected with the ceremonies of this ancient and venerable Liturgy. They may be found in Robles, Thomasius, Bona, Martene, and Aguirre. A short description and explanation of the Mozarabic Mass are to be found in Hefele's Life of Cardinal Ximenez (English Translation, ed. London, 1860, J. DALTON. p. 187.) Norwich.


quite as feasible for the Turks to have gotten their sequin from the Venetians, and not vice versa, seeing that the former inhabitants of the Adriatic city were, in the Middle Ages, the great moneyers" of the world. Prior to the capture of Constantinople by Mahomet II. there was no Turkish coinage to speak of; and from their intercourse with the Greek Empire, the Venetians-and, through them, Europe-obtained not "sequins' but "Byzants" or "Besants," from "Byzantium." The "Besant" still lingers in heraldry.

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I cannot help thinking that the Italian term 66 zecca" has something to do with our exchequer, the more so as the first die-sinkers, seal-engrazecca," exchevers, and moneyers who settled in England were either Venetians or Greeks. A " quer, or absolute treasury for money coined may have been attached to the actual mint (Monnaie, Moneta). I have admitted that to connect the "Exchequer," in its pecuniary bearings, with the "chequers," as a pattern, passes my comprehension; still I am strengthened in my belief as to the affinity of "exchequer" and "zecca" when I come to the consideration of the word "cheque," the order or draft for payment of money deposited in the hands of a banker. Certain etymologists have been hasty enough to hold "cheque" as identical with "check," the act of curbing or restraining. Thus, in drawing a "cheque," you keep a "check" on your banker; but the real "check," as a curb or verificatory document, is not the "cheque' which departs from you, but the you keep. Ob"counterfoil" or stump" which EXCHEQUER: OR EXCHECQUER-CHEQUE. " and half a serve as a curious fact, that although we have Query' a The following is half "Note." I want to know, first, as much as is borrowed "counterfoil" from the Norman " patent as to the origin of the sign of the "Che-trefeuille," the equivalent term in modern French quers," the oldest tavern cognizance, I believe, extant, and still visible on the door-jambs of a wineshop in Pompeii,-and as to the curious connection between such a convivial emblem and our grave legal finance tribunal the Court of Exchequer, the table of which court was, within the memory of living persons, covered with a cloth bearing a pattern of alternate white and black I shall be told, doubtless, that our word exchequer comes obviously from the French "Echiquier" or chessboard, and that the "chequers was anciently a very apt sign for a tavern where any modifications of the games of chess, draughts, or backgammon were played; but I cannot obtain a satisfactory solution of why the chequers" should have had anything to do with the royal treasury.




Next: I noted recently in Venice, that the Here, obviously the mint is called the "Zecca." word is derived from the Venetian zecchino or Sequin. The Sequin is said to have been originally a Turkish coin; but not being an orientalist, I am unable to determine its possible Turkish or Arabic root, I will, however, observe that it is



banking is "souche," the "root" or "stump," or extraction of a thing, as in "un gentilhomme de bonne souche."

In old time the goldsmiths (Lombards and Venetians, by the way), were wont to keep their own and their customers' money in the king's treasury; and the flagitious shutting up of this treasury, and impounding of its contents by Charles II., will be remembered as one of the most impudent acts of dishonesty ever perpetrated by a king. What, however, could have been more natural than for the Veneto-Lombard goldsmiths to have called the treasury (then closely associated with the mint) the "zecca," and a draft drawing money thereupon (when they could get it) a "zeque" or "cheque"? There was once an official also called the "clerk of the cheque." Who and what was he?

I have transcribed this as I found it in my note-book, written when, from circumstances, I was debarred from access to any books of etymological reference. But I have gained very little, since my return to England, from the consultation of authorities readier to the hand, and am

therefore emboldened to appeal to the correspondents of "N. & Q." to point out more recondite sources of information. GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA.


The Book of Days occasionally gives some account of a saint, under the day of his feast. Accordingly, under the date of September 4, it has a long article on the "Translation of St. Cuthbert," characterised by the usual inaccuracies and prejudice of its other notices of the saints. It is well known that, in 1827, on the 17th of May, a stone slab was removed from the Feretory of St. Cuthbert, in Durham Cathedral, and a skeleton taken up, which was confidently asserted to be that of St. Cuthbert. It is not my intention to enter upon any discussion as to the correctness of this assertion: my only object here is to rectify the mistakes of the Book of Days.



