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years were a striking feature of Baden-Baden, are now | military hospital. A short distance to the west of the town abolished. The only building of much antiquarian interest, stands the castle of Weilberg, which belongs to members with the exception of the castles, is the parish church, which of the imperial family. The only manufacture of much dates from the 15th century, and contains the tombs of importance that is carried on in Baden is the production several of the margraves. There is a Protestant church of steel-wares; these, especially the razors, are of excellent a short distance to the east of Leopoldsplatz, and not far quality. Permanent population, about 6500. off a small Episcopalian church ; while on the Michaelsberg BADGER (Meles), a family of Plantigrade Carnivora, is the Greek chapel, with its gilded dome, which was erected possessing greatly elongated bodies and short limbs, each of over the tomb of the Roumanian prince, Michael Stroudza, the latter furnished with five toes, provided at their who died at Baden in 1863.
extremities with long, powerful claws, by means of which The springs of Baden were known to the Romans, and they form deep burrows in the earth. The carnassial the foundation of the town is referred to the Emperor tooth, which in the bears is wholly tuberculate, is in the Hadrian by an inscription of somewhat doubtful authen- badgers provided also with a cutting edge, their whole ticity. The name of Aurelia Aquensis was given to it in dentition being specially adapted to the partly vegetable, honour of Aurelius Severus, in whose reign it would seem partly animal diet on which they subsist. The badger differs to have been well known. Fragments of its ancient sculp- from all other mammals in having the lower jaw so articutures are still to be seen, and in 1847 remains of Roman lated to the upper, by means of a transverse condyle firmly vapour baths, well preserved, were discovered just below locked into a long cavity of the cranium, that dislocation the New Castle. From the 14th century down to the close of the jaw is all but impossible, and this enables those of the 17th, Baden was the residence of the margraves, to creatures to maintain their hold with the utmost tenacity. whom it gave its name. They first dwelt in the Old Castle, The European badger (Meles Taxus) may be taken as typical the ruins of which still occupy the summit of a hill above of the entire family. It is nowhere abundant, but is the town, but in 1479 they removed to the New Castle found over the entire northern parts of Europe and Asia. (still so called), which is situated on the hill-side nearer to It is a quiet, inoffensive animal, nocturnal and solitary in the town, and is remarkable for its subterranean dungeons. its habits, sleeping by day in its burrow, and issuing forth During the Thirty Years' War Baden suffered severely from at night to feed on roots, beech-mast, fruits, the eggs the various combatants, but especially from the French, of birds, some of the smaller quadrupeds, frogs, and insects. who pillaged it in 1643, and laid it in ashes in 1688. The It is said also to dig up the nests of wasps in order to margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the eat the larvæ, as the ratel—a closely allied South African margrave Louis removed to Rastadt in 1706. Since the form-is said to rob the bees of their honey. The male beginning of the present century the Government has and female are seldom seen together, and are supposed to greatly fostered the growth of the town.
