« EelmineJätka »
sops, melons, yams, potatoes, gourds, cucumbers, pepper, of the attempts made to develop the resources of the island; cassava, prickly pears, sugar cane, ginger, coffee, indigo, but the repeated attacks of the Spaniards, and the tyranny Guinea corn and pease. Tobacco and cascarilla bark also and mismanagement of the governors, proved great obstacles flourish ; and cotton is indigenous, and was woven into cloth to success. In July 1703 the French and Spaniards made by the aborigines.
a descent on New Providence, blew up the fort, spiked the It is a remarkable fact that except in the island of Andros, guns, burnt the church, and carried off the governor, with no streams of running water are to be found in the whole the principal inhabitants, to the Havannah ; and in October group. The inhabitants derive their water supply from the Spaniards made a second descent, and completed the wells, the rain-water in which appears to have some con work of destruction. It is said that when the last of the nection with the sea, as the contents of the wells rise and governors appointed by the lords proprietors, in ignorance fall with the tide upon the neighbouring shore. The Baha of the Spanish raid, arrived in New Providence, he found mas are far poorer in their fauna than in their flora. It the island without an inhabitant. It soon, however, is said that the aborigines had a breed of dogs which did became the resort of pirates, and the names of many of not bark, and a small coney is also mentioned. The guana the worst of these ruffians is associated with New Provialso is indigenous to the islands. Oxen, sheep, horses, dence, the notorious Blackbeard being chief among the and other live stock introduced from Europe, thrive well, number, At last matters became so intolerable that the but of latè years very little attention has been paid to merchants of London and Bristol petitioned the Crown stock rearing, and Nassau has been dependent upon Cuba to take possession and restore order, and Captain Woods for its beef, and on the United States or Nova Scotia Rogers was sent out as the first Crown governor, and for its mutton. There are many varieties of birds to arrived at New Providence in 1718. Many families be found in the woods of the Bahamas ; they include of good character now settled at the Bahamas, and some flamingoes and the beautiful humming-bird, as well as wild progress was made in developing the resources of the colony, geese, ducks, pigeons, hawks, green parrots, and doves. The although this was interrupted by the tyrannical conduct of waters of the Bahamas swarm with fish, and the turtle pro some of the governors who succeeded Captain Woods cured here is particularly fine. In the southerly islands Rogers. At this time the pine-apple was introduced as an there are salt ponds of great value.
article of cultivation at Eleuthera ; and a few years subseThe story of the Bahamas is a singular one, and bears quently, during the American war of independence, principally upon the fortunes of New Providence, which, colonists arrived in great numbers, bringing with them from the fact that it alone possesses a perfectly safe harbour wealth and also slave labour. Cotton cultivation was now for vessels drawing more than 9 feet, has always been the attempted on a large scale. In 1783, at Long Island, 800 seat of Government, when it was not the headquarters of slaves were at work, and nearly 4000 acres of land under lawless villainy. St Salvador (Cat Island, or as some sup cultivation. But the usual bad luck of the Bahamas prepose, Watling Island), however, claims historical precedence vailed; the red bug destroyed the cotton crops in 1788, as the landfall of Columbus on his memorable voyage. and again in 1794, and by the year 1800 cotton cultivaHe passed through the islands, and in one of his letters to tion was almost abandoned. There were also other causes Ferdinand and Isabella he said, “ This country excels all that tended to retard the progress of the colony. In others as far as the day surpasses the night in splendour; | 1776 Commodore Hopkins, of the American navy, took the natives love their neighbours as themselves; their con the island of New Providence; he soon, however, abanversation is the sweetest imaginable; their faces always doned it as untenable, but in 1782 it was retaken by smiling; and so gentle and so affectionate are they, that I the Spanish governor of Cuba.
