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Propylæa there stood, so late as the year 1676, the small dedicate the prize tripods within the sacred precincts of
Ionic temple dedicated to Athena Nike, and commonly the theatre ; but when this space was filled, they gradually
known by the ancients as the temple of the Wingless extended all along this street, and their erection was made
Victory (Níkn ürtepos), which has already been mentioned more and more a matter of private display. One of these
as probably one of the buildings of Cimon. Perhaps shrines still stands, and is well known as the monument of Monument
before the 18th century this building was pulled down by Lysicrates. It bears the following inscription upon its of Lysi-
the Turks, and the only remains of it-parts of the frieze architrave :-“Lysicrates, son of Lysitheides, of the deme crates.
built into a wall—which were known in his day were carried Cicynna, was choragus; the tribe Acamantis gained the
off by Lord Elgin, and are now in the British Museum. prize with a chorus of boys ; Theon accompanied them
In 1835 careful excavations were made under the directions upon the flute; Lysiades of Athens taught them; Euænetus
of Professor Ross, when not only were the remains of the was archon." In other words, the date of this monument
Propylæa opened up far more clearly than before, but also was 335 B.C. Fifteen years after that a somewhat similar
nearly all the fragments of this little temple of Victory were shrine was reared at the topmost summit of the back of
discovered ; they had been used for building a Turkish the great theatre, where an ancient grotto was by Thrasyllus Monument
battery, and so preserved. Thus the temple was at once converted into a choragic monument. The Byzantine of Thra-
restored by a reconstruction of the original fragments. Christians transformed the building into a chapel of the syllus.
Few quarters of ancient Athens have received more advan- Virgin, under the title of Panaghia Spiliotissa, or Our
tage from judicious excavation in recent years than this Lady of the Grotto. Early travellers describe this little
western end of the Acropolis.

shrine as consisting of three pilasters engaged in a plain
From the disastrous termination of the Peloponnesian wall, surmounted by an inscribed architrave; above was
war to the yet more fatal defeat at Chæroneia, the architec- supported a figure of Dionysus, now preserved, but in a
tural history of Athens is a blank, only interrupted by the much injured state, in the British Museum. On the top
restoration of the Long Walls and the rebuilding of the of the statue originally rested the tripod that formed the
fortifications of Piræeus by Conon, both of which had been prize of Thrasyllus.
destroyed by Lysander. The financial genius of the orator The Macedonian period again marks a new epoch in the Mace-
Lycurgus, whose administration lasted from 338 to 325 B.C., history of Athenian topography. Henceforward almost donian

period. replenished to some extent the exhausted resources of his every embellishment Athens received was at the hands of country. He reorganised her finance, he catalogued and the various foreign princes, whose tastes inclined them to rearranged the sacred and national treasuries, and brought patronise a city so rich in historical associations, and so order and efficiency into every department of state. This ready to reward each new admirer with an equal tribute new impulse made itself felt in building activity. The of servile adulation. But whatever decoration the city Dionysiac theatre was now first completed; and though, as might owe to royal vanity or munificence, her connection we have already seen, many of the sculptures and other with these foreign potentates brought her far more of injury marbles recently uncovered on its site are the restorations than advantage. She became entangled in their wars, and of a very much later age, yet we may confidently assume usually found herself upon the losing side. that in all material points the theatre as we are now able Upon the death of Alexander the Athenians claimed

to view it represents the condition of the building as it their liberty, but they at once had to submit to Antipater Stadium. stood in the time of Lycurgus. Another remarkable work (322 B.C.), who placed a garrison in Munychia. It perhaps

which signalised his administration was the Panathenaic was he who defaced the ancient Pnyx; at all events, from
Stadium. On the southern side of the Ilissus, at right this time forward the political oratory of Athens became
angles to the stream, a hollow space was scooped out of silent for ever. In 318 B.C. Demetrius the Phalerean was
the soil, some 680 feet in length and 130 in breadth. It made governor of Athens by Cassander, and received every
is possible that the site had been used for gymnastic contests kind of homage from his servile subjects. But as soon
before the orator's time; it was he, however, who first as the other Demetrius, surnamed Poliorcetes, appeared
undertook to level it properly and lay it out. But it was in the Piræeus, the Athenians welcomed him with open
reserved for the munificence of Herodes Atticus finally to