trace each other by means of the odour of the secretion BADEN, Switzerland, a small town in the canton of contained in a glandular pouch beneath the tail. Although Aargau, on the Limmat, 14 miles N.W. of Zurich. It is the badger does not seek to attack, yet, when driven to bay, much frequented on account of its warm medicinal springs, its great muscular power and tough hide renders it a forwhich are about 20 in number, and vary in temperature midable antagonist, as was often seen in the days, now from 98° to 126° Fahr. About 15,000 persons visit the place happily gone by, when badger-baiting was a favourite annually. Tacitus, in the first book of his Histories (c. 67), amusement of the English peasantry. Fossil remains of incidentally speaks of it as in modum municipii extructus the badger have been found in this country, apparently locus,amæno salubrium aquarumusu frequens; and numerous contemporaneous with the extinct cave bear, hyena, and remains of pillars and inscriptions, coins, and other antiqui- tiger; still more ancient remains are said to have been ties confirm his description. It was destroyed by the found in the Red Crag of Suffolk, and should these prove Alemanni and the Huns, but was again frequented during authentic, the European badger, says Professor Owen, the reign of Charlemagne, though its modern prosperity only “ will be the oldest known species of mammal now living dates from the 15th century. For a long time the countship on the face of the earth.” The American badger (Meles of Baden was in the hands of the Hapsburgs, but it was Labradorica) is a native of California and Texas, and in its conquered by the Swiss Confederates in 1415. It was here habits closely resembles the former species ; it seems, that the famous disputation of Eck with Zwingle and Eco-however, to be more carnivorous. According to Gray, lampadius took place in 1526 ; and here was held the several species inhabit the southern parts of Asia. When conference of 1589. In 1714 the peace which put an end badgers were more abundant than they now are, their to the war of the Spanish Succession was concluded at skins dressed, with the hair attached, were commonly used Baden between Austria and France; and four years after- for pistol furniture. They are now chiefly valued for the wards a treaty between Zurich, Berne, and St Gall received hair, that of the European badger being used in the manuits name from the town. Resident population, 3412. facture of the best shaving-brushes, while the softer hair
BADEN, the chief town of a circle in Lower Austria, about of the American species is employed for the same purpose, 12 miles S. of Vienna on the railway to Gratz. It is beau- and also for painters' pencils. 5197 skins of the American tifully situated at the mouth of the romantic Helenenthal, badger were imported into London during 1873. near the banks of the Schwachat, a rapid stream with several BADIA Y LEBLICH, DOMINGO, a celebrated Spanish waterfalls, and has become a favourite summer resort with traveller, better known under his assumed name of Ali Bey, the inhabitants of the neighbouring capital. The warm was born in Biscay in the year 1766. After receiving a baths, which give name to the town, are thirteen in number, liberal education he devoted particular attention to the and vary in temperature from 72° to 97° Fahr. They rise, Arabic language, and made special preparation otherwise for the most part, at the foot of the Calvarienberg, which for his Oriental travels. Under the name of Ali Bey and is composed of dolomitic limestone. The number of patients in Mussulman costume, he visited Egypt, Marocco, Tripoli, is about 8000 annually. The celebrity of Baden dates back Arabia, and Syria, and was received as a person of high rank to the days of the Romans, who knew it by the name of wherever he appeared. On his return to Europe in 1807 Aquce Cetiæ ; and remains of their occupation still exist. he declared himself a Bonapartist, and was made Intendant, In 1812 the town suffered severely from a fire, but it has first of Segovia, and afterwards of Cordova. When the since been elegantly rebuilt. The principal buildings are French were driven from Spain, Badia was compelled to the church of St Stephen, the theatre, the casino, and the take refuge in France, and there, in 1814, published an
account of his travels under the title of Voyage d'Ali Bey | by lot which shall commence or have first hand - in en Asie et en Afrique, &c., in 3 vols. 8vo. A few years and choice of ends. The player who is hand-in (say A) later he set out again for Syria, under the assumed name stations himself in one of the courts at his end, his adverof Ali Othman, and, it is said, accredited as a political sary (say B) in the diagonally opposed court at the other agent by the French Government. He only reached end. A. then serves to B., i.e., A. standing in the court Aleppo, and there died, 30th August 1818, not without chosen by him, strikes the shuttlecock over the net with suspicion of having been poisoned.