the Spanish governor of Cuba. The Spaniards retained swear to your highness there is not a better people in the nominal possession of the Bahamas until 1783, but before world.” But the natives, innocent as they appeared, were peace was notified New Providence was recaptured by a doomed to utter destruction. Ovando, the governor of loyalist, Colonel Deveaux, of the South Carolina militia, in Hispaniola, who had exhausted the labour of that island, June 1783. In 1787, the descendants of the old lords turned his thoughts to the Bahamas, and in 1509 Ferdinand proprietors received each a grant of £2000 in satisfaction authorised him to procure labourers from these islands. of their claims, and the islands were formally reconveyed It is said that reverence and love for their departed rela- to the Crown. The Bahamas began again to make a little tives was a marked feature in the character of the abori- progress, until the separation of Turks and Caicos Islands gines, and that the Spaniards made use of this as a bait to in 1848, which had been hitherto the most productive trap the unhappy natives. They promised to convey the of the salt-producing islands, unfavourably affected the ignorant savages in their ships to the “heavenly shores, finances. Probably the abolition of the slave-trade in where their departed friends now dwelt, and about 40,000 1834 was not without its effect upon the fortunes of the were transported to Hispaniola to perish miserably in the landed proprietors. mines. From that date until after colonisation of New The next event of importance in the history of the Providence by the English, there is no record of a Spanish Bahamas was the rise of the blockade-running trade, convisit to the Bahamas, with the exception of the extraordinary sequent on the closing of the southern ports of America cruise of Juan Ponce de Leon, the conqueror of Porto Rico, by the Federals in 1861. At the commencement of 1865 who passed months searching the islands for “ Bimini," this trade was at its highest point. In January and which was reported to contain the miraculous “ Fountain February 1865 no less than 20 steamers arrived at Nassau, of Youth."
importing 14,182 bales of cotton, valued at £554,675. The deserted islands were first visited by the English The extraordinary difference between the normal trade of the in 1629, and a settlement formed in New Providence, islands and that due to blockade-running, will be seen by which they held till 1641, when the Spaniards expelled comparing the imports and exports before the closing of them but made no attempt to settle there themselves. the southern ports in 1860 with those of 1864. In the The English again took possession in 1667, and in 1680 former year the imports were £234,029, and the exports Charles II. made a grant of the islands to George, Duke £157,350, while in the latter year the imports were of Albemarle ; William, Lord Craven; Sir George Carteret; £5,346,112, and the exports, £4,672,398. The exciteJohn, Lord Berkeley; Anthony, Lord Ashley; and Sir Peter ment, extravagance, and waste existing at Nassau during Colleton. Governors were appointed by the lords proprie- the days of blockade-running exceed belief. Individuals tors, and there are very copious records in the state papers may have profited largely, but the Bahamas probably
benefited little. The Government managed to pay its been of late years a marked diminution in the number of debt amounting to £43,786, but crime increased, and marine casualties, which in past times threw into the sickness became very prevalent. The cessation of the ports of the colony a large amount of valuable property, trade was marked, however, by hardly any disturbance; of which a great part was frequently exported. The there were no local failures, and in a few months the erection of lighthouses, the diversion of trade from the steamers and their crews departed, and New Providence southern ports of America, and the increased use of steam, subsided into its usual state of quietude. This, however, have all tended to this decline of the wreckers' trade, and was not fated to last long, for in October 1866 a most it is said that the people of Harbour Island, at one time viclent hurricane passed over the island, injuring the the great stronghold of the wreckers, have now all turned orchards, destroying the fruit-trees, and damaging the their attention to the cultivation of pine-apples. In 1864 sponges, which had proved hitherto a source of profit. the number of wrecks reported was, including complete The hurricane, too, was followed by repeated droughts, and partial, 67, while in 1871 it was but 39. and the inhabitants of the out-islands were reduced to The colony is divided into 13 parishes, although the indigence and want. There was an increase, however, in division is now used for