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lags securely fastened to the ground, and the home base of white must be a sure catch in order to catch the striker out when stone or marble, level with the ground, and with one angle facing opportunity occurs, and a swift and accurate thrower of the the pitcher. Unless five innings on each side are concluded it is no

ball to the basemen. The pitcher is the most responsible game. No game can be drawn, unless play is stopped by darkness or the weather, when the score of the two sides is even. The pitcher's | person on the out side. His great object is to deceive the position shall be within a 6 feet square, the front of which shall be striker as to where a ball is coming, and he must therefore 45 feet from the centre of the home base, and the centre equihave full command over the ball, besides possessing the distant from the centre of first and third bases, each angle being marked by a flat iron or stone plate 6 inches square. In delivering

nerve to face any catches hit straight at him. The first, the ball, the pitcher must not move either foot outside the limits of second, and third basemen must all be sure catchers, swift the square, and the hand must not be raised higher than the hip, and accurate throwers, and good judges of which bases to All balls delivered over the home base, and at the height requested send the ball to in order to put an opponent out. The by the striker, are fair balls. All other balls are unfair or called short-stop must be an active man, of great coolness and balls, and if three occur in succession the striker is allowed to take the first base, and any other players move on a base accordingly. judgment, a general backer up of the in-field. He is placed A striker may, bowever, take an unfair ball at his own risk. Balk near the line from second to third base. The right, ing, or pretending to deliver the ball and not doing so, is inadmis centre, and left fielders must all be sure catchers, good long sible, and any player, on first, second, or third base, is allowed to

distance throwers, and active runners. sun a base whenever balking is attempted. If, after being warned

Right short-stop is by the umpire, three balks are made during the same innings, the generally the captain of the side, and is available either out side at once forfeit the game. A ball which hits the bat with in this position or anywhere else where an extra hand is out being struck at, or the person of the striker or umpire, is a dead required. Having less work to do than any other fielder, ball and out of play. The striker shall stand in a space of ground he has better opportunities of attending to his general 6 feet by 3 feet, on either side of the home base, extending 2 feet in front and 4 feet behind the centre thereof, and the inside duties of supervision. The usual positions of all the 1 foot from the outside angle thereof, otherwise it is a foul strike. fielders are defined in the diagram. The catcher, pitcher, The striker may call for a high ball, which shall be delivered above first and third basemen, and short-stop comprise the in-field; his waist, but below his shoulder, or a low ball, i.e., below his waist,

the remainder the out-field. but not within 1 foot of the ground. Should the striker fail to strike three fairly delivered balls, he must run the first base. The

The pastime requires good catching, throwing, and runfoul ball lines are unlimited in length, and shall extend in a straight ning powers, combined with courage, nerve, good judgment, line from the front angle of the first base through the centres of first and quick perception of what to do in the field. The great and third bases respectively. A ball is fairly hit if it first touches draw-back is so much being left to the umpire, and his the ground, a player's person, or other object, on or in front of the foul ball lines. A batsman is out—(1.) If a fair ball be caught be

decision being so frequently called for. Hardly a ball is fore touching the ground, no matter how held by the fielder catch-pitched or struck, or a base run without his being called on ing it, or whether the ball first touches the person of another fielder for a decision under some rule or other, whereas the details or not, provided it be not caught by the cap ; (2.) If a foul ball be of the game should be so plain and clear as only to call for similarly held, or if it be so held after touching the ground but

The

an umpire's decision under exceptional circumstances. once; (3.) If a fair ball be securely held by a fielder while touching the first base with any part of his person before the base-runner attitude of the striker is not an elegant one, and the pitcher touches said base, after hitting a fair ball; (4.) If the batsman, is allowed to keep the former's muscles too long on the after striking three times at the ball and failing to hit it, and, run

stretch before actually delivering the ball

. Base ball is a ning to first base, fails to touch that base before the ball is legally held there ; (5.) If, after the batsman has similarly failed to hit the quicker and more lively pastime than the great English ball, it be caught either before touching the ground, or after touch national game of cricket, which is the chief thing to be ing the ground but once ; (6.) If the batsman wilfully strikes at the said in its favour.