For restoring to them the forms of democracy
complete it. He furnished the place with magnificent seats he was extolled with abject adulation, and had assigned to
of Pentelic marble, tier upon tier, capable of accommodat- him a residence in the Opisthodomus of the Parthenon
ing, at the very least, 40,000 spectators. An attempt was itself, where he profaned the sanctuary of the virgin
recently made to excavate the Stadium, but it was found goddess with unbridled sensuality. Upon the defeat of
that every trace of antiquity had been destroyed, the Antigonus at Ipsus (301 B.C.), Demetrius fled from Athens,
marble having been used as a quarry for building pur- and under Lachares, the leading demagogue of the time,

the city enjoyed the shadow of independence. But the The administration of Lycurgus is an important era in demagogue soon developed into a tyrant, and when Athenian architecture ; for after his time we never seem Demetrius reappeared in 296 B.C. and besieged the city, to hear of any more buildings having been reared by the Lachares had to fly from the indignation of the citizens, Athenian Government. The best-known extant edifices of taking with him the golden shields that adorned the eastern

the period immediately following were the work of wealthy front of the Acropolis, and having rifled the chryselephanStreet of private persons. Round the eastern end of the Acropolis, tine statue itself. Again, in 268 B.C., Athens endured a Tripods.

starting from the eastern entrance of the Dionysiac theatre, long siege from Antigonus Gonatas, who laid waste the
then leaving the Odeium of Pericles to the left, and thence surrounding country. Still more disastrous was the in-
sweeping westward to the Agora, there ran a street which effectual siege by Philip V. in 200 B.C., who, pitching his
formed a favourite promenade in ancient Athens, commonly camp at Cynosarges, destroyed everything that lay around-
known as the “Street of Tripods.” It gained this name the temple of Heracles, the gymnasium there, and the
from the small votive shrines which adorned it, supporting Lyceium as well. At length, in 146 B.C., Greece became
upon their summit the bronze tripods which had been a Roman province, and Athens succumbed peacefully to
obtained as prizes in the choragic contests. The tripods the Roman yoke.
thus mounted often themselves served as a frame to some During the inglorious period of Athenian history which
masterpiece of sculpture, such, for example, as the famous has just been sketched, several new buildings were reared by
satyr of Praxiteles. It had early become the custom to the munificence of foreign princes. Ptolemy Philadelphus


Roman period.


Sulla at

gave his name to a large gymnasium—the Ptolemæum- us lists of the students from all quarters who, while pursu-
built by him near the Theseium. Attalus I., king of ing their studies at Athens, enrolled themselves at a
Pergamus, erected a stoa on the north-east of the Agora, gymnasium, and there had the advantage of a social life
and laid out a garden in the Academy. His successor, and regular discipline, which reminds one somewhat of the
Eumenes II. (197–159 B.C.), built another stoa near the college system in the English universities. 4
great theatre. Antiochus Epiphanes designed the comple But enough has now been said of the condition of
tion of the Olympium, a work which was interrupted by Athenian society under the Roman rule; it is time to
his death.

enumerate the embellishments which the city received
Under the rule of the Romans Athens enjoyed the during this period. It is uncertain at what exact date the
privileges of a libera civitas, i.e., no garrison was intro- Horologium of Andronicus of Cyrrhus was erected, which Horo-
duced into the town, no tribute was levied upon it, and is generally known as the Tower of the Winds. It is first logium of
the constitution was nominally left unaltered. The mentioned by Varro (De Re Rust., iii, 5, 17), and is there-

