Page images

resided with his family at Aubagne, and during this period tained his nineteenth year, he received his doctor's degree. of his life was introduced by his friend, M. Cary of He afterwards occasionally visited Paris, where he attracted Marseilles, to the study of classical antiquities, particularly the notice and acquired the friendship of the most distinin the department of numismatics. In 1744 he repaired guished literati of the period. In 1756 he obtained the to Paris, carrying with him a letter of introduction to M. appointment of physician to the military hospital in NorGros de Boze, perpetual secretary of the Academy of mandy attached to the army of observation commanded by Inscriptions and Belles Letters, and keeper of the medals. Marshal d'Estrées. A severe attack of hospital fever comHe became assistant to De Boze, and on the death of the pelled him to leave this post; but the numerous cases latter in 1753, was appointed his successor. In the which had come under his notice furnished materials for following year he was enabled to pay a visit to Italy, and several papers contributed to the Memoirs of the Academy spent some time in that country, inspecting its rich of Sciences. In 1757 his services were required in the treasures of classical remains. While on his journey he medical staff of the army of Westphalia, where he had the made the acquaintance of the French ambassador, M. de rank of consulting physician. After his return to Paris Stainville, afterwards duc de Choiseul, and of his wife. he acted for some time as joint editor of the Journal des The minister conceived a great regard for Barthélemy, and Savans and the Encyclopédie Méthodique. In 1761 he on his accession to power loaded the scholar with benefits. obtained a medical professorship at Montpellier, in which In 1759 he gave him a pension on the archbishopric of his abilities as a teacher soon shone forth with unrivalled Albi ; in 1765 he conferred on him the treasurership of lustre. His success was the more honourable, inasmuch as St Martin de Tours, and, in 1768, made him secretary- | his colleagues—Lamure, Leroy, and Venel—were men of general to the Swiss guards. In addition to these sources distinguished reputation, and had raised the school to a of revenue, the abbé enjoyed a pension of 5000 livres on high pitch of celebrity. the Mercure de France, His income, which was thus con- In 1774 he was created joint chancellor of the university, siderable, was well employed by him; he supported and with the certainty of succeeding singly to the office on the established in life three nephews, and gave largely to death of the colleague, which happened in 1786. He indigent men of letters. In 1789, after the publication of afterwards took the degree of doctor in civil law, and was his great work, he was elected a member of the French appointed counsellor to the Supreme Court of Aids at MontAcidenny, one of the highest honours to which a French pellier. In 1780 he was induced to fix his residence in author aspires. During the troubled years of the Revolu- Paris, having been nominated consulting physician to the tion, Barthélemy, from his position and habits, took no king, with a brevet of counsellor of state, and a pension share in any public affairs. Yet he was informed against of a hundred louis. Honours were now heaped upon him ; and arrested as an aristocrat. So great, however, was the he was admitted free associate to the Academies of Sciences respect felt for his character and talents, that the Com- and of Inscriptions, and appointed first physician to the mittee of Public Safety were no sooner informed of the duke of Orleans, in the room of Tronchin." His reputation arrest, than they gave orders for his immediate release. | increased in proportion as his merits were displayed on a Barthélemy died soon after, on the 30th April 1795. wider theatre. He practised as a physician at Paris for

The great work on which Barthélemy's fame rests appeared in nearly ten years, and received the most flattering testi1788, and was entitled Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce, dans monials of public approbation. le milieu du quatrième siècle avant l'ère Chrétienne. He had begun The outbreak of the French Revolution compelled Barit in 1757, and, during an uninterrupted succession of thirty years, occupied his leisure hours in bringing it to maturity. The hero, á

thez to leave Paris. He lost considerable part of his young Scythian, descended from the famous philosopher Anacharsis, fortune, and retired to Carcassonne, where he devoted whose name he bears, is supposed to repair to Greece for instruction himself to the study of theoretical medicine. It was in in his early youth, and after making the tour of her republics, this retreat that he gave to the world his Nouvelle Mécanique colonies, and islands, to return to his native country and write this

des Mouvemens de l'Homme et des Animaux, which appeared book in his old age, after the Macedonian hero had overturned the Persian empire. In the manner of modern travellers, he gives an

in 1798. account of the customs, government, and antiquities of the country On the re-establishment of the College of Medicine at he is supposed to have visited ; a copious introduction supplies Montpellier, Barthez was naturally looked upon as the whatever may be wanting in respect to historical details ; whilst various dissertations on the music of the

