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gloomy appearance of dead walls. All the buildings, both 114° But this scale of temperature is exceptional. public and private, are constructed of furnace-burnt bricks, During the summer months the wind is usually in the of a yellowish-red colour, taken chiefly from the ruins of north-west, and the air, though hot, is fresh and exhilaratother edifices, as their rounded angles evidently show. A ing, the thermometer ranging from about 75o at sunrise to house is generally laid out in ranges of apartments open- 107° at the hottest time of the day. The interiors of the ing into a square interior court, and furnished with subter- houses of the rich are splendidly furnished, and ornamented ranean rooms called serdaubs, into which the inhabitants in the ceilings with a sort of chequered work, which has a retreat during the day for shelter from the intense heats handsome appearance. A great portion of the ground within of summer; and with terraced roofs, on which they take the walls of the town is unoccupied by buildings, especially their evening meal, and sleep in the open air. Occasion in the north-eastern quarter; and even in the more populous ally in the months of June, July, and August, when the parts of the city near the river, a considerable space beSherki or south wind is blowing, the thermometer at tween the houses is occupied by gardens, where pomebreak of day is known to stand at 112° Fahr.; while at granates, grapes, figs, olives, and dates grow in great noon it rises to 119°, and a little before two o'clock to abundance, so that the city when seen from a distance 122°, standing at sunset at 117°, and at midnight at has the appearance of rising out of the midst of trees.

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Ground-Plan of the Enceinte of Baghdad. Reduced from Survey made by Commander F. Jones and Mr W. Collingwood of the Indian Navy, 1853–54. The principal public buildings in Baghdad are the of bricks of various colours, diagonally crossed. The jamah mosques, the khans or caravanserais, and the serai or or mosque of Merjaneeah, not far distant from the former, palace of the pasha. The palace, which is situated in the though the body of it is modern, has some remains of old and north-western quarter of the town, not far from the Tigris, very rich arabesque work on its surface, dating from the 14th is distinguished rather for extent than grandeur. It is century. The door is formed by a lofty arch of the Pointed a comparatively modern structure, built at different periods, form, bordered on both sides by rich bands exquisitely and forming a large and confused pile, without proportion, sculptured, and having numerous inscriptions. The mosque beauty, or strength. There are no remains of the ancient of Khaseki, supposed to have been an old Christian palace of the caliphs.

church, is chiefly distinguished by the niche for prayer, In all Mahometan cities the mosques are conspicuous which, instead of a simple and unadorned recess, is objects. The number in Baghdad is above 100; but of crowned by a Roman arch, with square pedestals, spirally these not more than thirty are distinguished by the charac- fluted shafts, a rich capital of flowers, and a fine fan or teristic minarets or steeples, the rest being merely chapels shell-top in the Roman style. Around the arch is a and venerated places of prayer. The most ancient of sculptured frieze; and down the centre, at the back of the these mosques was erected in the year of the Hegira 633, niche, is a broad band, richly sculptured with vases, flowers, or 1235 of the Christian era, by the Caliph Mustansir. &c., in the very best style of workmanship,—the whole All that remains of the original building is the minaret, executed on a white marble ground. The building in its and a small portion of the outer walls; the former a short, present state bears the date of 1682 A.I)., but the sculptures heavy erection, of the most ungraceful proportions, built which it contains belong probably to the time of the early


caliphs. The mosque of the vizier, near the Tigris, has a fine the Tigris and Euphrates by Colonel Chesney in 1836, and, dome and lofty minaret; and the great mosque in the square with the sanction of the Turkish Government, they have of El Meidan is also a noble building. The others do not ever since been maintained there, one small vessel of the merit any particular notice. The domes of Baghdad are Indian naval service being attached to the British Residency, mostly high, and disproportionately narrow. They are and two commercial steamers belonging to an English comrichly ornamented with glazed tiles and painting, the pany being employed in navigating the Tigris for trade purcolours chiefly green and white, which, being reflected from poses. The Turks have also endeavoured to establish a line a polished surface, impart more liveliness than magni- of mercantile steamers of their own between Baghdad and ficence to the aspect of these buildings. In the opinion Bussorah, but they have not hitherto been very successful. of Mr Buckingham, they are not to be compared to the The smaller craft, used for bringing supplies of provisions rich and stately domes of Egypt, as the minarets, although and fruit to the city, are circular boats of basket-work, they have the same bright assemblage of colours, are far covered with skins, the same that have been employed from from being equal "to the plain and grave dignity of some the remotest antiquity. The Euphrates and the Tigris are of the Turkish towers at Diarbekir, Aleppo, and Damascus, liable to spring floods; and the streams of both rivers being or to the lighter elegance of many of those in the larger sometimes joined, inundate the desert plain on which Baghtowns on the banks of the Nile."