Androni Areopagus, indeed, under Roman influence, recovered fore older than 35 B.C., though certainly not earlier than some of its ancient power, and was made to take pre the Roman conquest. This monument, so familiar to cedence of the more democratic assemblies of the Boule and every scholar, is described by Virruvius (i. 6, 4) as an Ecclesia. The revision also of the laws by Hadrian octagonal tower of marble. It stands at what anciently would, of course, introduce some changes. Yet it may formed the eastern extremity of the Roman Agora, surely be maintained that Athens under the Roman presently to be described. On each face, beneath the dominion was in a far better position than in the days be cornice, is sculptured the figure of the wind which blew fore the taking of Corinth by Mummius, when she had been from the corresponding quarter; on the top of the roof at the mercy of each successive Macedonian pretender. was a pedestal supporting a bronze triton (now destroyed), The Romans appear to have shown a remarkable respect which was constructed to turn with the wind, and to point for the feelings of the Athenian people. It would be out the wind's quarter with a wand which he held in his superfluous here to recall the warm expressions of admira- hand. The sculptured figures of the winds are in good tion which fall from Cicero and Horace when speaking of preservation, though of a declining period of art. They Athens. A visit to Athens was regarded by the educated represent the four cardinal points and the intermediate Roman as a kind of pilgrimage. One great disaster quarters between these. Each has his emblems : Boreas, Athens did indeed undergo at the hands of Rome; this the north wind, blows his noisy conch; Notus, the rainy was the siege and plunder of the city by Sulla in the south wind, bears his water-jar; Zephyrus, the west wind, , Mithridatic War. Yielding to the threats of the king and has his lap full of flowers, and so on.

Under each figure the representations of the villainous Aristion, the Athenians are the remains of a sun-dial; and besides all these external had joined the cause of the king of Pontus, and Sulla features, the interior was constructed to form a water-clock, deliberately resolved to gratify his revenge (Athenæus, v. supplied with water from the spring at the Acropolis called 47, foll.; Plut., Sulla, 12). After a protracted siege, in Clepsydra. Thus in cloudy weather a substitute was prowhich the inhabitants suffered the extreme of famine, vided for the dial and the sun. mocked at once by the insolence of Aristion within, and The Agora in Cerameicus has already been described, pressed by a remorseless foe without, Athens at length and it was there noticed that the name Cerameicus often was taken on March 1, 86 B.C. Many of the public appears to be employed alone to denote the Agora. This buildings (happily not the most important) were over may be easily accounted for. By the munificence of thrown, much of the sacred treasure was rifled by the Julius Cæsar and of Augustus, a propylæum of four soldiers, and many works of art, together with the library Doric columns, which still exist, was reared at the N.E. of Apellicon, containing the collections of Aristotle and extremity of the Cerameicus Agora. The space between Theophrastus, were carried off by the cultivated Sulla. the central columns is about 12 feet, between the side The loss of life was also great : large numbers were columns not quite 5 feet. Over the pediment is a butchered by the soldiery, and the Agora of Cerameicus pedestal, with an inscription in honour of Lucius Cæsar, flowed with blood. We are told that Sulla was wont to the grandson of Augustus, whose equestrian statue it take credit for having “spared Athens.” He did not appears to have supported. This propylæum has by indeed destroy it, but his conduct on this occasion alone some archæologists been regarded as a portico of a temple would suffice to fix an indelible stain upon his memory. to Athena Archegetis, to whom we learn, from an inscripWith this disastrous exception, Athens prospered under tion on the architrave, that the building was dedicated out the Roman rule, and students from all parts of the Græco of the moneys given by Julius and Augustus. But there Roman world flocked thither to attend the lectures of the can be no reasonable doubt that these columns formed philosophers and rhetoricians, or to view the countless the entrance into a new Agora, dedicated to Athena New or works of art that adorned the city. Athenian society grew Archegetis, just as it was customary with the Romans Roman more and more academic. The current tone of educated to dedicate a forum to some deity, and intended chiefly,

Agora. circles was antiquarian even to pedantry. The inscriptions it would seem, for the sale of the olive oil which formed relating to the Roman period clearly reveal to us the chief so large and characteristic an export from Athens. This interests of contemporary Athenian life. Epitaphs in appears to be proved by the lengthy inscription (see abundance testify to the decoidalpovía which delighted in Böckh, Corp. Inscr. Græc., No. 355) which exists immediproper names derived from deities and religious ceremonies, 3

,3 ately within the entrance, and contains an edict of the
and the pride of genealogical pedantry. Honorary decrees Emperor Hadrian regulating the sale of oil and the
abound to justify the charge of adulation which was the duties payable upon it. It is easy to understand how,
reproach of the later Athenians. But the commonest class after the erection of the Roman Agora, the old market
of monuments are the gymnastic inscriptions, which give would be styled óyopà év Kepauecký or simply Cerameicus,

while the new oil-market would be distinguished as the
1 The beautiful elegy of Propertius, beginning " Magnum iter ad
doctas proficisci cogor Athenas” (iv. 21), is worth referring to.