"The next appearance of St. Cuthbert," it says, in May, 1827; when, in presence of a distinguished assemblage, including the dignitaries of Durham Cathedral, his remains were again exhumed from their triple encasement of coffins."

From this account, the reader would be led to conclude that the exhumation was a public proceeding, conducted before a large assemblage, and by the dignitaries of the cathedral. But the truth is, that it was quite a private undertaking; conducted by one prebendary, the Rev. W. N. Darnell, and one other clergyman, the Rev. James Raine, Rector of Meldon: and the "distinguished assemblage" was composed of the deputy-receiver, the clerk of the works, the verger, and the master mason. Mr. Raine, indeed, includes the Rev. S. Gilly, another prebendary, among the openers of his tomb. But I know, from his own declaration, that he was not present at the actual opening. He was engaged in the service of the choir; but hearing a strange noise in the Feretory, he ran thither in his surplice as soon as the service was over, to see what was going on. He there found the Rev. Messrs. Darnell and Raine, and the others. The two workmen were actually stand ing within the coffin, and trampling upon its contents. He ordered them out, remonstrated with the Rev. Mr. Darnell, and requested that witnesses might be sent for out of the town, and also some one from Ushaw College. Mr. Darnell was sub-dean he seemed very nervous, and refused assent to Mr. Gilly's proposals. He wished to finish the investigation as quickly as possible, and to prevent any crowd assembling. So much for the "distinguished assemblage." Mr. Gilly then went down himself; and discovered a stole and two maniples; a portable altar of oak, covered

with silver; a gold cross on the breast of the The bones skeleton, and a paten lying by it. were all placed in a new chest, and buried again in the same place. The Book of Days goes on:—

"From all the appearances, it was plain that the swathings had been wrapped round a dry skeleton, and not round a complete body; for, not only was there no space left between the swathing and the bones, but not the least trace of the decomposition of flesh was to be found. It was thus clear that a fraud had been practised; and a skeleton dressed up, in the habiliments of the grave, for the purpose of imposing on popular credulity, and benefiting thereby the influence and temporal interests of the church."

It would be out of place in the pages of "N. & Q." to go into a refutation of this gratuitous imputation of fraud; but before any impartial reader adopts this assertion of the Book of Days, I would have him in justice peruse a work published the year after this exhumation, and entitled, Remarks on the Saint Cuthbert of the Rev. James Raine, M.A., &c.; with the following significant motto, "Quodcumque ostendis mihi sic, incredulus odi." It was written by the late Dr. Lingard; and the same learned author has a long note on the subject in the 3rd edition of his History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church, vol. ii. p. 77. But the flippant and groundless imputation of fraud will be found well met in the Remarks above referred to, at p. 61. F. C. H.

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"This new version, in which Hippolito and Dorinda again made their appearance, and which altogether was a sort of compromise between Shakspeare and Dryden, was the recognised Tempest of the stage till Mr. Macready revived the original play at Covent Garden."

In connection with this subject it may be worth while to mention the following fact connected with the first production of The Tempest by the Kemble family, and (what I imagine to be) the first appearance of the future Mrs. Siddons in a play of Shakspeare; which facts have been overlooked by Boaden, Campbell, and other biographers of the Kemble family.


It was in 1767 that Mr. John Kemble became the manager of the Worcester Theatre, then held at the Great Room, at the King's Head, in High Street," where Mr. Ward (the father of Mrs. Kemble, and the restorer of Shakspeare's monument) had been manager. At that time the managers of country theatres were driven to

3rd S. IV. JULY 18, '63.]