Greeks, on the literature of person most likely to revive its former fame. the Athenians, and on the economy, pursuits, ruling passions, man.

and infirmity operated to dissuade him from resuming the ners, and customs, of the surrounding states, supply ample informa laborious office of teacher, and he was accordingly nominated tion on the subjects of which they treat. The author, indeed, is honorary professor. In 1802 he received several marks of not profound ; and the young Scythian seldom penetrates much below the surface. But his remarks are commonly judicious, and to

favour from the new government under Bonaparte; he considerable erudition he unites singular skill in the distribution of

was nominated titular physician to the Government, and his materials, and a happy talent for presenting his subject in the afterwards consulting physician to the emperor, and member most agreeable and attractive form. The assumed character is so of the Legion of Honour. admirably sustained throughout, that we can scarcely persuade ourselves we are not perusing a book of real travels

, and communing appeared in 1802, and he afterwards occupied himself in

His Traitement des Maladies Goutteuses, in two vols. 8vo, with an actual personage who has recorded his observations and experience for the instruction and improvement of his countrymen. preparing for the press a new edition of his Élémens de la Modern scholarship has superseded most of the details in the Voyage, Science de l'Homme, of which he just lived to see the pubbut the author himself did not imagine his book to be a register of lication. His health had been declining for some years accurately ascertained facts; he rather intended to afford to his countrymen, in an interesting form, some knowledge of Greek

before his death, which took place soon after his removal civilization. The Charicles of Becker is a more recent attempt in

to Paris, on the 15th of October 1806, in the 72d year of a similar direction, but, though superior in scholarship, it wants the his age. He bequeathed his books and manuscripts to M. charm of style which is the principal quality in the Anacharsis.

Lordat, who, in consequence, published two volumes of BARTHEZ, or BARTHÈS, PAUL JOSEPH, one of the Consultations de Médicine, Paris, 1810, 8vo, to which he most celebrated physicians of France, was born on the 11th prefixed a preface of his own. Another posthumous work of December 1734, at Montpellier. He received his early of Barthez, the Traité du Beau, preceded by some account education at Narbonne and Toulouse, and soon gave decisive of his life, was edited in 1807 by his brother, M. Barthez indications of the great talents with which nature hadde Marmorières. endowed him. He commenced the study of medicine at Barthez has enjoyed a much higher reputation on the Montpellier in 1750, and in 1753, when he had only at- Continent than in England, where, indeed, his writings

[ocr errors]

But age

are comparatively little known. His principal work is the similar account. But the name Indians is applied by Nouveaux Élémens de la Science de l'Homme, in which he ancient writers to so many different nations, that it is unfolds his doctrine of the vital principle, or formative difficult to determine the scene of Bartholomew's labours. force. He was one of the strongest opponents of the Mosheim (with whom Neander agrees) is of opinion that it theory which would explain the phenomena of life by was a part of Arabia Felix, inhabited by Jews, to whom physical or chemical laws. (See Lordat, Exposition de la

(See Lordat, Exposition de la alone a Hebrew gospel could be of any service. According doctrine médicale de P. J. Barthez, 1818.)

