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Propylæa there stood, so late as the year 1676, the small dedicate the prize tripods within the sacred precincts of
shrine as consisting of three pilasters engaged in a plain
period. replenished to some extent the exhausted resources of his every embellishment Athens received was at the hands of country. He reorganised her finance, he catalogued and the various foreign princes, whose tastes inclined them to rearranged the sacred and national treasuries, and brought patronise a city so rich in historical associations, and so order and efficiency into every department of state. This ready to reward each new admirer with an equal tribute new impulse made itself felt in building activity. The of servile adulation. But whatever decoration the city Dionysiac theatre was now first completed; and though, as might owe to royal vanity or munificence, her connection we have already seen, many of the sculptures and other with these foreign potentates brought her far more of injury marbles recently uncovered on its site are the restorations than advantage. She became entangled in their wars, and of a very much later age, yet we may confidently assume usually found herself upon the losing side. that in all material points the theatre as we are now able Upon the death of Alexander the Athenians claimed
to view it represents the condition of the building as it their liberty, but they at once had to submit to Antipater Stadium. stood in the time of Lycurgus. Another remarkable work (322 B.C.), who placed a garrison in Munychia. It perhaps
which signalised his administration was the Panathenaic was he who defaced the ancient Pnyx; at all events, from
For restoring to them the forms of democracy
the city enjoyed the shadow of independence. But the The administration of Lycurgus is an important era in demagogue soon developed into a tyrant, and when Athenian architecture ; for after his time we never seem Demetrius reappeared in 296 B.C. and besieged the city, to hear of any more buildings having been reared by the Lachares had to fly from the indignation of the citizens, Athenian Government. The best-known extant edifices of taking with him the golden shields that adorned the eastern
the period immediately following were the work of wealthy front of the Acropolis, and having rifled the chryselephanStreet of private persons. Round the eastern end of the Acropolis, tine statue itself. Again, in 268 B.C., Athens endured a Tripods.
starting from the eastern entrance of the Dionysiac theatre, long siege from Antigonus Gonatas, who laid waste the
gave his name to a large gymnasium—the Ptolemæum- us lists of the students from all quarters who, while pursu-
enumerate the embellishments which the city received
Androni Areopagus, indeed, under Roman influence, recovered fore older than 35 B.C., though certainly not earlier than some of its ancient power, and was made to take pre the Roman conquest. This monument, so familiar to cedence of the more democratic assemblies of the Boule and every scholar, is described by Virruvius (i. 6, 4) as an Ecclesia. The revision also of the laws by Hadrian octagonal tower of marble. It stands at what anciently would, of course, introduce some changes. Yet it may formed the eastern extremity of the Roman Agora, surely be maintained that Athens under the Roman presently to be described. On each face, beneath the dominion was in a far better position than in the days be cornice, is sculptured the figure of the wind which blew fore the taking of Corinth by Mummius, when she had been from the corresponding quarter; on the top of the roof at the mercy of each successive Macedonian pretender. was a pedestal supporting a bronze triton (now destroyed), The Romans appear to have shown a remarkable respect which was constructed to turn with the wind, and to point for the feelings of the Athenian people. It would be out the wind's quarter with a wand which he held in his superfluous here to recall the warm expressions of admira- hand. The sculptured figures of the winds are in good tion which fall from Cicero and Horace when speaking of preservation, though of a declining period of art. They Athens. A visit to Athens was regarded by the educated represent the four cardinal points and the intermediate Roman as a kind of pilgrimage. One great disaster quarters between these. Each has his emblems : Boreas, Athens did indeed undergo at the hands of Rome; this the north wind, blows his noisy conch; Notus, the rainy was the siege and plunder of the city by Sulla in the south wind, bears his water-jar; Zephyrus, the west wind, , Mithridatic War. Yielding to the threats of the king and has his lap full of flowers, and so on.