civil purposes only. An Act to the production of salt. The exports as a whole fell off. amend the ecclesiastical laws of the colony was assented to Those of native produce, which in 1866 had been on the 1st of June 1869, and confirmed on the 7th of £77,604, were reduced in 1867 to £71,117, and the October 1869, and the Church of England at the Bahamas remaining exports of 1866, amounting to £184,372, were, disestablished. The population of the islands taken at in 1867, £156,131. The depression has continued almost the census of 1871 was 39,162 (being an increase in the to the present time (1875). The public debt paid off decennial period since 1861 of 3875), of whom 19,349 were during the days of the blockade-running swelled again to a males, and 19,813 females. With regard to race, it may sum of £54,161, 13s. 2d., and the revenue until very lately be said that the native and coloured inhabitants now was steadily on the decline. It was £47,530 in 1870, enormously outnumber the white colonists. The last return while the expenditure was £18,598, and in 1872 there showing the varieties of race was published in 1826 ; the was a further decrease of revenue to £37,574, with an population was 16,033, of whom 4588 were white, 2259 expenditure of £39,000. In 1873 there was, however, coloured, and 9186 black; since then the proportion of an improvement. The revenue rose to £44,053, the ex coloured and black to white has increased. The health of penditure being only £42,737. The improvement in the the colony has been improving of late years; the death-rate finances is due principally, it would seem, to the readjust- of 1872 was only 17.9 in 1000. The total births were ment of the customs' duties. In a recent Blue Book it | 1475 against 704 deaths. The climate of the Bahamas is stated that the Government in 1873 increased the has always borne a reputation for salubrity. The mean of duties on ale, brandy, gin, rum, and whisky by 50 per a series of daily observations of temperature for 10 years cent.; on cigars and tobacco, by 100 per cent; and on wine is as follows:by 200 per cent. As regards other articles the Assembly at the same time relieved the general consumer by
Height of Thermometer in Degrees Fahr, at 9 A.M.
71 they reduced the tonnage and wharfage dues. They also
72 abolished a licence fee, payable hitherto by the men April
68 employed as wreckers, and they repealed a special income May.
71 tax levied upon public officers. The last colonial report
75 expresses a hope and a belief that the sound financial con
75 dition to which the colony has been restored will continue. September
75 The hope, however, hardly seems justified at present by
73 In 1870 the November
74 the commercial progress of the Bahamas.
69 imports were of the value of £283,970. In 1872 they had fallen to £201,051, and in 1873 they had increased. The rainfall is heavy from May to October. During the to £226,306. In like manner the exports of 1873 con winter months it is small, and from the month of Novemtrasted favourably with those of 1872, having increased ber up to April the climate of New Providence is most from £136,224 to £156,613. But the increase in exports agreeable. Advantage has been taken of this for many is due to the development of trade in articles, such as pine- years by the inhabitants of the mainland of America, apples and oranges, the production of which is uncertain, since who can escape by a four days' voyage from the icy a season's crop may perish in a hurricane. The sponge trade winter of New York to the perpetual summer of the is not so prosperous as it should be, the Spanish authori- Bahamas. New Providence has gained a name as a resort ties, it appears, interfering with the spongers working on for the consumptive, and perhaps justly so far as the the reefs near Cuba; while the excessive duty levied in the Anglo-Saxon race is concerned, but the Africans and United States on salt has almost paralysed the salt-making coloured races suffer greatly from diseases of the lungs, and trade of the Bahamas. The total number of pine-apples the black troops stationed at Nassau have always been exported to the United States and England in 1873 was notorious for the proportion of men invalided from con422,994 dozen, valued at £38,767. To this must be sumptive disease. The principal religious denominations added the tinned fruit, a branch of industry introduced are the Wesleyan, Baptist, Church of England, and in 1872. Pine-apples in tins were exported in the follow- Presbyterian. The following figures represent approxiing year to the number of 69,165 dozen, valued at mately the number of persons generally attending the £13,018, and cases of pine-apples from the same establish- churches and chapels of the several denominations : ment to the value of £1712. The exportation of other Wesleyan, 7370; Baptist, 7971; Church of England, fruit was—of oranges, 2,252,000, valued at £3822; of 4250 ; Presbyterian, 300. There is no Roman Catholic Bananas, 7172 bunches, valued at £346; and about £700 place of worship in the islands, and the members of worth of grape-fruit, shaddocks, lemons, limes, and melons. that church are very few in number. The constitution of One great and profitable business at the Bahamas has the Bahamas consists of a governor, aided by an executivo decreased, and is not likely to flourish again. There has council of 9 members, a legislative council of 9 members,