to the received tradition, this apostle was flayed alive and BARTHOLINUS, GASPARD, a learned Swede, born in crucified with his head downwards, at Albanopolis in 1585, at Malmoë. His precocity was extraordinary; at Armenia, or, according to Nicephorus, at Urbanopolis in three years of age he was able to read, and in his Cilicia. A spurious gospel which bears his name is in the thirteenth year he composed Greek and Latin orations, and catalogue of apocryphal books condemned by Pope Gelasius. delivered them in public. When he was about eighteen The festival of St Bartholomew is celebrated on the 24th he went to the University of Copenhagen, and he afterwards of August. studied at Rostock and Wittemberg. He then travelled BARTOLINI, LORENZO, an Italian sculptor, was born through Germany, the Netherlands, England, France, and in 1777, of very humble parents, at Vernio in Tuscany. Italy, and was received with marked respect at the different After various vicissitudes in his youth, during which he universities he visited. In 1613 he was chosen professor had acquired great skill and reputation as a modeller in of medicine in the University of Copenhagen, and filled that alabaster, he came to Paris in 1797. He there studied office for eleven years, when, falling into a dangerous illness, painting under Desmarets, and afterwards sculpture under he made a vow, that if it should please God to restore him, Lemot. The bas-relief Cleobis and Biton, with which he he would apply himself solely to the study of divinity. gained the second prize of the Academy in 1803, at once He recovered, observed his vow, and soon after obtained established his fame as a sculptor of first-rate ability, and the professorship of divinity, with the canonry of Rotschild. gained for him a number of influential patrons. He He died on the 13th of July 1630, after having written executed many minor pieces for Denon, besides busts of nearly fifty works on different subjects.

Méhul and Cherubini. His great patron, however, was BARTHOLINUS, Thomas, a physician, son of the Napoleon, for whom he executed a colossal bust, and who above, was born at Copenhagen in 1619. He studied sent him to Carrara to found a school of sculpture. He medicine at Leyden for three years (1637-40). He then remained in Carrara till after the fall of Napoleon, and travelled into France, and resided two years at Paris and then took up his residence in Florence, where he continued Montpellier, in order to improve himself under the distin- to reside till his death in 1850. His works, which guished physicians of those universities; after which he include an immense number of busts, are numerous and visited Italy, remained three years at Padua, and then went varied. The best are, perhaps, the group of Charity, the to Basel, where he obtained the degree of doctor in Hercules and Lichas, and the Faith in God, which exemphilosophy. Returning to Copenhagen, he was appointed plify the highest types of Bartolini's style. By the Italians professor of mathematics in 1647, and next year was he is ranked next to Thorwaldsen and Canova. nominated to the chair of anatomy, for which he was better BARTOLOZZI, FRANCESCO, a distinguished engraver, qualified. This he held for thirteen years, distinguishing was born at Florence in 1725, or, according to some himself by several observations respecting the lacteal and authorities, in 1730. He was originally destined to follow lymphatic vessels, shortly after their discovery by Olaus out the profession of his father, who was a silversmith ; Rudbeck. His close application, however, having affected but he manifested so much skill and taste in designing his health, he resigned his chair in 1661, and retired to a that he was placed under the superintendence of two little estate at Hagestaed, near Copenhagen, where he hoped Florentine artists, who instructed him in painting. After to spend the remainder of his days in peace; but his house devoting three years to that art, he went to Venice and having been burnt in 1670, his library, with all his books studied engraving under the famous Joseph Wagner. He and manuscripts, was consumed. In consideration of this made very rapid progress, and executed some works of loss the king appointed Bartholinus his physician, with a considerable importance at Venice. He then removed for handsome salary, and exempted his land from all taxes ; a short time to Rome, where he completed a set of the University of Copenhagen also chose him for their engravings representing events from the life of St Nilus, librarian; and, in 1675, he was honoured with a seat in and after returning to Venice, set out for London in 1764. the grand council of Denmark. He died on the 4th of For nearly forty years he resided in London, and produced December 1680. He wrote Anatomia Gaspardi Bartholini an enormous number of engravings, the best being those of Parentis, novis Observatronibus primum locupletata, 8vo; Clytie, after Annibale Carracci, and of the Virgin and De Monstris in Natura et Medicina, 4to; Schedion de Child, after Carlo Dolce. A great proportion of them are Armillis Veterum, præsertim Danorum, 8vo; and several from the works of Cipriani and Angelica Kauffmann. other works.