Under each figure the representations of the villainous Aristion, the Athenians are the remains of a sun-dial; and besides all these external had joined the cause of the king of Pontus, and Sulla features, the interior was constructed to form a water-clock, deliberately resolved to gratify his revenge (Athenæus, v. supplied with water from the spring at the Acropolis called 47, foll.; Plut., Sulla, 12). After a protracted siege, in Clepsydra. Thus in cloudy weather a substitute was prowhich the inhabitants suffered the extreme of famine, vided for the dial and the sun. mocked at once by the insolence of Aristion within, and The Agora in Cerameicus has already been described, pressed by a remorseless foe without, Athens at length and it was there noticed that the name Cerameicus often was taken on March 1, 86 B.C. Many of the public appears to be employed alone to denote the Agora. This buildings (happily not the most important) were over may be easily accounted for. By the munificence of thrown, much of the sacred treasure was rifled by the Julius Cæsar and of Augustus, a propylæum of four soldiers, and many works of art, together with the library Doric columns, which still exist, was reared at the N.E. of Apellicon, containing the collections of Aristotle and extremity of the Cerameicus Agora. The space between Theophrastus, were carried off by the cultivated Sulla. the central columns is about 12 feet, between the side The loss of life was also great : large numbers were columns not quite 5 feet. Over the pediment is a butchered by the soldiery, and the Agora of Cerameicus pedestal, with an inscription in honour of Lucius Cæsar, flowed with blood. We are told that Sulla was wont to the grandson of Augustus, whose equestrian statue it take credit for having “spared Athens.” He did not appears to have supported. This propylæum has by indeed destroy it, but his conduct on this occasion alone some archæologists been regarded as a portico of a temple would suffice to fix an indelible stain upon his memory. to Athena Archegetis, to whom we learn, from an inscripWith this disastrous exception, Athens prospered under tion on the architrave, that the building was dedicated out the Roman rule, and students from all parts of the Græco of the moneys given by Julius and Augustus. But there Roman world flocked thither to attend the lectures of the can be no reasonable doubt that these columns formed philosophers and rhetoricians, or to view the countless the entrance into a new Agora, dedicated to Athena New or works of art that adorned the city. Athenian society grew Archegetis, just as it was customary with the Romans Roman more and more academic. The current tone of educated to dedicate a forum to some deity, and intended chiefly,
Agora. circles was antiquarian even to pedantry. The inscriptions it would seem, for the sale of the olive oil which formed relating to the Roman period clearly reveal to us the chief so large and characteristic an export from Athens. This interests of contemporary Athenian life. Epitaphs in appears to be proved by the lengthy inscription (see abundance testify to the decoidalpovía which delighted in Böckh, Corp. Inscr. Græc., No. 355) which exists immediproper names derived from deities and religious ceremonies, 3
,3 ately within the entrance, and contains an edict of the
while the new oil-market would be distinguished as the
* See Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum, No. 39, and foll.
be found in a dissertation by H. L. Ahrens, De Athenarum statu 8 Cf. ibid., No. 47; and Cumanudes, 'Emypapal 'Attikñs étitúu. politico, &c., and another by Professor Dittenberger, De Ephebin Biol, passim.
also No. 93.
,which had previously
One was the Stadium,
being roofed in. The ancient theatres were open to the
book. We may place his tour through Athens about the year . temple of Zeus Olympius in honour of Augustus, but the
His manner of description is as methodical as a design fell through, and it was reserved for Hadrian to modern guide-book, and his very knowledge and appreciation finally complete the building of this magnificent temple, of the endless masterpieces of Grecian art prevent him
some six centuries from the time when the first stone was from covering his pages, like some modern tourists, with d laid.
rapturous word-painting and expressions of delight. He drian at
The reign of Hadrian made literally a new era in the begins his account of Athens (bk. i. ch. i.-ii. $ 1) with a bens.
history of Athens.2 For Greece, and especially for Athens, description of the Piræeus and the harbours, and his first
and the emperor shared with Zeus the title of Olympius, ii. § 2-ch. v.) he supposes us to start again from Piræeus, 1
and the honours of the newly-finished temple. While, and approach the city along the remains of the Long Walls.
way, from the Stoa Basileius and another rianopolis, or New Athens, to distinguish it from the old stoa near it, adorned with a statue of Zeus Eleutherius, in city of Theseus and of Themistocles. The arch of Hadrian an eastward direction past the temple of Apollo Patrous, still stands in a fairly perfect state, and marks the boundary the Metroum, the Bouleuterium, and Tholus, and other between the ancient town and the new suburb embellished buildings, which lay at the northern and north-eastern foot by Hadrian. On the north-western front of the architrave of the Areopagus. This walk ends with the mention of is the inscription aid' cio' 'Aonvai noéws o piv móds; the temple Eucleia and the Eleusinium. It is not easy to on the other front, αϊδ' είσ' 'Αδριανού και ουχί Θησέως πόλις. see why Pausanias here introduces an account of the founAt the same time many of the older buildings underwent tain Enneacrunus and the temple of Demeter and Core, restoration at his command. Nor was his bounty shown which every archæologist hitherto has placed near the in works of building alone. He ceded to the Athenians Ilissus, in the south-eastern extremity of the city.4 In his the island of Cephallenia, and bestowed upon them large next walk (ch. xiv. § 5-xvii. $ 3), having already described presents of money, and an annual largess of corn.