* See Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum, No. 39, and foll.
* See note in No. 81 of Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum, The best account of the condition of Athens under the Romans may

be found in a dissertation by H. L. Ahrens, De Athenarum statu 8 Cf. ibid., No. 47; and Cumanudes, 'Emypapal 'Attikñs étitúu. politico, &c., and another by Professor Dittenberger, De Ephebin Biol, passim.


also No. 93.

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,which had previously

One was the Stadium,
timepiecesan appro-
priate embellishment at the north-eastern extremity. The other was the Odeium (see Pausan., vii. 20), the ruins of
market was enclosed by a wall, and it was reserved for which are still to be seen under the south-west of the
Hadrian to complete its decoration by building a magnificent Acropolis. An odeium resembled a theatre in its general
stoa on its northern side. Augustus himself received the plan and the purposes it served : it differed apparently in
honour of a small circular shrine upon the Acropolis, being roofed in.

being roofed in. The ancient theatres were open to the
dedicated to Augustus and Roma. His son-in-law Agrippa sky; but the most remarkable feature of this odeium, built
was honoured by an equestrian statue in front of the Pro by Herodes in honour of his deceased wife Regilla, was
pylæa, the pedestal of which still exists. The Agrippeium its roof of cedar, fragments of which were actually dis-
was a theatre erected by Agrippa in the Cerameicus. It covered in the excavations made upon this site in 1857.
is possible, moreover, that the Diogeneium—the only It is a fortunate circumstance that the best and only Tour of
gymnasium mentioned in the Ephebic inscriptions of the extant account of ancient Athens came from the pen of a Pausanias.
imperial period—was built about this time. Its site has traveller who visited the city just at the time when the
recently been thought to have been discovered about 200 munificence of Hadrian and of Herodes had left nothing
yards east of the Tower of the Winds. Whatever licen more to be added to its embellishment. The Odeium of
tiousness and misgovernment might mark the reign of Regilla, indeed, had not been commenced when Pausanias
succeeding emperors, they at all events refrained from doing visited Athens, and he describes it later on in his seventh
injury to Athens. It had been proposed to finish the great

book. We may place his tour through Athens about the year . temple of Zeus Olympius in honour of Augustus, but the

170 A.D.

His manner of description is as methodical as a design fell through, and it was reserved for Hadrian to modern guide-book, and his very knowledge and appreciation finally complete the building of this magnificent temple, of the endless masterpieces of Grecian art prevent him

some six centuries from the time when the first stone was from covering his pages, like some modern tourists, with d laid.

rapturous word-painting and expressions of delight. He drian at

The reign of Hadrian made literally a new era in the begins his account of Athens (bk. i. ch. i.-ii. $ 1) with a bens.

history of Athens.2 For Greece, and especially for Athens, description of the Piræeus and the harbours, and his first
this emperor entertained a passionate admiration. He tour is along the road from Phalerum to the city, where he
condescended to hold the office of archon eponymus; in enters by the Itonian gate, within which he finds a
his honour a thirteenth tribe, Hadrianis, was instituted; monument to the Amazon Antiope. In his next tour (ch.

and the emperor shared with Zeus the title of Olympius, ii. § 2-ch. v.) he supposes us to start again from Piræeus, 1

and the honours of the newly-finished temple. While, and approach the city along the remains of the Long Walls.
however, many portions of the city bore witness to his Thus entering the city by the Piræan gate, he conducts
munificence, it was in the south-eastern quarter that most us along the southern side of the old Agora (which he
of his new buildings arose, in the neighbourhood of the styles the Cerameicus), describing all the buildings that
Olympium. This suburb was accordingly styled Had occur upon