Min. 66 66 66
78 81 84 88 88 88 86 82 79
and a representative assembly of 28 members. The BAHIA, or, in full, SAN SALVADOR DA BAHIA DE TODOS qualifications of electors are full age, a residence of twelve os Santos, a large city, and, till 1763, the capital of Brazil, months, six of which must have been as a freeholder, or a resi- is situated on the S.E. coast on the Bay of All Saints, dence of six months and a payment of duties to the amount from which it takes its name, in 13° S. lat., and 38° 20' W. of £26, Os. 10d. The qualification of members is possession long. Built partly along the foot and partly on the top of an estate of real or personal property to the value of of a steep hill, it consists of an upper and lower town, com£500. The executive is composed partly of official and munication between the two being effected by large flights partly of unofficial members, the latter have usually a of steps, and since 1873 by a powerful hydraulic elevator. seat in one of the branches of the legislature. There are The carrying of goods and passengers up and down these 35 Government schools in the Bahamas, 5 of which are stairway-streets affords employment to a large number of in New Providence, and 30 in the out islands. These negro porters and chairmen. The lower town, or Praya, schools are managed by an education board composed of consists mainly of one long and narrow street, with still 5 or more members, with the governor as president. The narrower and more tortuous lanes. The houses are built legislative grant for educational purposes is £2200 a year, of stone, and many of them are several stories high. This exclusive of the salary of the inspector of schools, who is is the business part of the city, where are situated the
the civil establishment on a salary of £200. quays, docks, warehouses, custom-houses, exchange, and The number of children on the books is about 3006, and arsenal; and here the sailors, porters, and lower classes there are 1200 in addition attending schools in connection generally reside. The church of Nostra Señora da Praya with the Church of England. It is calculated that about is remarkable as having been built of stones that were 55 per cent. of the children between 5 and 15 attend school. hewn in Lisbon and shipped across the ocean. The isolation of the settlements, the low salaries of the city has wide and well-paved streets, open squares, and teachers, and the indifference of parents, are great obstacles pleasant promenades, adorned with orange trees and banato the spread of sound education in the Bahamas.
The most important is the Passeio Publico, which was There are numerous lighthouses in the group, the princi- opened in 1814, and overlooks the beautiful bay. There pal being at Gun Cay, Abaco, Cay Sal, Great Isaacks, Cay is no city in Brazil that can vie with Bahia in the number Lobos, Stirrups Cay, Elbow Cay, Castle Island, Hoy Island, and splendour of its ecclesiastical buildings, among which and Athol Island. The chief institutions of the Bahamas the Jesuits' college, now used as a hospital, and the are to be found in New Providence. They include a savings' cathedral, which is built of marble, are pre-eminent. There bank, a public library, a well-conducted newspaper press, the are likewise numerous educational institutions, includAgricultural Society, Bahama Institute, Fire Brigade, the ing a lyceum (in which Latin, Greek, French, and English, New Providence Asylum, Public Dispensary, St Andrew's mathematics, philosophy, &c., are taught), a theological Charitable Society, a provincial grand lodge of freemasons, seminary, and a medical academy, which is supported by &c. There are also libraries at Dunmore Town, in Harbour the imperial Government, and has about 400 students. The Island, at Matthew Town, Inagua, at New Plymouth, at museum and public library also deserve mention. Among Abaco, &c.
(J. T. W. B.) the buildings connected with the civic and commercial actiBAHIA, a province of the Brazilian empire, situated on vity of the city are the government-house, the court-house, the S.E. coast, and extending from the Rio Grande do the mint, and the town-house; also the Alfandega, where all Belmonte in the S. to the Rio Real in the N.