Bartolozzi also contributed a number of plates to Boydell's BARTHOLOMEW, ST (OSA 19, son of Talmai), one of Shakespeare Gallery. In 1802 he was invited to Lisbon to the twelve apostles, generally' supposed to have been the superintend a school of engraving in that city. He same as Nathanael (John i. 45). He was a native of remained in Portugal till his death, at an advanced age, Cana in Galilee (John xxi. 2), and was introduced by Philip about the year 1816. to Jesus, who, on seeing him approach, at once pronounced BARTOLUS, professor of the civil law at the University that eulogy on his character which has made the name of Perugia, and the most famous master of the dialectical Nathanael almost synonymous with sincerity. He was a

school of jurists, was born in 1314, at Sasso Ferrato, witness of the resurrection and the ascension, and returned in the duchy of Urbino, and hence is generally styled with the other apostles to Jerusalem. Of his subsequent Bartolus de Saxo Ferrato. His father was Franciscus history we have little more than vague traditions. Severi, and his mother was of the family of the Alfani. According to Eusebius (Hist. Eccles., v. 10), when Pantænus He studied the civil law first of all under Cinus at went on a mission to the Indians (towards the close of the Perugia, and afterwards under Oldradus and Jacobus 2d century), he found among them the Gospel of Matthew, de Belvisio at Bologna, where he was promoted to the written in Hebrew, which had been left there by the apostle degree of doctor of civil law in 1334. His great reBartholomew. Jeromo (De Vir. Illustr., c. 36) gives a putation

putation dates from his appointment to a chair of civil


law in the University of Perugia, 1343, where he lec- At last the king's wrath was aroused. In 1533 Elizabeth tured for many years, raising the character of the law with her principal supporters, Masters, Bockling, and school of Perugia to a level with that of Bologna. He several others, were examined before parliament, and died in 1357 at Perugia, where a magnificent monument sentenced to be executed. She was beheaded at Tyburn, recorded the interment of his remains in the church April 21, 1534. (Cf. Burnet's History of the Reformation of San Francisco, by the simple inscription of “Ossa in England ; Lingard's History of England.) Bartoli.” Bartolus has left behind him a great reputation, BARUCH, son of Neriah, was the friend and amanuensis and many writers have sought to explain the fact by attri- of the prophet Jeremiah. After the temple at Jerusalem buting to him the introduction of the dialectical method of had been plundered by Nebuchadnezzar, he wrote down teaching law; but the dialectical method had been em- Jeremiah's prophecies respecting the return of the Babyployed by Odofredus, a pupil of Accursius, in the previous lonians to destroy the state, and read them in the temple century, and the successors of Odofredus had abused it before the assembled people at the risk of his life. The to an extent which has rendered their writings in many roll having been burned by the king's command, Jereinstances unprofitable to read, from the subject matter miah dictated the same again. When the temple was being overlaid with dialectical forms. It was the merit of destroyed, Baruch went to Egypt with Jeremiah, having Bartolus, on the other hand, that he employed the dialectical been blamed as the prompter of the threatening prophecies method with advantage as a teacher, and discountenanced uttered by the latter. Nothing certain is known as to his the abuse of it ; but his great reputation is more probably death,—some accounts representing him as dying in Egypt, owing to the circumstance that he revived the exegetical others in Babylonia. The Talmud adopts the latter system of teaching law (which had been neglected since opinion, making him the instructor of Ezra, to whom he is the ascendency of Accursius), in a spirit which gave it new said to have communicated the traditions he had received life, whilst he was enabled to impart to his teaching a

from Jeremiah. practical interest, from the judicial experience which he had The Book of Baruch belongs to the Apocrypha, accordacquired whilst acting as assessor to the courts at Todi and ing to Protestants, and to the deutero-canonical producat Pisa before he undertook the duties of a professorial | tions, according to Roman Catholics. chair. His treatises On Procedure and On Evidence are There is hardly sufficient cause for dividing the book, amongst his most valuable works, whilst his Commentary on some critics suggest, between two writers. The the Code of Justinian has been in some countries regarded author of iii. 9-v. 9 uses Isaiah as well as Jeremiah in as of equal authority with the code itself.