the south side of the Cerameicus Agora, he starts again The immediate successors of Hadrian were guided by from the Stoa Basileius, describes the buildings on the his example. Antoninus Pius completed an aqueduct west and north of the Agora, and then enters the new or which Hadrian had commenced for bringing water into the Roman Agora. In this tour he mentions the altar of town from the Cephisus. Marcus Aurelius visited Athens Mercy, the gymnasium of Ptolemy, the Theseium, the
for the purpose of initiation at the Eleusinian mysteries. temple of Aglaurus, and the Prytaneium. In his next rodes The list of distinguished persons who made themselves walk he starts from the Prytaneium, and proceeding eastticus.
famous as benefactors of Athens may be said to close with ward (ch. xviii. § 4, xix.), he mentions the temples of
8 Curtius and others are probably mistaken in supposing the Dipy-
to explain this difficulty by assuming the existence of two fountains
west of the Acropolis.
of the Acropolis, and entering through the Propylaa, he Doomed, apparently, to become the prey of every spoiler, describes in order each object which adorned the summit, Athens again emerges from oblivion in the 13th century, with an accuracy fully borne out by recent excavations. under Baldwin and his crusaders, at a time when it was His last walk in Athens (ch. xxviii. § 4, xxix. § 1) con- besieged by a general of Theodorus Lascaris, the Greek ducts us through the various buildings at the western base emperor. In 1427 it was taken by Sultan Amurath II.; but of the Acropolis. From the temple of the Semnæ he passes some time afterwards it was recovered from the infidels by to the court of the Areopagus, and the mention of this another body of crusaders under the marquis of Montferrat, leads him to speak of the other judicial courts of Athens. a powerful baron of the West, who bestowed it, along with The rest of his first book is occupied with an account of Thebes, on Otho de la Roche, one of his principal followers. the suburbs of Athens—the Academy, the sacred way to For a considerable time both cities were governed by Otho
Eleusis, &c., and the topography of Attica in general. and his descendants, with the title of dukes ; but being Subsequent A few words may suffice to describe the ultimate fate of unable to maintain themselves in their Greek principality, history of Athens. In the reign of Valerian the northern barbarians they were at length succeeded by Walter of 'Brienne, who, Athens.
first appeared in the north of Greece, where they laid siege soon after his succession, was expelled by his new subjects,
to the ground every statue on the eastern pediment. The
in 1822. Having carried the town by storm, and driven
the Turks into the citadel, they established a strict blockade chiefly through the efforts of the Archæological Society of of the fortress, which was continued until the advance of Athens, but the antiquaries and scholars of all Europe the Pasha at the head of 4000 men induced them to have anxiously watched their endeavours, and France and abandon their enterprise, and fly, with the Athenians, to Prussia have vied with Great Britain in the prosecution of Salamis and Ægina. Two months afterwards, the Pasha Athenian discovery. The Theseium has become a treasury of having left Athens to the defence of 1500 men, the Greeks ancient sculpture, and a new archæological museum has been again ventured to attack the town, and succeeded in also erected to contain the ever-increasing stores of ancient obliging the Turks to seek refuge in the citadel, which they inscriptions and sculptures. The royal palace is a large forth with determined to besiege ; but, from ignorance and building of Pentelic marble, situated in the eastern quarter want of means, no progress whatever was made in the of the city, on the highest part of the gentle eminence operation until they obtained possession of the well which which rises from the level of the Ilissus and Cephisus supplied the garrison with water, when the Turks agreed to towards Lycabettus. The University (TTOVETLOTÝULOV) was capitulate upon condition of being immediately embarked founded in 1837, and numbers over 1200 students, while with their families and sent to Asia Minor. On various its staff of 52 professors includes the names of some of the pretences, however, embarkation was delayed from time to most learned Greek archæologists in Europe. In fact, time; and when intelligence at length arrived that a large the schools and other educational institutions of Athens are Turkish force was advancing upon Athens, the Palicari, very numerous, and thoroughly efficient. The archæoinstead of manning the walls and preparing for a vigorous logical journals of Athens are full of information concerndefence, rushed in a body to the houses where the prisoners ing the progress of excavations, and publish the texts of were confined, and commenced an indiscriminate massacre. newly-discovered inscriptions. The population in 1871 For this atrocity it is no palliation to remember that the was over 48,000, exclusive of the population of the Piræeus, Greek