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various ingenious expedients in order to evade those penalties upon unlicensed playhouses threatened by Sir Robert Walpole's "Golden Rump' Act of 1737; and they usually advertised and charged for a concert in which a dramatic performance would be introduced gratis. Indeed, on one occasion, at Wolverhampton, Mr. Kemble's "Concert of Vocal and company performed a Instrumental Music, divided into three parts," together with the comic opera of "Love in a Village," all of which was gratis; but the gratuitous tickets could only be obtained at certain a quantity of toothplaces where was to be had " powder (from London), selling in packets at 2s., 1s. or 6d. each ;" and it was "humbly hoped that no Ladies or Gentlemen will take it amiss, that they cannot possibly be admitted without a Ticket." In the above opera, the future Mrs. Siddons appeared as Rosetta, and Mr. Siddons as Young Meadows; and, as it was just before her residence with Mr. Greathead's family at Guy's Cliff, it was probably their last joint appearance before the date of which is not given their marriage by Mrs. Siddon's biographers, but was Nov. 26, 1773, at Trinity Church, Coventry. On the 13th of December, 1773, the plays of The West Indian and The Padlock were performed by Mr. Kemble's company at Worcester, the characters of Charlotte Rusport in the former, and of Leonora in "Mrs. Siddons ;' the latter, being sustained by which I imagine to be the first occasion on which we meet with that illustrious name, now a household word.

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She had received a good education (given gratuitously by the then mistress) at Thorneloe House School, in Worcester, where her native talent was manifested at amateur theatricals; and she appears to have made her debut on the Worcester stage when she was twelve years old, though, as we know from "the Boys and the Frog" anecdote, she had made her first appearance on other boards at a very tender age. (Her Worcester life, I may observe, is altogether passed over by her biographers.) At twelve years of age, on February 12 and 14, 1767, she performed at Worcester the character of the Young Princess in the play of Charles the First, and also sang in the concert. On April 16, 1767, Kemble I copy so produced his version of The Tempest. much of the bill as relates to the play and the Kembles. The future Mrs. Siddons, it will be seen, was the singing Ariel:

"Worcester, April 16th, 1767.

"MR. KEMBLE's Company of Comedians. "At the THEATRE at the KING'S HEAD, on Monday evening next. being the 20th of April instant, will be performed a CONCERT OF MUSICK, to begin at exactly half-an-hour after six o'clock. Tickets to be had at the

usual places. Between the parts of the Concert will be
The TEMPEST; or the Inchanted Island.
presented, gratis, a celebrated COMEDY call'd
W. D'Avenant.)
(As altered from Shakspeare by Mr. Dryden and Sir

With all the Scenery, Machinery, Musick, Monsters,
and other Decorations proper to the piece, entirely new.
Alonzo (Duke of Mantua), Mr. Kemble;
Hyppolito (a youth who never saw a Woman),
Mr. Siddons;

Stephano (Master of the Duke's Ship), Mr. Kemble;
Amphitrite, by Mrs. Kemble;

Ariel (the Chief Spirit), by Miss Kemble;

and Milcha, by Miss F. Kemble.

The Performance will open with a Representation of a Tempestuous Sea (in perpetual agitation) and Storm, in which the Usurper's Ship is Wreck'd; he Wreck ends with a Beautiful Shower of Fire.-And the whole to conclude with a CALM SEA, on which appears Neptune, Poetic God of the Ocean, and his Royal Consort Amphitrite, in a Chariot drawn by Seahorses, accompanied with Mermaids, Tritons, &c."

And it was in this fashion that the Tempest was produced by Mr. Kemble, twenty-two years The later than this, at Drury Lane Theatre. above extract from the Worcester play-bill is the first appearance of the future Mrs. Siddons in noteworthy as recording (at least, I believe so) a Shakspearian character; and it is a circumstance that has not been noted by her biographers. CUTHBERT BEDE.



A copy, in full, of the inscriptions upon this Memorial may interest the readers of "N. & Q." The "Memorial Cairn," as it is called in the locality, is situated upon a high mountain which overlooks the Palace of Balmoral, and a great portion of the upper district of Deeside. The monument is composed of native granite, is Upon the midal in form, and has four sides. north side, cut in plain Roman capitals, is the following:


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Upon another dressed slab, a few inches below the above, is this quotation : —

"He being made perfect in a short time,
Fulfilled a long time:

For his soul pleased the Lord,
Therefore hasted He to take
Him away from among the wicked.
Wisdom of Solomon, chap. iv. verses 13

and 14."

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