two places. A new 'paragraph undoubtedly begins at BARTON, BENJAMIN SMITH, M.D., an American iii. 9, which has little connection with the preceding connaturalist, who was the first professor of botany and natural text, and differs from it perceptibly both in matter and history in a college in the United States. He was born in form; yet it has the same general object. From reproof Pennsylvania in 1766, studied for two years at Edinburgh, the language passes to hope and Messianic happiness, and and afterwards graduated at Göttingen. He settled at it becomes livelier and more elevated. It is purer Greek Philadelphia, and soon obtained a considerable practice. without doubt. The supposed traces of Alexandrian culIn 1789 he was appointed to the professorship above ture are somewhat indistinct. Wisdom is not spoken of mentioned in Philadelphia College; he was made professor in the Alexandrian manner (iii. 24), but rather in the same of materia medica in 1795, and on the death of Dr Rush way as in Sirach, which is Palestinian. in 1813 he obtained the chair of practical medicine. In Much difference of opinion prevails regarding the original 1802 he was chosen president of the American Philoso- language. Some are for a Greek original, others for a phical Society. Barton was the author of various works Hebrew one; while Fritzsche and Ruetschi think that the on natural history, botany, and materia medica. By his first part was composed in Hebrew, the second in Greek. lectures and writings he may be said to have founded the The original seems to have been Hebrew, though Jerome American school of natural history. He died in 1815. says that the Jews had not the book in that language; and

BARTON, ELIZABETH, the “Maid of Kent," belonged Epiphanius asserts the same thing. The testimony of the to the village of Aldington in Kent. She was a pious, former resolves itself into the fact that the original had nervous, and enthusiastic person, subject to epilepsy; and been supplanted by the Greek; and that of the latter is her enthusiasm, unfortunately for herself, took a political not of much value, since he gives Baruch, along with turn at a somewhat critical period in English history. Jeremiah and the Lamentations, in a second list of the When all England was excited with the attempts made by canonical books." We rely on the statement that the work Henry VIII. to obtain a divorce from Queen Catherine, was meant to be publicly read in the temple (i. 14) as Elizabeth Barton saw visions and heard speeches, all of favourable to a Hebrew original, as well as on the number which related to the contemplated divorce. These she and nature of the Hebraisms, which are sometimes so confided to her parish priest, Richard Masters, and he peculiar that they cannot be resolved into the authorship inade them known to Dr Bockling, canon of Canterbury. of a Greek-speaking Jew. That the writer was a PalesThrough these men they became widely known, and were tinian appears from various passages, such as ii. 17, “For everywhere proclaimed to be divine revelations. The the dead that are in the graves, whose souls are taken chapel at Aldington became the centre of many pilgrimages, from their bodies, will give unto the Lord neither praise and the scene of many excited and tumultuous assemblies. nor righteousness;" Hearken, 0 ye that dwell about Elizabeth Barton was comnionly believed to be a prophetess, Zion” (iv. 9); “Ye have forgotten the everlasting God and was called the " holy maid of Kent." Meanwhile her that brought you up; and ye have grieved Jerusalem visions continued ; she saw letters written in characters that nursed you” (iv. 8).

Both the latter passages of gold sent to her by Mary Magdalene, which contained betray a Palestinian. Besides, the conception of Wisdom both revelations and exhortations. Among other things in iii

. 12, &c., is Palestinian rather than Alexandrian ; she declared that it was revealed to her that if the contem- for the words in iii. 37 do not refer to the incarnaplated divorce took place, the king would be a dead man tion of the Logos, but to personified Wisdom, as in within seven months. The principal agents for the Pope Sirach xxiv. 10. This points to a Hebrew original. The and for Queen Catherine lent themselves to fan the ex- version seems to be free, especially in the latter part. citement. Even such men as bishops Fisher and Warham and Sir Thomas More corresponded with the Maid of Kent. 1 Hæres., viii. 6; compare De Mens. et Pond., C. 23; ibid., c. 5.

Who was the translator? A comparison of the Septuagint | Syrian persecutions or Maccabean struggle. Daniel bortranslation of Jeremiah with that of Baruch will suggest the rowed from Baruch pretty closely in some passages. We answer. The agreement between the two is remarkable. suppose that the translator was separated from the author Constructions, phrases, and words are the same in them, so by a considerable period, probably 200 years. Perhaps the that we may conjecture with Ewald and Hitzig that the author lived about 300-290 B.C. same translator appears.