(H. F. w.) ball to hinder the ball from being caught; (7.) If the batsman hit the ball on a called foul strike, and it be caught either fair or foul, born at Hamburg 11th September 1723, was the son of a

BASEDOW, JOHANN BERNHARD, a German author, or if he make two called foul strikes. Directly a striker has fairly struck a fair ball he becomes a base-runner; starting from the home

hairdresser. He was educated at the Johanneum in that base to first base, thence to second, third, and home bases respec- town, where he came under the influence of the well-known tively, all bases being invariably run in this order. No base-runner rationalist, H. S. Reimarus, author of the Wolfenbüttel ball. The lines from base to base are 3 feet wide, clearly marked Fragments. In 1744 he went to Leipsic to study theology, out on the turf, and a base-runner who leaves the base line to avoid and gave himself up entirely to the instructions of Professor being touched by the ball in the hands of a fielder is out. A run is Crusius, and to the study of philosophy. This at first scored when any base-runner reaches the home base again, after induced sceptical notions ; a more profound examination touching all the other bases in proper succession, and provided three players are not put out. No base can be run, or run scored when a fair brought him back to the Christian faith, but, in his

of the sacred writings, and of all that relates to them, returns to the base he started from, which he cannot leave again until retirement, he formed his belief after his own ideas, and it the ball is held by the pitcher, wherever that fielder may happen to was far from orthodox. He returned to Hamburg, where be. No unavoidable obstruction may be offered to any base-runner in 1749, M. de Quaalen, privy-councillor of Holstein, keeping the base lines. A base-runner is out—(1.) If, while the ball is in play, he be touched by a fielder with the ball in hand, when po

appointed him preceptor to his son. Basedow now began part of his person is touching a base; and should the said fielder, to exhibit his really remarkable powers as an educator of while in the act of touching the base-runner, have the ball knocked out of his hand, the base-runner so touched shall be declared out; he was chosen professor of moral philosophy and belles

the young, and acquired so much distinction that, in 1753, (2.) If the ball be held by a fielder on the first bage before the baserunner, after hitting a fair ball, touches that base ; but if a fielder

lettres in the academy of Soroë in Denmark, On account holding the ball, and a base-runner touch a base simultaneously, the of his theological opinions he was removed from this post latter shall not be declared out; (3.) If he fail to touch the base he and transferred to Altona, where soine of his published runs for, the ball being held by a fielder, while touching said base, works brought him into great disfavour. He left off before the base-runner returns and touches it; (4.) If he in any giving lessons without losing his salary; and, towards the way interfere with or obstruct a fielder while attempting to catch a fair fly-ball or a foul ball; (5.) If he wilfully obstruct a fielder from end of 1767, he abandoned theology to devote himself fielding a ball. (6.) If he intentionally kick the ball or let it with the same ardour to education, of which he conceived strike him. The umpire must be thoroughly conversant with the the project of a general reform in Germany. He began game and all minutiæ of the rules. He is the sole arbiter of every by publishing An Address to the Friends of Humanity, point of play, whether pitching, catching, fielding, striking, or running the bases

and to Persons in Power, on Schools, on Education, and its

Influence on Public Happiness, with the Plan of an Elemen. The catcher's duty is to catch all balls pitched to the tary Treatise on Human Knowledge, Hamburg, 1768. He striker. He stands close to the striker's position when the proposed the reform of schools and of the common inethods pitching is slow, and some 50 feet off when it is swift. He of instruction, and the establishment of an institute for

qualifying teachers, --soliciting subscriptions for the print- remarkable edifices than in many other Continental cities ing of his elementary work, where his principles were to of similar size. The fine old Gothic cathedral, founded be explained at length, and illustrated by plates. The 1010, still stands, and contains a number of interesting subscriptions for this object amounted to 15,000 thalers monuments, besides the tombs of Erasmus, Ecolampadius, (£2250), and in 1774 he published his Elementary Work, and other eminent persons. A re-decoration was skilfully a complete system of primary education, intended to effected in 1852–1856. Among other ecclesiastical develop the intelligence of the pupils and to bring them, buildings of interest may be mentioned St Martin's, so far as possible, into contact with realities, not with mere restored in 1851 ; St Alban’s, formerly a monastery ; the words. The work was received with great favour, and church of the Bare-footed Friars, which now serves as a Basedow obtained means to establish an institute for store house; Elizabeth's Church, of modern erection; and education at Dessau, and to apply his principles in training St Clara's in Little Basel. The town-hall was built in disciples, who might spread them over all Germany. 1508 and restored in 1826. A post-office, a new bank, and Little calculated by nature or habit to succeed in an an hospital are of recent erection. Besides the university, employment which requires the greatest regularity, patience, and attention, he, however, engaged in this new project with all his accustomed ardour. The name of Philanthropin appeared to him the most expressive of his views; and he published at Leipsic in 1774 a pamphlet entitled The Philanthropinon founded at Dessau, containing the details of his plan. He immediately set about carrying it into execution ; but he had few scholars, and the success by no means answered his hopes. Nevertheless, so well had his ideas been received that similar institutions sprang up all over the land, and the most prominent writers and thinkers openly advocated the plan. Had Basedow been a man of ordinary tact, his success would have been complete. But his temper was intractable, and his management was one long quarrel with his colleagues. The institution was finally shut up in 1793. Basedow died at Magdeburg on the 25th July 1790. Notices of his life and works have been published by Rathmann (1791) and Meyer (1791-2).