way, from the Stoa Basileius and another rianopolis, or New Athens, to distinguish it from the old stoa near it, adorned with a statue of Zeus Eleutherius, in city of Theseus and of Themistocles. The arch of Hadrian an eastward direction past the temple of Apollo Patrous, still stands in a fairly perfect state, and marks the boundary the Metroum, the Bouleuterium, and Tholus, and other between the ancient town and the new suburb embellished buildings, which lay at the northern and north-eastern foot by Hadrian. On the north-western front of the architrave of the Areopagus. This walk ends with the mention of is the inscription aid' cio' 'Aonvai noéws o piv móds; the temple Eucleia and the Eleusinium. It is not easy to on the other front, αϊδ' είσ' 'Αδριανού και ουχί Θησέως πόλις. see why Pausanias here introduces an account of the founAt the same time many of the older buildings underwent tain Enneacrunus and the temple of Demeter and Core, restoration at his command. Nor was his bounty shown which every archæologist hitherto has placed near the in works of building alone. He ceded to the Athenians Ilissus, in the south-eastern extremity of the city.4 In his the island of Cephallenia, and bestowed upon them large next walk (ch. xiv. § 5-xvii. $ 3), having already described presents of money, and an annual largess of corn.

the south side of the Cerameicus Agora, he starts again The immediate successors of Hadrian were guided by from the Stoa Basileius, describes the buildings on the his example. Antoninus Pius completed an aqueduct west and north of the Agora, and then enters the new or which Hadrian had commenced for bringing water into the Roman Agora. In this tour he mentions the altar of town from the Cephisus. Marcus Aurelius visited Athens Mercy, the gymnasium of Ptolemy, the Theseium, the

for the purpose of initiation at the Eleusinian mysteries. temple of Aglaurus, and the Prytaneium. In his next rodes The list of distinguished persons who made themselves walk he starts from the Prytaneium, and proceeding eastticus.

famous as benefactors of Athens may be said to close with ward (ch. xviii. § 4, xix.), he mentions the temples of
the name of Herodes Atticus the rhetorician. Herodes Sarapis and of Ileithuia, until, leaving the eastern end of
had counted Marcus Aurelius amongst his pupils, and was the Acropolis at some distance on his right hand, he passes
sure of a distinguished career at Rome; but, like the through the arch of Hadrian, and describes the Olympium
friend of Cicero, he preferred the more peaceful atmosphere and the other buildings of that emperor. This tour included
of Greece and took the surname of Atticus. His ambition the temple of Aphrodite év Kýmous, the Cynosarges, the
was to excel as a sophist, but he owed his fame yet more Stadium, and other buildings on both sides of the Ilissus.
to the enormous wealth he inherited from his father, For his next walk he returns again to the Prytaneium (ch.
which he spent in works of public munificence. Various xx.-xxviii. § 3), and enters the Street of Tripods, which
towns of Greece and even of Italy were enriched by his leads him to the temple and theatre of Dionysus, which he
bounty, but Athens most of all. In addition to his describes. Thus he at length reaches the western extremity
many other benefactions, two architectural works in parti-

8 Curtius and others are probably mistaken in supposing the Dipy-
1 The name Cerameicus is never used by writers of pre-Roman times lum to be the gate intended by Pausanias.
for the old market; they always speak of "the Agora." Pausanias * Dr Dyer, in his recent work on Athens, Appendix i., endeavours
uses both words in their more modern meanings respectively.

to explain this difficulty by assuming the existence of two fountains
Many inscribed documents are found, dated “from Hadrian's first called Callirrhoe, one of which (Enneacrunus) he places on the north-
visit." See Dittenberger in the Hermes, 1872, p. 213.

west of the Acropolis.

of the Acropolis, and entering through the Propylaa, he Doomed, apparently, to become the prey of every spoiler, describes in order each object which adorned the summit, Athens again emerges from oblivion in the 13th century, with an accuracy fully borne out by recent excavations. under Baldwin and his crusaders, at a time when it was His last walk in Athens (ch. xxviii. § 4, xxix. § 1) con- besieged by a general of Theodorus Lascaris, the Greek ducts us through the various buildings at the western base emperor. In 1427 it was taken by Sultan Amurath II.; but of the Acropolis. From the temple of the Semnæ he passes some time afterwards it was recovered from the infidels by to the court of the Areopagus, and the mention of this another body of crusaders under the marquis of Montferrat, leads him to speak of the other judicial courts of Athens. a powerful baron of the West, who bestowed it, along with The rest of his first book is occupied with an account of Thebes, on Otho de la Roche, one of his principal followers. the suburbs of Athens—the Academy, the sacred way to For a considerable time both cities were governed by Otho