dad stands, when the city appears like an island in the There are about thirty khans or caravanserais in Baghdad, midst of the sea. The inhabitants are supp with water all of inferior construction to those in the other large towns from the Tigris, which is brought to their houses in goats' of Turkey. The only remarkable building of this class is skins, the convenience of water-works, cisterns, and pipes called Khan-el-Aourtmeh, and adjoins the Merjaneeah being entirely unknown. mosque, to which it formerly belonged. The vaulted roof Baghdad has much declined from its ancient importance. of this building is a fine specimen of Saracenic brick- It was formerly a great emporium of Eastern commerce ; work, and like the adjoining mosque, bears the date of and it still receives, by way of Bussorah, from Bengal the 1356 A.D. It is said, however, to occupy the site of an manufactures and produce of India, which are distributed ancient Christian church. The bazaars, which are numer- over Arabia, Syria, Kurdistan, Armenia, and Asia Minor. ous, are mostly formed of long, straight, and tolerably wide At the same time the inland trade from Persia and the East

The one most recently built is the largest and has fallen off. The productions and manufactures of Persia, the best ; still it has an air of meanness about it that is which were intended for the Syrian, Armenian, and Turkish not common in the bazaars of large Turkish cities. It is markets, and were sent to Baghdad as a central depôt, now long, wide, and lofty, and well filled with dealers and reach Constantinople by the more direct route of Erzeroum wares of all sorts. Several of these bazaars are vaulted and Tocat. Wealth, indeed, appears to be deficient among over with brick-work; but the greater number are merely all classes, and Baghdad has many symptoms of a decayed covered with flat beams which support a roof of straw, city. It must, however, be noted that a very considerable dried leaves, or branches of trees and grass.

There are

trade has sprung up of late years between the European about fifty baths in Baghdad, which are also very inferior markets and Baghdad, several English houses being in their accommodations to those in the other large towns established in the city, who import goods direct from of Mesopotamia. The only other Mahometan remains London and Liverpool, via the Suez Canal and Bussorah, which it is necessary to mention are-1. The Tekiyeh, or and French, German, Swiss, and Greek merchants, being shrine of the Bektash dervishes, on the western bank of also engaged in the traffic. The staple articles of export the river. The shrine is in ruins, but it contains a fine are dates, wool, and grain, to which may be added cloth of Cufic inscription now mutilated, which bears the date of various kinds, drugs, dye-stuffs, and miscellaneous produc333 A.H. (or 944 A.D.) 2. The tomb of the famous tions. A very considerable trade in horses is also carried Maaruf-el-Kerkhi, in the immediate vicinity, dating from The total value of the exports in 1870–71 reached 1215 A.D.

3. In Eastern or New Baghdad the college of about £46,900, while the imports for the same year were Mustansir, near the bridge, now in ruins, but bearing a stated at upwards of £285,000. There is a considerable fine inscription dated 630 A.H. (or 1233 A.D.). 4. The manufacture of red and yellow leather, which is made into shrine of the famous Saint Abdul Kadir, which is visited shoes, and finds a ready sale. by pilgrims from all parts of the Mahometan world. The The population is a mixture of nations from various original tomb was erected about 1252 A.D., but the noble quarters of the East. The chief officers of Government, dome which now canopies the grave dates from about two whether civil or military, are of the families of Constanticenturies later. An aqueduct, the only one in the city, nopolitan Turks, though they are mostly natives of the conveys water from the river to this shrine. None of the city; the merchants and traders are almost all of Persian other mosques or tombs require particular notice.