the racket into the diagonally opposed court. B. then has BADIUS, Jodocus or Josse, sometimes called Badits to return the service by striking the shuttlecock back over ASCENSIUS from the village of Asche, near Brussels, the net without allowing it to touch the ground, and so on wbere he was born in 1462, was an eminent printer at alternately until one player fails. If this is the player who Paris, whose establishment was celebrated under the name served, he is hand-out, his adversary becomes hand-in, and of Prelum Ascensianum. He was himself a scholar of serves, and no score accrues. But if the player failing is the considerable repute, had studied at Brussels and Ferrara, one who was served to, his adversary scores one point towards and before settling in Paris, had taught Greek for several game, called an ace. The player who first scores 15 aces wins years at Lyons. He illustrated with notes several of the the game; but if the score arrives at 14 all, it is necessary classics which he printed, and was the author of numerous for one player to score two consecutive aces in order to win. pieces, amongst which are a life of Thomas à Kempis, The server must serve according to the following and a satire on the follies of women, entitled Navicula conditions :—He must stand with both feet in the court Stultarum Mulierum. He died in 1535. His epitaph was served from ; he must send the shuttlecock clean over the written by his grandson, the celebrated Henry Stephanus. net (i.e., without touching net or posts), and so that it will
BADMINTON, a game of recent introduction. It may drop into or beyond the service line bounding the court be played in or out of doors, by any number of persons from served into, and into the diagonally opposed court. If he two to eight; two or four makes the best game. The fails to comply with these conditions it is a fault, and he
has to serve again. Two consecutive faults put his hand out.
The server's hand is also out if he fails to send the shuttlecock over the net; if he hits the shuttlecock beyond the external boundary of the ground, or more than once; or, if after the server has loosed it, it touches him. No fault is allowed for these failures, as they are considered more serious than those first enumerated. After service is properly given, if either player fails to return the shuttlecock clean over the net, and so that it drops within the external boundary of the ground on the side of the net furthest from the striker, the player failing loses an ace, or is hand-out as the case may be. It will be observed that in the service the shuttlecock must be sent from right court
to right court, or from left to left, but in the return, by Diagram illustrating the Game of Badminton.
either player, it is only required that the shuttlecock shall following description applies to the outdoor game; the in- drop within any part of the ground, bounded by the external door follows the same plan, modified only by circumstances line of all. In addition the shuttlecock must be struck affecting a room.
before it touches the ground, and must be touched only A tolerably level surface is required to form a ground. with the racket, and must only be hit once, otherwise it Turf or asphalt is the best. The size of the ground counts against the striker. If the shuttlecock drops on the varies from 40 ft. by 20 ft. to 30 ft. by 15 ft., according to line enclosing the court served into, or in the return drops on the
space at command and the activity of the players. the boundary line, it is generally reckoned as a let, i.e., the The ground is divided into courts as shown in the stroke or innings goes for nothing, and the server serves diagram, which gives the marking-out and measurements again. But this is an utterly useless rule, and it is better of a full-sized ground.
to count everything that drops on the line to the striker. The boundaries of the ground and of the courts should In the case of a fault, or in the case of returns that are be defined by means of whiting and water, or pegged- not according to the conditions, if the adversary returns or down tape, the former being preferable.
attempts to return the shuttlecock, the service or return On each of the spots marked “post,” half-way between counts the same as though it had been properly made. If the the service lines, and 15 ft. apart, a post about 6 ft. high server scores he serves again, this time from his other court, must be erected, either on a stand or driven into the and so on alternately from one court to the other as long ground, and supported by guy-ropes.
as he scores. When he is hand-out, his adversary commences A net, about 5 ft. 6 in. or 5 ft. high should be stretched serving from either of the courts at his end, and, on scorfrom post to post. The depth of the net is of but little ing, serves from his other court, and so on.
In partner consequence. Where expense is no object, it should reach games the disposition of the players, and the rules by to the ground.
which they conduct the game, as to the two hands in, and The implements required in playing the game are so forth, are identical with those which prevail at lawn (1), shuttlecocks, and (2), rackets or battledores. The former tennis. See TENNIS.
(H. J.) should be about 5 in. high, and about 1 oz. in weight. BADNUR, the headquarters of the district of Betúl, For outdoor play the shuttlecocks are sometimes made consists, besides the European houses, of two bázárs. The heavier by being loaded with lead. The body should be largest, the Kothi Bázár, has a population of 2015 souls. covered with india-rubber. The rackets should be similar The public buildings are the Commissioner's court-house, to those used at the game of the same name, only smaller, the district court-house, the jail, the schools, the policeabout 2 ft. 6 in. long.
station, the post-office, the dispensary, &c. There is a good The game consists in sending the shuttlecock with the sarai or inn for native travellers, and a dák bangalow or racket over the net, forwards and backwards, until one of resting-place for Europeans.