in the N. It foreign importations have to be entered, and the Consolado, is bounded by Sergipe and Pernambuco on the N., by where all native productions are registered for exportation. Piauhi on the N.W., by Goyaz on the W., and on the S. There are likewise a number of banks and commercial assoby Minas Geraes and Espirito Santo. It has an area of ciations of various kinds. Bahia has long been a place of 202,272 square miles, and its population is stated at great traffic. The streets of the upper city are very in1,450,000. Bahia sends 14 deputies to the general conveniently paved, but the city and its suburbs are now assembly of the empire, and 7 senators to the upper house, connected by street railways, two running in the upper town while its own legislative assembly consists of 36 members. and one in the lower. Bomsim is the name of the northern Besides Bahia the capital, Olivença, Branca, Jacobina, and suburb, and Victoria that of the southern ; the foreign Joazeira are important towns. A hain of mountains, merchants for the most part reside in the latter. The broken into numerous sierras, runs from N. to S. commerce principally consists in the exportation of cotton, through the province at the distance of 200 miles from the coffee, sugar, rum, tobacco, and rosewood, and the importation coast, while the intermediate district gradually rises in suc of miscellaneous foreign goods. The value of the imports cessive terraces. The maritime region, the so-called Recon- in 1870 was £1,671,676, of which £885,206 belonged cavo, is remarkably fertile, and is studded with thriving to Britain. The exports of the same year were valued at towns and villages, but the interior is often very dry and £1,790,928. The bay is one of the finest in America, and barren, and is only thinly peopled in many places with is well defended by forts. The entrance is protected by wandering Botacudos
. The main sources of the wealth of the the large island of Itaparica, which has upwards of 16,000 province are cotton, coffee, sugar, and tobacco, all of which inhabitants, of whom more than 7000 are collected in the are cultivated with the greatest success. Mandioc, rice, town of San Gonzalo. A large number of these are embeans, and maize are grown; also jalap, ipecacuanha, and ployed in the whale-fishery, which has greatly fallen off, saffron, as well as oranges, mangoes, and various other however, from its former prosperity. fruits. A large portion is still covered with primeval forest, Bahia was visited in 1503 by Amerigo Vespucci. The but the woodman is rapidly diminishing the extent. The first settlement was founded and called San Salvador by mineral wealth of the province is but partially explored and Diego Alvarez Correa, who had been shipwrecked on the still more partially utilised. In 1844 diamond mines were coast; but the Portuguese governor who gave formal discovered to the N. of the River Peraguass, and, till the existence to the city was Thomas de Souza, who landed in deposits near the Cape of Good Hope were brought to 1549. It owed its increase to the Jesuits, who defended light, afforded employment to a large number of garim- it against the English in 1588. In 1623 it fell into the peiros or "washers." "The discovery of amethysts at Catité hands of the Dutch, who held it for two years. In 1823 in 1872 attracted numerous searchers; and about the same it was surrendered by the Portuguese to the Brazilian time coal was found in the island of Itaparica. Gold is nationality. A revolution, which broke out in the city in present in the alluvium of the River San Francisco. 1837, was suppressed by the imperial Government. The
first printing-press was introduced in 1811, and the traffic in the island itself is great and various, the harbour first sugar-mill in 1823. In 1858 railway communication of Manama, which admits vessels of 200 tons, being largely was established to Joazeiro.