The words βαδίζω, αποστολή, According to Jerome and Epiphanius, the Jews did not χαρμοσύνη, γαυρίαμα, δεσμώτης, αποικισμός, όνομα μου | receive the book into their canon ; nor is it in the lists given επικαλείσθαι επί τινι are common to both. . The LXX. ver- by Josephus, Melito, and others. It has been thought, sion of Jeremiah was not made till the 1st century B.C. however, that Origen considered it canonical, because in or later; and Theodotion's translation or recension of it in his catalogue of sacred books he gives Lamentations and the second. It is some confirmation of the opinion “the epistle” along with Jeremiah; and Jeremiah's epistle that Greek was not the original when marginal notes are formed a part of Baruch. The testimony of Origen on found in the Hexaplar-Syriac version printed by Ceriani, this point is perplexing; but it is conceivable that some in which the Hebrew is repeatedly referred to. Nothing Jews may have thought very highly of the book in his seems to disprove the assumption that Theodotion, from time, though its authority was not generally admitted whose version that of Paul of Tela was taken, had the among their co-religionists.? From the position which the Hebrew original before him.

book occupied in the Septuagint, i.e., either before or after Though Baruch professes to have written the book, a Lamentations, it was often considered an appendix to later writer speaks in his name. Jeremiah's faithful friend Jeremiah by the early Christians, and was regarded in the is said to have composed it at Babylon. This view is same light, and of equal authority. Hence the words of it untenable on the following grounds :

were often quoted as Jeremiah's by Irenæus, Clemens 1. The work contains historical inaccuracies. Jeremiah | Alexandrinus, and Tertullian. Cyril of Jerusalem reckons was living in the fifth year after the destruction of Jeru- it with the canonical books, among the ai DeoTVEÚOTOL or salem, yet the epistle is dated that year at Babylon. It is belai ypapal; and the epithets so applied cannot be exunlikely that Baruch left Jeremiah, since the two friends, plained away by Protestants. were so united. According to Baruch i. 3, Jeconiah was The versions are the two Latin, a Syriac, and an Arabic. present in the great assembly before which the epistle was The Latin one in the Vulgate belongs to a time prior read, whereas we learn from 2 Kings xxv. 27 that he was to Jerome, and is tolerably literal. Another, some what kept a prisoner as long as Nebuchadnezzar lived. Joakim later, was first published by Jos. Maria Caro in 1688, is supposed to be high priest at Jerusalem (i. 7). But we and was reprinted by Sabatier, side by side with the learn from 1 Chron. vi. 15 that Jehozadak filled that office ante-Hieronynıian one, in his Bibliorum Sacrorum Latino the fifth year after Jerusalem was destroyed. In i. 2 Versiones Antiquæ. It is founded upon the preceding one, there is an error. The city was not burned when Jehoiachim and is less literal. The Syriac and Arabic versions, printed was carried away. And if the allusion be to the destruc- in the London Polyglott, are literal.

in the London Polyglott, are literal. The Hexaplar-Syriac tion of the city by Nebuchadnezzar, the temple and its version, made by Paul, bishop of Tela, in the beginning of worship are supposed still to exist in i. 8-10. The parti- the 7th century, has been published by Ceriani. 4 The most culars narrated are put into the fifth year of the exile; convenient editions of the Greek text are Tischendorf's, in yet we read, “Thou art waxen old in a strange country” the second volume of his Septuagint, and Fritzsche's in (iii, 10).

Libri Apocryphi Veteris Testamenti Greece, 1871. (See David2. Supposing Baruch himself to have been the writer, son's Introduction to the Old Testament, vol. iii

. ; Kurzgebooks later than his time are used in the work. Nehemiah fasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apokryphen des alten is followed, as in ii. 11 (comp. Nehem. ix. 10). But Testaments, erste Lieferung; Ewald's Geschichte des Volkes Eichhorn's language is too strong in calling the contents Israel, vol. iv.; De Wette's Einleitung, s8 321-323; Welte's "a rhapsody composed of various writings belonging to Einleitung in die heiligen Schriften des A. T., zweyter Hebrew antiquity, especially Daniel and Nehemiah.” 1 Theil, dritte Abtheilung.)