Eleusis, &c., and the topography of Attica in general. and his descendants, with the title of dukes ; but being Subsequent A few words may suffice to describe the ultimate fate of unable to maintain themselves in their Greek principality, history of Athens. In the reign of Valerian the northern barbarians they were at length succeeded by Walter of 'Brienne, who, Athens.

first appeared in the north of Greece, where they laid siege soon after his succession, was expelled by his new subjects,
to Thessalonica. This extraordinary apparition having aided by the Spaniards of Catalonia. The next rulers of
alarmed all Greece, the Athenians restored their city wall, Athens were the Acciajuoli, an opulent family of Florence,
which Sulla had dismantled, and otherwise placed the town in whose possession it remained until 1455, when it was
in a state of defence sufficient to secure it against a coup. taken by Omar, a general of Mahomet II., and thus fell a
de-main. But under Gallienus, the next emperor, Athens second time into the hands of the barbarians. The
was besieged, and the archonship abolished, upon which victorious sultan settled a Mahometan colony in his new
the strategos or general, who had previously acted as conquest, which he incorporated with the Ottoman empire ;
inspector of the Agora, became the chief magistrate. and Athens, as well as Greece, continued to form an
Under Claudius the city was taken, but recovered soon integral part of the Turkish dominions, until the treaty
afterwards. Constantine the Great gloried in the title of of Adrianople in 1829, following up the provisions and
General of Athens, which had been conferred upon him, stipulations of the treaty of London, 7th July 1827, estab-
and expressed high satisfaction on obtaining from the lished within certain limits the new state of Greece, of
people the honour of a statue with an inscription,-a dis- which Athens is now the capital.
tinction which he acknowledged by sending to the city a From the period of the Ottoman conquest to the com- Modern
yearly gratuity of grain. He also conferred on the governor mencement of the insurrection in 1821, Athens was only sieges.
of Attica and Athens the title of Méyas Août, or Grand known in history by two attempts, on the part of the
Duke, which soon became hereditary; and his son Constans Venetians, to expel the Turks and make themselves masters
bestowed several islands on the city, in order to supply it of the city. The first of these took place in 1464, only
with corn. In the time of Theodosius I., that is, towards nine years after its capture by the Osmanlis, and proved
the end of the 4th century, the Goths laid waste Thessaly an entire failure. But the second, which was undertaken
and Epirus; but Theodorus, general of the Greeks, acted in 1687, more than two centuries later, was crowned with
with so much prudence, that he saved the Greek cities from a temporary and fatal success. In the month of September
pillage and the inhabitants from captivity, a service which of that year, Count Königsmark, a Swede in the service
was most gratefully acknowledged. But this deliver- of Venice, having disembarked at the Piræeus a force of
ance proved only temporary. The fatal period was now 8000 foot and 870 horse, forming part of the armament
fast approaching, and, in a real barbarian, Athens was under Francesco Morosini, afterwards doge, marched to
doomed to experience a conqueror yet more remorseless Athens, and having summoned the citadel without effect,
than Sulla. This was Alaric, king of the Goths, who, he erected a battery of heavy ordnance on the hill of the
under the Emperors Arcadius and Honorius, overran both Pnyx, and placing two mortars near the Latin convent at
Italy and Greece, sacking, pillaging, and destroying the western foot of the Acropolis, bombarded it for several
Never, indeed, did the fury even of barbarian conquest days. The fire of the cannon was chiefly directed against
discharge itself in a fiercer or more desolating tempest. the Propylæa, and the modern defences below that edifice,
The Peloponnesian cities were overturned ; Arcadia and whilst the mortars continued, without intermission, to
Lacedæmon were both laid waste; the gulfs of Lepanto throw shells into the citadel. The consequence was, that
and Ægina were illuminated with the flames of Corinth; the beautiful little temple of Nike Apteros, the frieze of
and the Athenian matrons were dragged in chains to satisfy which is now in the British Museum, was completely
the brutal desires of the barbarians. The invaluable destroyed by the breaching battery; and the Parthenon,
treasures of antiquity were removed ; stately and magni- besides being greatly injured by the bursting of the shells,
ficent structures were reduced to heaps of ruin; and Athens, was, towards the close of the attack, almost rent in pieces
stripped of the monuments of her ancient splendour, was by the explosion of a powder magazine, which reduced the
compared by Synesius, a writer of that age, to a victim of middle of the temple to a heap of ruins, threw down the
which the body had been consumed, and the skin only whole of the wall at the eastern extremity, and precipitated