frequented by ships from Persia, Sindh, India, &c. This BAHRDT, Karl FRIEDRICH, a German theologian, town, which has in some respects supplanted the older and distinguished for his extreme rationalism and his erratic more inland Ruffin, is well built, and contains about 25,000 life, was born in 1741 at Bischofswerda, of which place his inhabitants; and there are besides about 15 villages in the father, afterwards professor of theology at Leipsic, was island. There is a city of almost equal extent in the for some time pastor. He was educated chiefly at the neighbouring and smailer island of Mohanek, but the celebrated school of Pforta, and afterwards entered the trade is not so great. Bahrein has from a remote period university of Leipsic, where he studied theology, and at been famous for its pearl fishery, which produces the finest first attached himself to the strongly orthodox party headed pearls in the world. The Portuguese obtained possession by Crusius. After graduation he lectured for a time as of the islands in 1507, but were driven from their settleadjunct to his father, and then with the rank of catechist ments in that quarter by Shah Abbas in 1622. The islands proceeded to Leipsic, where he became exceedingly popular afterwards became an object of contention between the as a preacher, and was appointed extraordinary professor of Persians and Arabs, and at last the Arabian tribe of the Biblical philology. During this period of his life he pub- Athubis made themselves masters of them in 1784. Since lished a popular book of devotions, called the Christian in then they have been for some time subject more or less Solitude. In 1768 the notorious irregularity of his conduct to the Wahabees, whose interference has greatly damaged necessitated his resignation and his departure from Leipsic. the commerce of the ports, and led to extensive emigration By some influence he obtained a professorship of Biblical of the inhabitants. (See Palgrave, in J. Roy. Geo. Soc., antiquities in the philosophical faculty of the new univer- vol. xxxiv.) sity of Erfurt, and having procured a theological degree BAIÆ, an ancient town of Campania, Italy, situated from Erlangen, he again began to read theological lectures. between the promontory of Misenum and Puteoli, on the His orthodoxy had by this time completely vanished; he Sinus Baianus, and famous for its warm springs and baths, was an avowed rationalist of the extreme school, and with which served the wealthier Romans for the purposes both of great diligence and ability sought to popularise the prin health and pleasure. The variety of these baths, the mildciples of his creed. At the same time his bitter and ness of the climate, and the beauty of the landscape, captiquarrelsome disposition embroiled him with his colleagues, vated the minds of the opulent nobles. The habitations and in 1771 he left Erfurt, but obtained another professor at first were small and modest ; but increasing luxury ship at Giessen. Here also the bold expression of his added palace to palace, and enterprising architects, supported opinions cut short his tenure of office; in 1775 he resigned by boundless wealth, laid the foundations of new erections and became director of Von Salis's educational establish- in the sea. From being a place of occasional resort for a ment, the philanthropin at Marschlins, a post he held for season, Baiæ grew up into a city, and the confluence of only one year. For a brief period he acted as general wealthy inhabitants rendered it as much a miracle of art superintendent at Dürkheim, and then endeavoured, but as it had before been of nature, though it never attained unsucessfully, to set up an educational institution at the rank of a municipium, but continued to be dependent Heidesheim. He had now become most obnoxious to the on Cumæ. C. Marius, Lucullus, Pompey, and Julius Cæsar German Government, who prohibited him from lecturing or are among the most remarkable of those who gave éclat to publishing any work on theology, or from holding any Baiæ during the republic; and at a later period it was a professorial office. In 1779 he took refuge in Halle, favourite resort of Nero, Caligula, Hadrian, and Severus. where he resided for ten years, lecturing in the forenoon on It flourished till the days of Theodoric the Goth; but its moral philosophy, and officiating in the afternoon as land- destruction followed quickly upon the irruption of the lord of a public-house which he had opened at the gate of northern conquerors. When the guardian hand of man was the town, and which was largely patronised by the students. withdrawn, the sea reclaimed its old domain ; moles and In 1789 he was arrested, partly on account of a pasquinade buttresses were washed away; and promontories, with the he had written upon the Prussian religious edict, and was proud towers that once crowned their brows, were undercondemned to two years' imprisonment. The period of his mined and tumbled into the deep. Innumerable ruins, confinement, reduced by the king to one year, was employed heaps of marble, mosaics, and other relics of the past, by Bahrdt in writing memorials of his life and opinions. attest the ancient splendour of the city. The most remarkAfter his release he continued his former course of life, and able are the so-called temples of Mercury, Venus, and died after a severe illness, 23d April 1792. His numerous Diana, and various buildings which, rightly or wrongly, works, including a translation of the New Testament, are have been assigned to the more famous of those who are comparatively worthless, and are written in an offensive known to have had villas in the town. The Castello di tone. He has been well called by Herzog a caricature of Baja was built in the 16th century by Pietro di Toledo. the rationalism of the 18th century.