or Arabian descent; while the lower classes consist of Baghdad is about 500 miles from the mouth of the Tigris Turks, Arabs, Persians, and Indians. There are some (following its course), and about 400 from Bussorah; and Jews and Christians, who still remain distinct from the with the latter place it carries on a constant communication other classes; while the strangers in the town are Kurds, by means of boats of from twenty to fifty tons burden, though Persians, and desert Arabs in considerable numbers. The the river is navigable for larger vessels. With a northerly dress of the Baghdad Turks is not nearly so gay or splendid wind these boats will make the passage to Bussorah in seven as that of their northern countrymen; and the costume of or eight days; in calms, when they have merely the aid of the residents is, upon the whole, unusually plain in comthe current, the passage occupies from ten to fifteen days. parison with that of other Asiatics. As every nation Sir R. K. Porter mentions that the stream of the Tigris runs retains its own peculiar dress, it may be easily conceived at the rate of seven knots an hour. This, however,


pro- what an amusing variety of costume must be seen in the bably during floods, since, with such a powerful current, a streets of Baghdad. The dress of the females is as mean as boat could not occupy ten or fifteen days on its passage that used in the poorest villages of Mesopotamia; women from Baghdad to Bussorah. In coming up the stream, of all classes being enveloped in a blue checked cloth, such thirty or forty days are required to reach Baghdad. of as is worn by the lowest orders in Egypt, and having their late years, however, steam communication has almost en- faces covered by hideous veils of black horse-hair. tirely superseded the use of the native craft between Bagh- Baghdad is governed by a pasha, assisted by a council. dad and Bussorah. British steamers were first placed upon He was formerly chosen from the ranks of the Georgian




Mamelukes, but is now always selected from among the that period it has remained under a nominal subjection highest officers of the Constantinople court, his term of to the Turks. Achmet, the greatest of the pashas of office being usually for four or five years. He is also Baghdad, and the first who rendered the pashalic indegovernor-general of Irak, and possesses supreme authority pendent of the Porte, defended the town with such courage from Diarbekir to Bahrein, though he does not under against Nadir Shah, that the invader was compelled to ordinary circumstances interfere with the subordinate raise the siege, after suffering great loss. Baghdad, governments of Mosul and Kurdistan.1

according to Colonel Chesney, had 110,000 inhabitants The East India Company used to maintain a resident previously to the great plague of 1830; but in 1853 in Baghdad with a large establishment, and his post is now Mr Layard estimated its population under 50,000. An replaced by that of a consul-general and political agent. estimate made in 1872 on a census taken in 1869 rises A French consul is also regularly appointed.

as high as 150,000, but this is in all probability an exagUntil recently Baghdad was supposed to be entirely a geration (v. Allen's Indian Mail, 1874). Long. 44° 24' E., Mahometan city, dating from the time of Al Mansúr; but lat. 33° 21' N. Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia Sir H. Rawlinson discovered in 1848, during an unusually (1827); Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Georgia, Persia, dry season, when the rivers had fallen six feet below the Armenia, and Ancient Babylonia (1821–22); Kinneir's Geoordinary low-water mark, that the western bank of the Tigris graphical Memoir of the Persian Empire (1813); Chesney's was lined with an embankment of solid brick-work, dating Expedition (1850); Rousseau's Description du pachalik from the time of Nebuchadnezzar, as the bricks were each de Bagdad (1809); Wellsted's City of the Caliphs ; stamped with his name and titles; and it has been since Grove's Residence in Baghdad (1830-32); Transactions of remarked that in the Assyrian geographical catalogues of the Bombay Geog. Soc. (1856).

(H. C. R.) time of Sardanapalus, one of the Babylonian cities bears BAGHERMI, or BAGIRMI, a district or kingdom of Centhe name of Bagdad, and may thus very possibly represent tral Africa. lying to the S. of Lake Chad and S.W. of Bornu. the after site of the capital of the caliphs. According to It extends about 240 miles from N. to S., and has a the Arabian writers, however, there were no traces of former breadth of barely 150 miles. The surface is almost flat, habitation when Al Mansúr laid the foundation of the with a slight inclination to the N., and the general elevanew city. It was adorned with many noble and stately tion is about 950 feet above sea-level. The Shari, a large edifices by the magnificence of the renowned Haroun el and always navigable river, forms the western boundary, Raschid, who also built on the eastern side of the river, and throws out an important effluent called the Bachikam, connecting the two quarters of the town by a bridge of which passes through the heart of the country. The soil boats. Under the auspices of Zobeide, the wife of that consists partly of lime and partly of sand, and is by no prince, and Jaffer the Barmecide, his favourite, the city may means unfertile. In many parts not a stone is to be seen. be said to have attained its greatest splendour. It con- Negro-millet, sesamum, and sorghum are the principal tinued to flourish and increase, and to be the seat of ele- grains in cultivation, but rice grows wild, and several kinds gance and learning, until the 656th year of the Hegira of grass or poa are used as food by the natives. Cotton (1277 A.D.), when Hulaku the Tatar, the grandson of and indigo are grown to a considerable extent, especially Genghis Khan, took it by storm, and extinguished the by Bornu immigrants. Among the trees the most importdynasty of the Abbassides. The Tatars retained possession ant are the tamarind, the deleb-palm, the dum-palm, the of Baghdad till about the year 1400 of our era, when it was hajilij or Balanites ægyptiaca, the sycamore,

