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A MANUAL

OF

ANTHROPOLOGY.

“All our hopes now lie in a true understanding and philosophy of man's nature.”—H. G. ATKINSON, F.G.S.

“ The absolute and unholy barrier set up between psychical and physical nature must be broken down.”—DR. HENRY MAUDSLEY.

“It is manifest that nothing can be of consequence to mankind, or any creature, but happiness.”-BISHOP BUTLER.

“When religion is called in question because of the extravagancies of theologians being passed off as religion, one disengages and helps religion by showing their utter delusiveness.”—MATTHEW ARNOLD.

ITTORIO EMANUE

OF

ANTHROPOLOGY,

OR

B18LIOTECA NAZ,
A MANUAL

SCIENCE OF MAN,
BASED ON MODERN RESEARCH.

CHARLES BRAY,
Author of "The Philosophy of Necessity,Force and its Mental
Correlates,"

;** ** The Education of the Feelings,fc.
“If these statements startle, it is because matter has been
defined and maligned by philosophers and theologians who were
equally unaware that it is, at bottom, essentially mystical and
transcendental.”—TYNDALL.

LONDON:
LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER.

1871.

BY

PREFACE.

“The savant,” Emerson says, “is often an amateur. His performance is a memoir to the Academy on fish-worms, tadpoles, or spiders' legs; he observes as other academicians observe; he is on stilts at a microscope, and-his memoir finished, and read, and printed—he retreats into his routinary existence, which is quite separate from his scientific.”

Cuvier and St. Hilaire disputed over some two hundred pages upon the identity of organs: for instance, whether the forehoof of an ox is exactly the “ same organ” with the wing of a bat.

Now we must not for a moment suppose that we have no interest in such memoirs to the Academy, or in such slight differences of opinion as appear to have existed between Cuvier and St. Hilaire ; as Mr. Lecky observes, in his “ History of European Morals," " in the eyes of both the philanthropist and the philosopher, the greatest of all results to be expected in this, or perhaps any other field, are to be looked for in the study of the relations between our physical and moral natures.” Comparative Anatomy is not the least important branch of this study.

Influenced no doubt by such considerations, M. Paul Bert, author of an Essay, “Sur la Vitalité propre des Tissus Animaux,” has instituted a series of very ingenious

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