to the ground every statue on the eastern pediment. The
After this dreadful visitation Athens sank into insigni- western extremity was fortunately less injured, and a part
ficance, and became as obscure as it had once been illustrious. of the Opisthodomos was still left standing, together with
We are indeed informed that the cities of Hellas were put some of the lateral columns of the peristyle adjoining to
in a state of defence by Justinian, who repaired the walls the cell. But the shock was nevertheless abundantly
of Corinth, which had been overturned by an earthquake, disastrous ; and when the Turks afterwards regained
and those of Athens, which had fallen into decay through possession of the citadel (from which, on this occasion,
age. But from the time of this emperor a chasm of nearly they were expelled), they did all in their power to complete
seven centuries ensues in its history ; except that, about the destruction which the Venetians had so vigorously
the year 1130, it furnished Roger, the first king of Sicily, begun, by defacing, mutilating, or burning for lime every
with a number of artificers, who there introduced the fragment of the edifice within their reach.
culture of silk, which afterwards passed into Italy. The In the course of the revolutionary war Athens sus-
worms, it seems, had been brought from India to Con- tained three sieges. The first was laid by the Greeks
stantinople in the reign of Justinian.

in 1822. Having carried the town by storm, and driven

the Turks into the citadel, they established a strict blockade chiefly through the efforts of the Archæological Society of of the fortress, which was continued until the advance of Athens, but the antiquaries and scholars of all Europe the Pasha at the head of 4000 men induced them to have anxiously watched their endeavours, and France and abandon their enterprise, and fly, with the Athenians, to Prussia have vied with Great Britain in the prosecution of Salamis and Ægina. Two months afterwards, the Pasha Athenian discovery. The Theseium has become a treasury of having left Athens to the defence of 1500 men, the Greeks ancient sculpture, and a new archæological museum has been again ventured to attack the town, and succeeded in also erected to contain the ever-increasing stores of ancient obliging the Turks to seek refuge in the citadel, which they inscriptions and sculptures. The royal palace is a large forth with determined to besiege ; but, from ignorance and building of Pentelic marble, situated in the eastern quarter want of means, no progress whatever was made in the of the city, on the highest part of the gentle eminence operation until they obtained possession of the well which which rises from the level of the Ilissus and Cephisus supplied the garrison with water, when the Turks agreed to towards Lycabettus. The University (TTOVETLOTÝULOV) was capitulate upon condition of being immediately embarked founded in 1837, and numbers over 1200 students, while with their families and sent to Asia Minor. On various its staff of 52 professors includes the names of some of the pretences, however, embarkation was delayed from time to most learned Greek archæologists in Europe. In fact, time; and when intelligence at length arrived that a large the schools and other educational institutions of Athens are Turkish force was advancing upon Athens, the Palicari, very numerous, and thoroughly efficient. The archæoinstead of manning the walls and preparing for a vigorous logical journals of Athens are full of information concerndefence, rushed in a body to the houses where the prisoners ing the progress of excavations, and publish the texts of were confined, and commenced an indiscriminate massacre. newly-discovered inscriptions. The population in 1871 For this atrocity it is no palliation to remember that the was over 48,000, exclusive of the population of the Piræeus, Greek character had morally suffered from centuries of which would bring the total up to about 60,000. The servitude, and that they had terrible arrears of vengeance harbour is visited by ships of all nations. A railway to exact. The third siege was laid by the Turks in 1826. connects the Piræeus with the city, and enters the ancient The Greeks had left a strong garrison in the Acropolis, town about half-way between the site of the Dipylum and with provisions for several months; and a spring of water Piræan gates. The terminus stands in the midst of what having been discovered in the cave of Pan, and enclosed by once was the Agora in Cerameicus. The principal street Odysseus within the defences of the citadel, there was no is Hermes Street, running from west to east, a little north danger of its being starved into a surrender. But the of the terminus, until it reaches the royal palace. Two Turks having established batteries near the Pnyx and on other good streets, Athena Street and Æolus Street, traverse the hill of the Museium, and having drawn a line of this at right angles. The other streets, with the exception trenches round the citadel, with the view of intercepting of Stadium Street on the N.E., between the chamber of all communication between the besieged and the Greek deputies and the University, are generally narrow and army, the garrison was hard pressed ; and although Colonel winding. Altogether, Athens, like the rest of Greece, is Fabvier succeeded in forcing his way through the Turkish in a condition of increasing prosperity, and reaps the lines with 500 men and a supply of ammunition, and thus blessings of freedom. It is true that in our own country affording immediate relief, yet the total defeat of the Greek the ardent philhellenism of forty years ago has cooled army under General Church at the battle of Athens, fought down, and Greece is no longer an object of popular and in the hope of raising the siege, led soon afterwards to the sentimental admiration. Yet never did the scholars of surrender of the Acropolis, which remained in the hands of Europe turn with keener zest to the study of her ancient