and the taken by Timur, from whom the Sultan Ahmed Ben cornel. The country often suffers from drought, and is Avis tled, and finding refuge with the Greek emperor, greatly plagued with worms and insects, especially ants of contrived afterwards to repossess himself of the city, whence all kinds, red, black, and white. The Kungjungjudu, a he was finally expelled by Kara Yusef in 1417. In 1477 sort of beetle which does great damage to the crops, is eaten his descendants were driven out by Usum Cassim, who by the natives. A large proportion of the people have reigned 39 years in Baghdad, when Shah Ishmael the First, their feet mutilated by the attacks of a small worm, which the founder of the royal house of Sefí, made himself master takes up its residence in the first joint of the little toe and of it. From that time it continued for a long period an

eats it gradually away.

The inhabitants of Baghermi are object of contention between the Turks and Persians. a vigorous, well-formed race, who, according to their own It was taken by Soliman the Magnificent, and retaken by traditions, came from the Far East several centuries ago. Shah Abbas the Great; and it was afterwards besieged by They speak a language cognate with those spoken by the Amurath the Fourth, with an army of 390,000 men. Sara, who dwell about two degrees further south, and the After an obstinate resistance, it was forced to surrender Dor, who are situated at the confluence of the Dyor with 1638 A.D. ; when, in defiance of the terms of capitu- the White Nile. On their arrival they soon extended their lation, most of the inhabitants were massacred. Since power over the Fellata and Arabs already settled in the

district, and after being converted to Mahometanism under 1 Besides the court of superior officers which assists the pasha in Abd-Allah, their fourth king, they extended their authority the general administration of the province, there is also a Mejlis, or mixed tribunal, for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs,

over a large number of heathen tribes. The most importto which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted. Much, ant of these are the Sokoro, the Bua, the Nyillam, the Sara, of course, depends on the individual character of the pasha, but, on the the mok, and the Busso. They are almost all in a low whole, justice is fairly administered, and with less disposition perhaps

state of civilisation, and practise strange superstitions—a to press on the non-Mussulman portion of the population than in any other city of Asiatic Turkey. The Jewish and Christian communities,

belief in a god whom they identify with thunder being the indeed, from their wealth, intelligence, and long standing in the greatest extent of their religion. They are subject to country, enjoy an exceptionally favourable social position, and live on the barbarous raids of their Baghermian masters, who derive terms of equality with their Mahometan neighbours. Baghdad is also the headquarters of the army of Irak, and regular the tribute demanded from them in their turn by the sultan

from them a constant supply of slaves with which to pay troops to the amount of five or six thousand men of all arms are usually kept together in the city, while an equal force is distributed in

of Bornu. For our knowledge of this district we are prinsmall garrisons in the Arab and Kurdish districts. Baghdad, after cipally indebted to Barth and Nachtigal; the former was paying all its experises, remits about £100,000 per annum to the imperial treasury, but its resources are capable of almost indefinite

for some time a prisoner in Masseña, the capital. development, and there is indeed no reason why the valleys of the

See Barth, Travels in Northern and Central Africa in Tigris and Euphrates should not , under an enlightened government, 1849–53, vol. iii., and Nachtigal, in Petermann's Mittheil

. yield a revenue fully equal to that of the valley of the Nile.

for 1874, and in Zeitsch. d. Ges. f. Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1875.

BAGHMATI, a river of Hindustán, which has its source | It is celebrated for its sulphurous thermal springs, which in the hills to the north of Kátmandu, the capital of Nepál, vary in temperature from 889 to 180° Fahr. The bathwhence it flows in a southerly direction through the district ing establishment is one of the most complete in Europe. of Tirhut in the province of Behar, and, receiving the The waters are employed with success in a variety of waters of the Buchia on its north bank, and of Burá Gandak chronic affections, and about 10,000 patients visit the town on its south bank, joins the Ganges, after a course of 285 annually. Resident population, about 3600. miles, in 25° 23' N. lat. and 86° 34' E. long., about 8 miles BAGPIPE (Fr. musette, Ger. Sackpfeife, Ital. cornamusa), below the town of Monghir, but on the opposite bank. a musical instrument of unknown antiquity, which seems