character had morally suffered from centuries of which would bring the total up to about 60,000. The servitude, and that they had terrible arrears of vengeance harbour is visited by ships of all nations. A railway to exact. The third siege was laid by the Turks in 1826. connects the Piræeus with the city, and enters the ancient The Greeks had left a strong garrison in the Acropolis, town about half-way between the site of the Dipylum and with provisions for several months; and a spring of water Piræan gates. The terminus stands in the midst of what having been discovered in the cave of Pan, and enclosed by once was the Agora in Cerameicus. The principal street Odysseus within the defences of the citadel, there was no is Hermes Street, running from west to east, a little north danger of its being starved into a surrender. But the of the terminus, until it reaches the royal palace. Two Turks having established batteries near the Pnyx and on other good streets, Athena Street and Æolus Street, traverse the hill of the Museium, and having drawn a line of this at right angles. The other streets, with the exception trenches round the citadel, with the view of intercepting of Stadium Street on the N.E., between the chamber of all communication between the besieged and the Greek deputies and the University, are generally narrow and army, the garrison was hard pressed ; and although Colonel winding. Altogether, Athens, like the rest of Greece, is Fabvier succeeded in forcing his way through the Turkish in a condition of increasing prosperity, and reaps the lines with 500 men and a supply of ammunition, and thus blessings of freedom. It is true that in our own country affording immediate relief, yet the total defeat of the Greek the ardent philhellenism of forty years ago has cooled army under General Church at the battle of Athens, fought down, and Greece is no longer an object of popular and in the hope of raising the siege, led soon afterwards to the sentimental admiration. Yet never did the scholars of surrender of the Acropolis, which remained in the hands of Europe turn with keener zest to the study of her ancient
the Turks until the termination of the revolutionary war. monuments; and if Attica were cleared for ever of egent In 1812 Athens could boast of a population of 12,000 brigands, and furnished with satisfactory roads, then in edition. souls, but during the war the greater part of the city was | numbers tenfold greater than now would reverent travellers
laid in ruins, and most of the inhabitants were dispersed. from the west of Europe delight to make their pilgrimage In 1834 it was declared the capital of the new kingdom to the birthplace of philosophy, literature, and art. of Greece. Great exertions have been made since then to The following are some of the most important works on the restore the city; streets have been opened, levelled, subject :-Leake's Topography of Athens ; Wordsworth's Athens widened; the ancient sewers have been cleared and and Attica;. Bursian's Geographie von Griechenland, and article
“ Athene" in Pauly's Real-Encyclopädie, 2d ed. ; E. Curtius's repaired, and the marshes of Cephisus drained. Excava
Attische Studien; Dyer's Ancient Athens ; Wachsmuth's Die Stodt tions of ancient sites and buildings have been carried out,- | Athen in Alterthum.
(E. L. H.)
ATHENS, the name of several towns in the United ATHIAS, JOSEPH, à celebrated rabbi and printer at States of America, the chief of which are the following : Amsterdam, whose editions of the Hebrew Bible are noted (1.) The capital of a county of the same name in the S.E. for the general correctness of the text. Although he was a of the state of Ohio, finely situated on the Hocking River. learned Hebraist, there are occasional errors in the points, It is the seat of the Ohio university, which was founded in especially in the edition of 1661, but many of these were 1804. Population of county, 23,768. (2.) The capital of corrected in that of 1667. He also printed several editions Clarke county, Georgia, on the W. bank of the Oconee River. of the Bible in the corrupted Hebrew spoken by the Jews It is the seat of the Georgia university, which was of Spain, Germany, Poland, and England. He died in founded in 1801, and the central town of a large cotton- | 1700. growing district. Population in 1870, 4251, of whom ATHLETÆ (đontai), among the Greeks and Romans, 1967 were coloured.
was the designation of persons who contended for prizes ATHERTON, or CHOWBENT, a township in the parish (dola) in the public games, exclusive of musical and other of Leigh and hundred of West Derby, in Lancashire, 200 contests, where bodily strength was not called into play, miles from London. It is one of those places which have though here also the word was sometimes applied, and it was grown to wealth and populousness through the extension even extended to horses which had won a race, and again of the cotton trade. Besides its factories, it has collieries metaphorically, e.g., to persons who had exerted themselves and ironworks. Population in 1871, 7531.
in good deeds (αθλητές των καλών έργων). On the other