Not far from Badnúr is the players fails to return it. The players decide | Kherla, the former residence of the Gond Rájás, where
there is an old fort, now in ruins, which used to be held of the north-west passage, and in 1613 he commanded one of by them. Lat. 21° 57' N., long. 77° 59' E.
the English vessels engaged in the Greenland fisheries. In BADRINATH, a town and celebrated temple in Hindu 1615 and 1616 Baffin made two voyages in the “Discovery" stán, in the British district of Garhwal, situate on the right under Bylot, and on the second of them explored the large bank of the Vishnugangá, a tributary of the Alaknanda inlet, afterwards called Baffin's Bay. The only accounts of River, in the middle of a valley nearly 4 miles in length, these expeditions were given by Baffin himself, and later and 1 in breadth, in 30° 44' N. lat. and 79° 32' E. long. investigators have thoroughly confirmed his descriptions. The town is small, containing only twenty or thirty huts, In 1618 he is said to have been mate in a voyage to Surat in which reside the Bráhmans and the attendants on the and Mocha; and in 1621 he was killed while attempting, in temple. The building, however, which is considered a conjunction with a Persian force, to expel the Portuguese place of high sanctity, by no means corresponds to its great from Ormuz. (See Purchas's Pilgrims and the publicacelebrity. It is about 40 or 50 feet in height, built in the tions of the Hakluyt Society for 1849.) form of a cone, with a small cupola, on the top of which is BAFFIN'S BAY, or BAFFIN's SEA, is properly neither a gilt ball and spire, and contains the shrine of Badrinath, a bay nor a sea, but part of the long strait or inlet which dedicated to an incarnation of Vishnu. The principal idol separates Greenland from the N.E. coast of America. It is of black stone, and is 3 feet in height. Badrinath is the extends from about 69° to 78° N. lat., and from 54° to 72° favourite resort of pilgrims from all parts of India. In W. long, and is connected by Lancaster Sound and Barrow's ordinary years the number varies from 7000 to 10,000; Strait with the Arctic Ocean. It was first explored in 1616 but every twelfth year, when the festival of Kumbh Mela by the English navigator Baffin. The part of the strait is celebrated, the concourse of persons is said to be 50,000. to the south is known as Davis Strait, and the narrower In addition to the gifts of votaries, the temple enjoys a channel to the north takes the name of Smith's Sound. further source of revenue from the rents of villages assigned The coasts are generally high and precipitous, and are by former Rájás. Some years ago the temple was shat- deeply indented with gulfs. The most important island on tered by an earthquake, and has only been partially restored. the east side is Disco to the north of Disco Bay, where It is situate among mountains rising 23,000 feet above the there is a Danish settlement. During the greater part of level of the sea. Elevation of the site of the temple, 10,294 the year this sea is frozen, and it is navigable only from the feet.
beginning of June to the end of September. It is annually BAENA, a town of Spain, in the province of Cordova, visited by vessels engaged in the whale and seal fishery. 8 leagues S.E. of the city. It is picturesquely situated,(See Petermann's Mittheil., 1873, map 13, and Markham's near the River Marbello, on the slope of a hill crowned with Cruise in Baffin's Bay.) a castle, which formerly belonged to Gonzalo de Cordova, BAGATELLE is an indoor game, probably derived from and is now the property of the Altamira family. It has the old English shovel-board, described by Cotton in his four parish churches and three schools, one of which, Compleat Gamester (1674), though many consider that its exclusively for girls, has a high reputation in the province. invention is due to the French. Like billiards, chess, and The education, which is conducted by sisters of charity, draughts, its origin is not certainly known; but whatever its does not go beyond reading, writing, arithmetic, and religious genesis, its name is undoubtedly French. Bagatelle games instruction. Grain and oil are the principal articles of are played on an oblong board, usually from six to ten commerce. The site of the Roman town (Baniana or feet in length, by a foot and a half to three feet in width. Biniana) can still be traced, and various antiquities are The bed of the table, which is ordinarily of slate or frequently met with. A subterranean vault was discovered mahogany, is covered with fine green cloth ; and at the in 1833, containing twelve cinerary urns, with inscriptions upper end, which is rounded, there are nine holes or cups, commemorating various members of the Pompeian family numbered from 1 to 9, thus In 1292 Mahomet Ibn Aljama vainly besieged the city,
5 the defence of which on that occasion is commemorated
2 by the five Moorish heads in its coat-of-arms. Baena is the birthplace of Juan de Peñalosa. Population, about 12,000.