BAGLIVI, Giorgio, an illustrious Italian physician, to have been at one time or other in common use among descended from a poor persecuted Armenian family, was all the nations of Europe, and still retains its place in born at Ragusa in 1669, and assumed the name of his many Highland districts, such as Calabria, the Tyrol, and adoptive father, Pietro Angelo Baglivi, a wealthy physician the Highlands of Scotland. The wind is generally supplied of Lecce. He studied successively at the universities of by a blowpipe, though in some cases bellows are used. Salerno, Padua, and Bologna ; and after travelling over These and other slight variations, however, involve no Italy, he went in 1602 to Rome, where, through the in- essential difference in character or construction, and a fluence of the celebrated Malpighi, he was elected professor description of the great bagpipe of the Highlands of of anatomy in the college of Sapienza. He died at Rome Scotland will serve to indicate the leading features of the in 1707, at the early age of thirty-eight. A collection of instrument in all its forms. It consists of a large windhis writings, which are all in the Latin language, was bag made of greased leather covered with woollen cloth; a published in 4to in 1704, and has been several times mouth-tube, valved, by which the bag is inflated with the reprinted in the same form. An edition in 2 vols. 8vo player's breath; three reed drones; and a reed chanter with was published in 1788. Baglivi's work De Fibra Motrice, is finger-holes, on which the tunes are played. Of the three the foundation of that theory of medicine which was substi- drones, one is long and two are short. The longest is tuned tuted by Hoffmann and Cullen for the Humoral Pathology. to A, an octave below the lowest A of the chanter, and the

BAGNACAVALLO, BARTOLOMMEO, an Italian painter, two shorter drones are tuned each an octave above the A who flourished about the beginning of the 16th century. of the longest drone; or, in other words, in unison with His real name was Ramenghi, but he received the cogno- the lowest A of the chanter. The scale of the chanter men Bagnacavallo from the little village where he was has a compass of nine notes, all natural, extending from G born in 1484. He studied first under Francia, and then on the second line of the treble stave up to A in alt. In proceeded to Rome, where he became a pupil of Raffaelle. the music performed upon this instrument, the players While studying under him he worked along with many others introduce among the simple notes of the tune a kind of at the decoration of the gallery in the Vatican, though it appoggiatura, consisting of a great number of rapid notes is not known what portions are his work. On his return of peculiar embellishment, which they term warblers. No to Bologna he quickly took the leading place as an artist, exact idea of these warblers can be formed except by hearand to him were due the great improvements in the ing a first-rate player upon the Highland bagpipe. The general style of what has been called the Bolognese history of the bagpipe can be clearly traced from the school. His works were considered to be inferior in point earliest periods by means of pictorial representations and of design to some other productions of the school of references occurring in literature. The instrument probably Raffaelle, but they were distinguished by rich colouring consisted at first of the pipes without the bag, and in this and graceful delineation. They were highly esteemed by form it is mentioned in Scripture (1 Sam. x. 5; Isa. v. 12; Guido and the Carracci, who studied them carefully and Jer. xlviii. 36), and was used by the Egyptians, the in some points imitated them. The best specimens of Greeks, and the Romans. The strain upon the player of Bagnacavallo's works, the Dispute of St Augustin and a these pipes was so great that he had to bandage up his lips Madonna with Child, are at Bologna. He died in 1542. and cheeks with a φορβεία Or περιστόμιον, the Roman BAGNÈRES-DE-BIGORRE (the Vicus Aquensis of capistrum, a leathern muzzle or headstall