Long. 14° 3' E., lat. 40° 50' N. BAHREIN, the principal island of a cluster in the BAIBURT, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the pashalic Persian Gulf, in an indentation of the Arabian coast. of Erzeroum, and 65 miles W.N.W. from that city. AccordIt is about 70 miles long and nearly 25 broad, and is ing to Neumann it was an Armenian fortress in the 1st very flat and low except towards the east, where a century, and it is identified by Ritter with the Baiberdon range of hills attain an elevation of 800 or 900 feet. fortified by Justinian. It was afterwards one of the strongThe climate is mild, but humid, and rather unhealthy. holds of the Genoese, when prosecuting their trade with The soil is for the most part fertile, and produces rice, India. Remains of their fortifications still exist, but in a pot herbs, and fruits, of which the citrons are especi- very dilapidated state, the Russians having blown up the ally good.' Water is abundant, but frequently brackish. defences in 1829. (See view in Yule's Marco Polo, vol. i.) Fish of all kinds abound off the coast, and are very cheap Population of town about 6000. in the markets. The inhabitants are a mixed race of Arab, BAÏF, JEAN ANTOINE DE, poet of the French Renais Omanite, and Persian blood, slender and small in their sance and member of the Pleiad, was the natural son of physical appearance; they possess great activity and in- Lazare de Baïf and an Italian girl. He was born in 1532 at telligence, and are known in all the ports of the Persian Venice, where his father was residing as French ambassador. Gulf for their commercial and industrial ability. The Thanks, perhaps, to the surroundings of his childhood, he
grew up a fanatic for the fine arts, and surpassed in | little steamer Pleiad returned and reached the mouth zeal all the leaders of the Renaissance in France. Besides after a voyage of 118 days without the loss of a single man. writing an immense number of short poems of an amorous The second expedition started in March 1857. After two or congratulatory kind, he translated or paraphrased various years passed in exploring, the navigating vessel was wrecked pieces from Bion, Moschus, Theocritus, Anacreon, Catullus, in passing through some of the rapids of the river, and Dr and Martial. He resided in Paris, enjoyed the continued Baikie was unable longer to keep his party together. All favour of the court, and founded the Académie Royale de returned home but himself; no way daunted, he determined Musique ; his house became famous for the charming con- single-handed to carry out the purposes of the expedition. certs which he gave, entertainments at which Charles IX. Landing from a small boat with one or two native followers and Henry III, frequently flattered him with their presence at the confluence of the Quorra and Benue, he here chose He was a dear friend of Ronsard and the other members the old model farm ground as the base of his future operaof the Pleiad. His works were published in 4_thick tions-a spot memorable from the disasters of the explorvolumes, entitled Amours, Jeux, Passetemps, et Poëmes ing party of 1841. After purchasing the site, and con(1571-74), containing, among much that is now hardly cluding a treaty with the native chief, he proceeded to readable, some pieces of infinite grace and delicacy. He clear the ground, build houses, form enclosures, and pave died in 1589 or 1591. His father, Lazare de Baïf, pub- the way for a future city. Numbers flocked to him from lished a translation of the Electra of Sophocles in 1537, all parts round, and in his settlement were representatives and afterwards a version of the Hecuba, was an elegant of almost all the tribes of Central Africa. To the motley versifier in Latin, and is commended by Joachim du Bellay commonwealth thus formed he acted not merely as ruler, as having introduced certain valuable words into the French but also as physician, teacher, and priest. Before five language.