6 BAEZA (ancient Beatia), a city of Spain, in the province
1 of Jaen. It stands on a considerable elevation, about 3 miles from the right bank of the Guadalquivir. Lat. 37° 59' Into these holes ivory balls are driven by a cue in all N., long. 3° 28' W. It is well built, and has a cathedral respects similar to the instrument used in BILLIARDS, and several fine public buildings, among which the most which see. The sides and circular end of the table are worthy of notice are the university (founded in 1533, and furnished with elastic cushions; and in some of the newer for some time defunct), the oratorio of the order of St tables there is also a pocket on each side. Nine balls— Philip Neri, and the marble fountain with Caryatides in eight white, and one red or black (sometimes four white, the Plaza de la Constitucion. The Cordova and Ubeda four red, and one black)—are used in the most popular of gates, and the arch of Baeza, are among the remains of its the several bagatelle games. old fortifications, which were of great strength. There is The ordinary game is played according to the following little trade or manufacture here. The principal productions rules :of the neighbourhood are grain and oil. The red dye made 1. Any number of persons may play, whether singly or from the native cochineal was formerly celebrated. In the in sides. 2. Each player strings for lead, and he who time of the Moors Baeza was a flourishing city of 50,000 lodges his ball in the highest hole begins. In the case of inhabitants, and the capital of a separate kingdom, but it partners, one only on each side need string for the lead. never recovered from the sack of 1239. It is the birthplace 3. The player who wins the lead takes the nine balls and of Gaspar Becerra, the celebrated sculptor and painter. plays them one after the other up the table from baulk, first Present population, about 11,000.
striking at the red ball which is placed on the spot about BAFFIN, WILLIAM, an able and enterprising English a foot below the 1 hole. The object of the player is to seaman, born in 1584. Nothing is known of his early life, lodge his own, or the coloured ball, or both balls, in the and his fame rests entirely on the voyages undertaken by holes. 4. The red ball counts double when it is played into him during the years 1612 to 1616. In 1612 he accom a hole; and for each white ball lodged or holed, a panied Captain James Hall on his fourth voyage in search corresponding number of points is scored to that marked
in the cup. (Sometimes two coloured balls are used, in Cockamaroo, or Russian Bagatelle, is played on a table which case both count double.) 5 The red ball must be prepared with a number of pins, holes, arches, and bells, up first struck, and the remainder of the balls are played up to and through which the ball is played from the baulk end to the holes—the sum total of the holes made being the of the table. It is a childish amusement, requiring little striker's score. 6. Any number of rounds may be played skill, and therefore needing only the barest mention. for the game, as agreed on at the commencement; and the In playing the bagatelle games a much less degree of player (or side) obtaining the highest aggregate score wins. force is required for the stroke than is necessary for bil7. Any ball that rebounds beyond the baulk line, or is forced liards. Some adepts are able to fill all the holes at one over the table, is not re-used in that round.