. It seems very the Romans), the capital of an arrondissement in the depart- probable that the bagpipe derived its origin from these ment of Hautes-Pyrénées, is situated on the left bank of double and triple reed-pipes, by the after addition to them the Adour, 13 miles S.E. of Tarbes. It is one of the princi- of a wind-bag made of the skin of a goat or kid, together pal watering places in France, and is much admired for its with a valved porte-vent, in order to relieve the strain on picturesque situation and the beauty of its environs, parti- the lungs and cheeks of the player. There are several cularly the valley of Campan, which abounds with beautiful evidences that the bagpipe was well known in the time of gardens and handsome villas. The town is remarkably Nero. It is represented on a coin of that reign, copied in neat and clean, and many of the houses are built or orna- Montfaucon's Antiquities, and Suetonius (Ner., 54) speaks mented with marble. Its thermal springs and baths are of a promise made by Nero shortly before his death, that numerous and varied, and are very efficacious in debility of he would appear before the people as a bagpiper (utricuthe digestive organs and other maladies. Their temperature larius). In medieval Latin the instrument is designated is from 90° to 135° Fahr. The season commences in May the Tibia utricularia. Chaucer represents the miller as and terminates about the end of October, during which skilled in playing the bagpipe; and Shakspeare's familiar time the population is more than doubled. Manu- allusion to “ the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe” is suffifactures of woollen cloth, worsted, leather, pottery, and cient of itself to disprove the common notion that the toys are carried on, and marble from the neighbouring instrument has always been peculiar to Scotland. quarries is wrought in the town. Greatly frequented BAGRATION, PETER, PRINCE, a distinguished Russian by the Romans, and destroyed by the Gothic invaders, general, descended from the noble Georgian family of Bagnères begins to appear again in history in the 12th the Bagratides, was born in 1765. In 1782 he entered century, and rose into permanent importance under the the Russian army and served for some years in the Caucasus. reign of Jeanne d'Albert, the mother of Henry IV. Per-In 1788 he was engaged in the siege of Oczacow, and aftermanent population, about 9500.

wards accompanied Suwaroff, by whom he was highly BAGNÈRES-DE-LUCHON, a small well-built town of esteemed, through all his Italian and Swiss campaigns. France, department of Haute-Garonne, pleasantly situated He particularly distinguished himself in 1799 by the in the valley of the Luchon, at the foot of the Pyrenees. capture of the town of Brescia. In the wars of 1805 his achievements were even more brilliant. With a small force desired junction at Smolensk. He was mortally wounded he withstood for several hours the united troops of Murat in the bloody battle of the Borodino, 7th Sept. 1812, and and Lannes, and though half his men fell, the retreat of died one month later. the main army under Kutusoff was thereby secured. At BAHAMAS, or LUCAYAS, a very numerous group of Austerlitz he had the command of the advanced guard of islands, cays, rocks, and reefs, comprising an area of 3021 Prince Lichtenstein's column, and at Eylau and Friedland square miles, lying between 21° 42' and 27° 34' N. lat. and he fought with the most resolute and stubborn courage. 72° 40' and 79° 5' W. long. They encircle and almost enclose In 1808 he commanded in Finland, and in 1809 in Turkey, the Gulf of Mexico, stretching more than 600 miles from and was almost uniformly successful in his operations. In the eastern coast of Florida to the northern coast of St the famous Russian campaign of 1812 the corps under his | Domingo, and are traversed by only three navigable leadership had been separated from the main army under channels-Ist, the Florida Channel to the N., which Barclay de Tolly, and was defeated by Davoust at runs along the coast of the United States and lies to the Mohilev. Bagration, however, succeeded in effecting the westward of the whole Bahama group; 2d, the Providence

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Sketch-Map of the Bahama Islands. Channels, passing through the group to the N., and limestone, honeycombed and perforated with innumerable separating the Great and Little Banks; and 3d, the old cavities, without a trace of primitive or volcanic rock; the Bahama Channel, which passes to the S. of the Great Bahama surface is as hard as flint, but underneath it gradually Bank, between it and Cuba. The islands lie for the most softens and furnishes an admirable stone for building, part on the windward edge of the Great and Little Banks, which can be sawn into blocks of any size, these or of the ocean sounds or tongues which pierce them. The hardening on exposure to the atmosphere. The shores total number of islands is 29, while the cays are reckoned are generally low, the highest hill in the whole range of at 661, and the rocks at 2387. The principal islands are the islands being only 230 feet high. The soil, although very New Providence (which contains the capital Nassau), Abaco, thin, is very fertile. On Andros Island and on Abaco there Harbour Island, Eleuthera, Inagua, Mayaguana, St Salva- is much large timber, including mahogany, mastic, lignum dor, Andros Island, Great Bahama, Ragged Island, Rum vitæ, iron, and bullet woods, and many others

. UnfortuCay, Exuma, Long Island, Crooked Island, Acklin Island, nately the want both of labour and of roads renders it imLong Cay, Watling Island, the Berry Islands, and possible to turn this valuable timber to useful account. The the Biminis. Turk's Island and the Caicos, which be- fruits and spices of the Bahamas are very numerous,-the long geographically to the Bahama group, were separated fruit equalling any in the world. The produce of the islands politically in 1848. The formation of all the islands is includes tamarinds, olives, oranges, lemons, limes, citrons, the same, --calcareous rocks of coral and shell hardened into pomegranates, pine-apples, figs, sapodillas, bananas, sower

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