The date of the work is given indefinitely in i. 2, “In the Epistle of Jeremy.-An epistle of Jeremiah's is often fifth year, and in the seventh day of the inonth, what time appended to Baruch, forming the sixth chapter. Accordas the Chaldeans took Jerusalem, and burnt it with fire." ing to the inscription, it was sent by the prophet by God's The natural meaning of these words is, “The fifth year after command to the Jews who were to be carried captive to the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar," not Babylon. The writer describes the folly and absurdity of " the fifth year of Jehoiachim's captivity.” The day is idolatry in a declamatory style, with repetitions somewhat given, not the month; and therefore De Wette conjectures like refrains. Thus, in verses 16, 23, 29, 65 occurs the that čtel should be unví; but MS. authority is against him. sentence, “Whereby they are known not to be gods; thereIt is probable that the name of the month has dropped out, fore fear them not;"

;" “How should a man then think and i.e., Sivan. The Palestinian abode of the writer is pretty say that they are gods," in 40, 44, 56, 64, 69; "How clear, especially from the melancholy view of death pre- then cannot men perceive that they be no gods," in 49, 52. sented in ii. 17, iii

. 19, resembling that in Psalms vi. 6, These and other repetitions are unlike Jeremiah's. The lxxviii. 18, ciii. 29. In Alexandria the Jews had attained concluding verse is abrupt. to a clear idea of immortality, in Palestine not. The All the relation this epistle has to Jeremiah is, that translation was made in Egypt, which accounts for various the contents and form are derived from Jeremiah x. 1-16 expressions savouring of Alexandrianism, as in iii., 23, and xxix. 4–23. Its combination with Baruch is purely 24, 26. There are evident points of contact between accidental. It could not have been written by Jeremiah, Daniel and Baruch, as appears from Baruch i. 15–18, though many Catholic theologians maintain that it was. The which agrees almost verbally with Daniel ix. 7–10. So Hellenist betrays himself in a few instances, as when he ï. 1, 2 coincide with Daniel ix. 12, 13; and ii. 7-17 speaks of kings, verses 51, 53, 56, 59. Though Welte tries with Daniel ix. 13-18. Hitzig thinks the two authors were to prove that the epistle was written in Hebrew, which is identical, but this can hardly be allowed; for the tone and atmosphere of Baruch bear no perceptible trace of the

2 See Welte's note on this point in Herbst's Einleitung, erster Theil pp. 14, 15.

3 See vol. ii. p. 734, &c. Einleitung in die apokryphischen Schriften des A. T., p. 382. 4 Monumenta Sacra et Profana, tom. i. fascic. 1.


210 years.

Soorer o

Catchong Fence

90 Feet

Striber's Position

[ocr errors]

Striker's Position

[ocr errors]

90 F




20 FD

[ocr errors]

i 06

100 Ret




[blocks in formation]

consistent with Jeremiah's authorship, his arguments are summer of 1874 the Boston Base Ball Club and the Athletic invalid. The original is pure Hellenistic Greek. The warning Base Ball Club of Philadelphia crossed the Atlantic and against idolatry bespeaks a foreigner living out of Palestine.played a series of exhibition matches in England and

The place of its origin was probably Egypt; and the writer Ireland; but, as anticipated, the pastime did not find favour may have lived in the Maccabean period, as we infer from with Englishmen or take root in British soil. his making the exile last for seven generations, i.e., about The scene chosen for the pastime should be a clear level

Jeren ah, on the contrary, gives the time as piece of turf, not less than 500 feet by 350 feet. The 70 years in round numbers. The oldest allusion to the following diagram shows the laying out of the ground. epistle is commonly found in 2 Maccab. ii. 2, where a few words are similar to the fourth verse of our epistle. But the appropriateness of the supposed reference is doubtful. The old Latin version of the epistle, published by Saba

tier, which is in the Vulgate, is literal. The Syriac is freer.
The Arabic is more literal than the Latin. Both are in the
London Polyglott. The Hexaplar-Syriac was published by

(s. D.) BARYTES, or BARYTA, an oxide (BaO) of the metal barium, usually prepared from the two most common ores of the substance, the sulphate and the carbonate of baryta. It is a highly caustic alkaline poisonous body, which with

IN- FIELD og Basoman

Position water forms a hydrate of baryta. On a commercial scale baryta is prepared from the native carbonate (Witherite)

roBasemen by exposing the mineral, mixed with one-tenth of its weight of lamp black, to a very high heat. It is now