the Turks until the termination of the revolutionary war. monuments; and if Attica were cleared for ever of egent In 1812 Athens could boast of a population of 12,000 brigands, and furnished with satisfactory roads, then in edition. souls, but during the war the greater part of the city was | numbers tenfold greater than now would reverent travellers

laid in ruins, and most of the inhabitants were dispersed. from the west of Europe delight to make their pilgrimage In 1834 it was declared the capital of the new kingdom to the birthplace of philosophy, literature, and art. of Greece. Great exertions have been made since then to The following are some of the most important works on the restore the city; streets have been opened, levelled, subject :-Leake's Topography of Athens ; Wordsworth's Athens widened; the ancient sewers have been cleared and and Attica;. Bursian's Geographie von Griechenland, and article

“ Athene" in Pauly's Real-Encyclopädie, 2d ed. ; E. Curtius's repaired, and the marshes of Cephisus drained. Excava

Attische Studien; Dyer's Ancient Athens ; Wachsmuth's Die Stodt tions of ancient sites and buildings have been carried out,- | Athen in Alterthum.

(E. L. H.)

ATHENS, the name of several towns in the United ATHIAS, JOSEPH, à celebrated rabbi and printer at States of America, the chief of which are the following : Amsterdam, whose editions of the Hebrew Bible are noted (1.) The capital of a county of the same name in the S.E. for the general correctness of the text. Although he was a of the state of Ohio, finely situated on the Hocking River. learned Hebraist, there are occasional errors in the points, It is the seat of the Ohio university, which was founded in especially in the edition of 1661, but many of these were 1804. Population of county, 23,768. (2.) The capital of corrected in that of 1667. He also printed several editions Clarke county, Georgia, on the W. bank of the Oconee River. of the Bible in the corrupted Hebrew spoken by the Jews It is the seat of the Georgia university, which was of Spain, Germany, Poland, and England. He died in founded in 1801, and the central town of a large cotton- | 1700. growing district. Population in 1870, 4251, of whom ATHLETÆ (đontai), among the Greeks and Romans, 1967 were coloured.

was the designation of persons who contended for prizes ATHERTON, or CHOWBENT, a township in the parish (dola) in the public games, exclusive of musical and other of Leigh and hundred of West Derby, in Lancashire, 200 contests, where bodily strength was not called into play, miles from London. It is one of those places which have though here also the word was sometimes applied, and it was grown to wealth and populousness through the extension even extended to horses which had won a race, and again of the cotton trade. Besides its factories, it has collieries metaphorically, e.g., to persons who had exerted themselves and ironworks. Population in 1871, 7531.

in good deeds (αθλητές των καλών έργων). On the other

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