essay; first, by striking the red ball on the side, making a Sans Egal, or the French Game, is the next most gene- double hazard, say, into the 7 and the 8 holes, and then, rally played game on the bagatelle table. It is governed by either by playing direct at the holes or at the cushion, the following laws -1. The player who takes the lead lodging each successive ball till the whole nine are pocketed. (which is decided as in bagatelle) makes choice of four balls In this way, counting double for the red, as many as 54 of either colour, and placing the black one on the spot, com- points can be scored in a single round of the balls. When mences by striking it with a ball from baulk. 2. The two coloured balls are used, of course a proportionally other player then strikes up one of his balls, and so on larger score is made. The cue should be held lightly alternately3 He who holes the black ball counts it between the fingers and thumb, not grasped in the palm of towards his game, together with any number made by the the hand; and much use may be made of the various whito 4. If either player hole his adversary's ball, the strokes employed in billiards, -as the side, the screw, the number scored by such ball, or balls, is marked to the twist, and the drag; for which terms see the article other side. 5. The player who makes the greatest number BILLIARDS.
(G. F. P.) of points in each round wins the game, and takes the lead BAGGESEN, JENS EMMANUEL, the most prominent in the next. The rule as to balls rebounding beyond the literary figure in Denmark during the latter part of last baulk line, or being forced off the table, is the same as in century, was born on the 15th of February 1765, at Korsör. the preceding game
His parents were very poor, and before he was twelve he The Cannon Game, sometimes played on a table without was sent to copy documents at the office of the clerk of the holes, consists entirely of cannons, that is to say, two balls district. By dint of indomitable perseverance, he managed struck in succession by the cue-ball. This
game is played to gain an education, and in 1782 entered the university 50, 100, or 150 up, and the holes into which the balls fall are of Copenhagen. His success as a writer was coeval with soinetimes counted in addition to the cannon. Three balls only his earliest publication ; his Comical Tales in verse, poems are used—a white, a spot-white, and a black ball. At start that recall the Broad Grins that Colman the younger ing the latter is placed on the spot, and the adversary's ball brought out a decade later, took the town by storm, and the on a point equi-distant between the first and centre holes, struggling young poet found himself a popular favourite 1 and 9 If the striker make a cannon, he goes on as long at twenty-one. He then tried serious lyrical writing, and as he can score, but no hole can be counted without first his tact, elegance of manner, and versatility, gained him a making the cannon. To miss the white involves the loss place in the best society. This sudden success received a of 1 point; and to miss the black ball, 5 points. The blow in 1788, when a very poor opera he had produced was striker's break is ended when he fails to cannon, and then received with mockery, and a reaction against him set in. the other player goes on,-he who first gains the required He left Denmark in a rage, and spent the next years in number winning the game. When there are pockets to the Germany, France, and Switzerland. In the country last table, two points are taken for every white ball pocketed, mentioned he married, began to write in German, and puband three points for the red. Should the player's ball fall | lished in that language his next poem, Alpenlied. In 1790 into a pocket before he make the cannon, the score is taken he returned to his mother-country, bringing with him as a by the opponent. In the Irish Cannon Game the holes do peace-offering his fine descriptive poem, the Labyrinth, not count, except by way of penalty ; all points made by in Danish, and was received with unbounded homage. holing the balls being added to the score of the adver- The next twenty years were spent in incessant restless wansary. Sometimes, in both the cannon games two points are derings over the north of Europe, Paris latterly becoming taken for a cannon from white to white and then to red, his nominal home. He continued to publish volumes alterand three for a cannon from white to red and then to white; nately in Danish and German. In 1811 he returned to or, when two coloured balls are used, three points are taken Copenhagen to find the young Ohlenschläger installed as for a cannon from the black to the red. Lately, bagatelle the great poet of the day, and he himself beginning to lose tables as much as 14 feet long by 6 feet wide have been his previously unbounded popularity. Until 1820 he remade for the cannon game.