20 Base largely employed in the beet sugar manufacture for sepa

Baupost rating crystallized sugar from the molasses. A solution

Ball Post-Stop Right short-Stop

2 Baseman of the hydrated oxide, under the name of baryta-water, is of


Lens folder very great use in the chemical laboratory for precipitating metallic oxides, and on account of its sensitiveness to


gielder carbonic acid. Sulphate of baryta, or heavy spar, the cawk of miners, is a mineral of very high specific gravity (4:59),

OUT-FIELD found abundantly in veins in the mountain limestone of

Diagram illustrating the Game of Base Ball.
England and frequently associated with metallic ores.
When reduced to powder the white varieties are sometimes

The position of the bases and base lines may be likened to a 90 used as a pigment, but the powder is more frequently

feet square shaped diamond. The first point to be selected is the

rear angle of the home base, which should be not less than 90 feet applied as an adulterant to white lead. Heavy spar is also from the most suitable end of the ground, and equi-distant from used in the manufacture of pottery. The powdered each side. Lay out this base 1 foot square, and from the front carbonate of baryta is used to some extent in the manufac

apex measure 127 feet 4 inches in a straight line down the ground,

and the point reached will be the centre of the second base. Take ture of glass, taking the place of a part of the alkali in

a cord, 180 feet long, fixing one end on the front angle of the home plate glass, and of some portion of red-lead in flint glass. base

, and the other on the centre of the second base. By hauling Cassel green, or Rosenstiehl's green, is a pigment manu- the centre of this cord taut on the two sides, two isosceles right factured from the calcined manganate of baryta. Both the angled triangles will be formed, and the 90 feet square completed. nitrate and the chloride are of great value as chemical Standing on the home base and looking down the ground, the apex

of the triangle on the right hand is the centre of the first base, and reagents. The nitrate and chlorate are also used to pro- of that on the left hand the centre of the third base. 48 feet from duce a green light in pyrotechny.

the front angle of the home base has then to be measured down the BASE BALL, a gaine which holds the same position diagonal of the square, in order to fix the centre of the pitcher's in the United States of America as cricket does in Great which are on a line with the home and first bases, and home and Britain. It was founded on the old British game of third bases, and not less than 100 feet from the centres of first and rounders, though many additions and alterations have been third bases respectively. made. Americans do not appreciate the patience of Formerly, nine a side was the usual number of players ; Englishmen, and do not care to witness a cricket match but, latterly, an additional man has been introduced as which may extend to three days, and then remain undecided, right short-stop, and the sides increased to ten.

Their whereas the average time of a base ball match is from two positions are marked in the above diagram. The theory of hours to two hours and a half. The first regular base ball the game is that one side takes the field, and the other society was the old Knickerbocker Club, founded at New


in. The pitcher then delivers the ball to the striker, York in the autumn of 1845; and for fifteen years the who endeavours to hit it in such a direction as to elude sphere of play was very limited. In the spring of 1860 the the fielders, and enable him to run round all the base lines Excelsior Club was inaugurated at Brooklyn, New York, home without being put out. If he succeeds a run is and the amateur element, in contradistinction to the profes-scored. When three players are put out the fielding side sional, gave a marked impetus to the pastime. This club come in ; and after nine innings have been played the side was second to none in the United States of America, either which have scored the most runs wins the game. The in social standing or as correct exponents of the game. The rules are voluminous and minute, but the pith of them may secession of the Confederate States soon after, and the be gleaned from the following résumé : sanguinary civil war which followed, was a serious interruption to national or other sports, and base ball became avoirdupois, must be not less than 9 inches or more than 94 inches

The ball must weigh not less than 5 ounces or more than 51 ounces almost obsolete till the season of 1865. Then it began to in circumference, and must be composed of 1 ounce avoirdupois of spread throughout the Union, and to be recognized as a vulcanized india-rubber, covered with worsted and leather, red being profession, not a few devoting their whole time to it and

the most suitable colour for the latter. The bat must be circular in being paid for their services. Now there are hundreds shape, not exceeding 2 inches in diameter at any part, or 42 inches

in length, and must be made exclusively of wood. The bases shall be of games played for every one ten years since. In the | 1 foot square, the first, second, and third consisting of white canvas

« EelmineJätka »