years he had opened up the navigation of the Niger, made BAIKAL (i.e., Baiakhal, or Abundant Water), a great roads, and established a market, to which the native fresh-water lake of Siberia, in the government of Irkutsk, produce was brought for sale and barter. He had also 397 miles in length from S.W. to N.E., and from 13 to 54 | collected vocabularies of nearly fifty African dialects, and miles in breadth, with an area of about 12,500 square translated portions of the Bible and prayer-book into miles. This vast reservoir is situated 1360 feet above the Housa. Once only during his residence had he to employ level of the sea, in the midst of steep mountain ranges, that armed force against the surrounding tribes. He died on often rise sheer from the water's edge in lofty walls of his way home, at Sierra Leone, in November 1863, aged syenite, gneiss, or conglomerate, while elsewhere their thirty-nine years. An appropriate monument has been sloping flanks are thickly clad with dark forests of conifer- erected to his memory within the nave of the ancient ous trees. The lake is fed by several rivers,--the Upper cathedral of St Magnus. Angara, the Selenga, which descends from the basin of BAIL (Ballium) is used in common law for the freeLake Kossogol, the Barguzin, and others; while the only ing or setting at liberty of one arrested or imprisoned visible outlet is by the Lower Angara, a tributary of the upon any action, either civil or criminal, on surety taken Yenisei. The water is excellent, and is extremely clear, so for
his appearance at a certain day and place. that the bottom can be seen at the depth of 8 fathoms. BAILEN, a town of Spain, in the province of Jaen, The depth of the lake varies from 22 to upwards of 300 24 miles N.N.W. of Jaen. It seems to correspond to the fathoms. It yields abundance of salmon, and there is a ancient Bæcula, where Scipio gained signal victories over profitable fishery of seals on its shores during the whole Hasdrubal, 209 B.C., and over Mago and Masinissa, 206 summer, The climate is extremely severe; and the lake, B.C. (Polyb., x. 38, xi. 20; Liv., xxvii. 18–20, xxviii. 13). which is frozen over from November to May, is almost In the neighbourhood also, in 1812, was fought the great perpetually swept by the wind. It facilitates, however, battle of Navas de Tolosa, where Alphonso VIII. is said.to the Russian trade with China, and that between Irkutsk have left 200,000 Moors dead on the field, with the loss of and Dauria. It is navigated by the Russians in summer, only 25 Christians. Here again, on the 23d of July 1808, and in winter they cross it on the ice. Europeans em the French general Dupont, after a bloody contest of barked on its waters for the first time in 1643. Steam- several days, signed the capitulation of Bailen, by which vessels were introduced in 1846, and the passage across is 17,000 men were delivered up to the Spaniards as prisoners made in about eight hours. Several hot springs and of war. This disaster was the first great blow to the French mineral waters are seen on the margin, and naphtha is arms in the Peninsula. There is nothing remarkable about sometimes found floating on the surface. The lake is between the town, except the ruins of a castle, formerly belonging to 51° 20' and 55° 30' N. lat., and 103° and 110° E. long. the counts of Benavente, and now the property of the The island of Olkhon, near its north shore, is 32 miles Osuna family. Glass and tiles are manufactured, and the long and nearly 10 broad. This island and the southern weaving of cloth and pressing of olives are carried on. borders of the lake are inhabited by Mongolian tribes, Population, 7831. (Madoz, Diccionario; Ukert, vol. x. while towards the north the Tungooses are to be found in p. 379.) gradually diminishing numbers. (See "Description du lac BAILEY, or BAILY, NATHANAEL or NATHAN, an emide Baikal,” trad. du russe par M. Klaproth, in Nouv. Ann. nent English philologist and lexicographer, whose Etymodes Voy. t. xvii. p. 289; Erman's Siberia, 1848; Semenoff, logical English Dictionary, published apparently in 1721, Slovar Ross. Imp.)
was a great improvement on all previous vocabularies, BAIKIE, WILLIAM BALFOUR, M.D., eldest son of and really formed the basis of Johnson's great work. It Captain John Baikie, R.N., was born at Kirkwall
, Orkney, is still worthy of being consulted for information with on the 21st August 1824: He studied at Edinburgh, and, regard to the change of signification in certain words, and on obtaining his degree, joined the royal navy. He early to the date at which others were introduced into the attracted the notice of Sir Roderick Murchison, through language. Bailey had a school at Stepney, near London, whom he was appointed surgeon and naturalist to the and was the author of Dictionarium Domesticum and Niger Expedition of 1854. The death of the senior officer several other educational works. He died in 1742. occurring at Fernando Po, Dr Baikie succeeded to the BAILEY, SAMUEL, an able writer on philosophical and command, The results of the voyage are given in his literary subjects, was born at Sheffield in 1791. His father own and other narratives. Ascending the river about 250 carried on a large general business in that town, and for miles beyond the point reached by former explorers, the some years the son devoted himself to mercantile pur