sided in Copenhagen, in almost unceasing literary feud Mississippi is a game played on a bagatelle table with with some one or other, abusing and being abused, the a bridge pierced with arches, each arch bearing a certain most important feature of the whole being Baggesen's denumber—say, from 1 to 10 or 12. The balls are first played | termination not to allow Ohlenschläger to be considered from the baulk against the cushion on to the bridge, which a greater poet than himself. He then went back to his is placed just in front of the lowermost hole. The rules are beloved Paris, where he lost his wife and youngest child, -1. If the ball pass through the bridge, all the points and fell at last into a state of hopeless melancholy madness. indicated on the arch are counted towards the player's In 1826, having slightly recovered, he wished to see Denscore, in addition to any points made by the ball falling mark once more, but died at Hamburg on his way, on the into a hole beyond the bridge. The game may be played 3d of October, and was buried at Kiel. His many-sided by two or more persons, and he who first makes the number talents achieved success in all forms of writing, but his of points agreed on–100, 200, 500, &c.—wins. A modifi- domestic, philosophical, and critical works have long ceased cation of this game is called
to occupy attention. little more power of restrainTrou Madame. In this the balls are played from the ing his egotism and passion would have made him one baulk straight up to the bridge without touching the of the wittiest and keenest of modern satirists, and his cushion, and only the points marked upon the arches score, comic poems are deathless. The Danish literature owes all points made by the balls dropping into the holes beyond Baggesen a great debt for the firmness, polish, and form being scored to the opponent. Another variety, called which he introduced into it—his style being always finished
and elegant. With all his faults he stands as the greatest In ancient times the plain of Mesopotamia was occupied figure between Holberg and Ohlenschläger. Of all his by the great and wealthy cities of Nineveh, Babylon, poems, however, the loveliest and best is a little simple song, Seleucia, Ctesiphon, &c., and was in a high state of culcalled There was a time when I was very little, which every tivation. It was intersected by many well-constructed Dane, high or low, knows by heart, and which is matchless canals and other works, which, in dispersing over the in its simplicity and pathos. It has outlived all his country the superfluous waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, epics.
(E. W. G.) proved extremely useful to agriculture. These works are BAGHDAD, a Turkish pashalic or government of now all ruined, and not a vestige remains of many of the Asia, computed to have an area of above 100,000 square canals, while the course of others can only be faintly miles. It stretches in a N.W. direction, from the mouth traced in their imperfect remains. One canal, however, of the Shatt-el-Arab at Bussorah, to Merdin, situated near called El-Hye, still exists; it connects the Euphrates and the source of the Tigris; and from the confines of Persia the Tigris exactly half-way between Bussorah and Baghdad, to the banks of the Khabour, which separates it from and is navigable in spring for large boats. the pashalic of Diarbekir. Its general boundaries are the BAGHDAD, a city of Asia, formerly the capital of the Euphrates and the Arabian desert of Nejd to the W. empire of the caliph, and long renowned for its commerce and S., Kusistan and Mount Zagros to the E., the pashalic and its wealth, is situated on an extensive and desert of Diarbekir to the N.W., and Armenia with the terri- plain, which has scarcely a tree or village throughout its tories of the Kurdish chief of Julamerick to the N. whole extent; and though it is intersected by the Tigris, This great tract comprehends ancient Babylonia and the it stands mostly on its eastern bank, close to the water's greatest part of Assyria proper. The first includes the edge. Old Baghdad on the W. is now considered as merely space enclosed by the Tigris and the Euphrates, which is a suburb to the larger and more modern city on the eastern also known under the general appellation of Mesopo- shore, the former containing an area of only 146 acres, tamia; and the second, that which is beyond the Tigris, while the latter extends over 591. It has, however, commonly called Lower Kurdistan. This tract of country numerous and extensive streets, well furnished with shops, is an extensive and very fertile plain, and is watered by and is protected by strong walls, with three gates opening the Tigris and the Euphrates, which at Baghdad approach towards Hillah on the Euphrates and Kazimeen. Beyond within 25 miles of each other, and afford an inexhaustible these modern bulwarks vestiges of ancient buildings, supply of the finest water. Only some parts of these spreading in various directions, are visible in the plain, fertile districts, however, are cultivated, as the population which is strewed with fragments of brick, tiles, and consists in many places of wandering Arabs, who are rubbish. A burying-ground has extended itself over a averse to agriculture, and who, in their vagrant life of large tract of land formerly occupied by the streets of the idleness and rapine, neglect all the natural advantages of city; and here is the tomb of Zobeide, the favourite wife the country. The most productive portion of the pashalic of Haroun el Raschid, built of brick, of a high octagonal is on the banks of the Shatt-el-Arab, in the neighbourhood shape, and surmounted by a lofty superstructure in the of Bussorah. This tract, for upwards of 30 miles below form of a cone. It was originally built in 827 A.D., but that city, is well cultivated, and yields vast quantities of has been frequently restored. The two towns of Old dates, wheat, barley, and various kinds of fruits. The and New Baghdad are connected by a bridge of thirty ponbanks of the Euphrates produce abundant crops of dry toons. The form of the new city is that of an irregular grain. Higher up the Euphrates, the country which is oblong, about 1500 paces in length by 800 in breadth ; possessed by the Arabs is a low marshy tract, formed by and a brick wall, about five miles in circuit, encloses the the expansion of the Euphrates, and is famed for plentiful town on both sides of the river. This wall, which is built crops of rice.
Among the mountainous districts of the of brick, has been constructed and repaired at different Upper Euphrates the country is highly picturesque and periods ; and, as in most other works of the same nature beautiful; it is watered by the River Mygdonius (the Gozan in Mahometan countries, the oldest portion is the best, of Scripture), and is in a tolerable state of cultivation. It and the more modern the worst part of the fabric. At produces in abundance the finest fruits, such as grapes, the principal angles are large round towers, with smaller olives, figs, pomegranates, which are considered the most towers intervening at short distances; and on these large delicious in the East; apples, pears, apricots of an inferior towers batteries are planted, with brass cannon of different quality; and the finest dates, on which the inhabitants, as calibre, badly mounted. Of two of these angular towers in other parts of Asia, depend in many cases for subsist- Mr Buckingham remarked that the workmanship is equal
The domestic animals are, the horse, for which the to any ancient masonry tbat he had ever seen. The wall country has long been famed, the ass, camel, drome has three gates—one on the S.E., one on the N.E., and a dary, buffalo, and nule. Of the wild animals, the lion, third on the N.W. of the city; and it is surrounded by a the hyena, the jackal, the wolf, and the wild boar, are dry ditch of considerable depth. A fourth gate on the common; and antelopes are very numerous. Hares are northern side, which has been closed since the capture of plentiful, but foxes are seldom seen. All sorts of poultry the city by Sultan Amurath IV. in 1638, is a good specimen are bred except the turkey. On the cultivated lands, of Saracenic brick-work. It was formerly called “the white and on the borders of the rivers, the black partridge Gate,” but is now known as the “Bab-el-Tilism," or is met with in great numbers. Snipes and almost every “Talismanic Gate," from a fine Arabic inscription in relief species of wild fowl may be found in the marshes, and on a scroll border round the tower, which bears the date pelicans on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris. In of 618 A.H. (1220 A.D.) The town has been built without addition to these two rivers, the country is watered by the slightest regard to regularity. The streets are even more the Khabour or Chaboras, formed by the junction of intricate and winding than those in most other Eastern several small streams about ten miles to the S.W. of towns; and, with the exception of the bazaars and some Merdin, and by the Mygdonius, or Gozan, the Hermas of open squares, the interior is little else than a labyrinth of the Arabs, which used formerly to discharge a part of its alleys and passages. The streets are unpaved, and in waters into the Euphrates through the Khabour, and a many places so narrow that two horsemen can scarcely part into the Tigris through the Thirthar, passing by pass each other; and as it is seldom that the houses have Hatra, but which is now entirely lost in a salt marsh at windows facing the great public thoroughfares, and the the foot of the Singar hills.
doors are small and mean, they present on both sides the