BASEL, BÂLE, or BASLE (the first being the German, the others the French and Old French forms of the name),

Plan of Basel. a canton in the N. W. of Switzerland, with an area of 184

A, Peter's Platz

E, Botanical Gardens English square miles. It is bounded on the N.W. by

F, University
Alsace, N. by the grand-duchy of Baden, E. by the canton

G, Town Hall
D, Zoological Gardens,

H, Armoury. of Aargau, and S. and S.W. by those of Solothurn and Berne. The canton is traversed by the Jura chain, the which was founded by Pope Pius II. in 1459, and highest peaks of which rise to from 4000 to 5000 feet. reorganized in 1817, Basel possesses a public library of With the exception of the Rhine and its tributaries,—the 95,000 vols., with a valuable collection of MSS., a pictureBirse and the Ergolz,—there are no streams of any magni- gallery, a museum, a theological seminary for missionaries tude. The soil is for the most part fertile and well culti- (established in 1816), a gymnasium, an industrial school, a vated, the mountain sides affording excellent pasturage. botanical garden, an orphan-asylum, an institution for deafThe principal pursuits of the people are agricultural and mutes, and various learned societies. Of these may be pastoral, though here and there, as at Liestal, Sissach, and mentioned the Society for the Propagation of Useful Münchenstein, coal-mining is carried on. The chief manu- Knowledge, founded in 1777 by Iselin, the Society of factures are ribbons, woollen, linen, and cotton goods, and Natural History, the Society of National Antiquities, and iron and steel wares. Politically the canton consists of two the Bible Society, which dates from 1804 and was the divisions, one urban and the other rural (Basel-stadt and first of the kind on the Continent. Basel is the seat of an Basel-landschaft), each with its own constitution and laws. active transit-trade between France, Germany, and SwitzerThe former sends two members to the National Council; land, and possesses important manufactures of silk, linen, its legislative power is in the hands of a Great Council and cotton, as well as dyeworks, bleachfields, and ironwhich consists of 134 members, chosen for six years, and works, the most valuable of all being the ribbon-trade. its executive power belongs to a Lesser Council of 15 It has railway communication with both south and north. members. In the rural division the legislative body (or The Baden line has a station in Little Basel ; and the Landrath) is chosen for three years, and has the ultimate central station for the Swiss and Alsace railways lies to the authority over all departments; the executive council con- south-east of the city proper. Basel was the birthplace of sists of five members elected for the same period; it sends Euler, Bernouilli, Iselin, and perhaps of Holbein; and the three members to the National Council. The prevailing names of Erasmus, Ecolampadius, Grynæus, Merian, De language is German Population of Basel-stadt in 1870, Wette, Hagenbach, and Wecknernagel, are associated with 47,760, and of Basel-landschaft, 54,721.

the university. Population in 1870, 44,834. BASEL, or BÂLE, the capital of the above canton, and, Basel (Basilia) first appears in the 4th century as a next to Geneva, the largest city in Switzerland, is situated Roman military post. On the decay of the neighbouring on both sides of the Rhine, 43 miles N. of Berne, in lat. i city of Augusta Rauracorum, the site of which is still 47° 33' N., and long. 7° 35' E. Great Basel, or the city marked by the village of Augst, it began to rise into improper, lies on the south side of the river, and is connected portance, and, after numerous vicissitudes, became a free with Little Basel on the north side by a handsome bridge city of the empire about the middle of the 10th century, 800 feet long, which was originally erected in 1229. and obtained a variety of privileges and rights. In 1356 The city is generally well-built, but there are fewer the most of its buildings were destroyed by an earthquake.

[graphic]

In 1392 the town of Little Basel was acquired from the business had to pass through this committee, and it sent bishop by purchase. From 1431 to 1443 the meetings of down special subjects to be discussed in each of the seca General Council were held in the city (see next article). tions. When the section had discussed the matter it sent After the battle of St Jacob in 1444, in the immediate its decision with the reasons of it to each of the other neighbourhood, Basel was visited by the plague, and its sections, who then discussed the matter and gave their population considerably diminished. In 1501 it became a opinion upon it. If three sections were agreed upon it, member of the Swiss Confederacy; and it was one of the the subject was brought before the whole council for general chief seats of the Reformation movement. The position of discussion and a final decision. the city exposed it to many dangers during the Thirty The three subjects which were specially assigned to this Years' War and the subsequent disturbances of the neigh-council were the reunion of the Greek and Latin Churches, bouring states; but in spite of all it continued to flourish. the reconciliation of the Bohemians, and the reform of the A peril of a more critical kind arose from within. The church according to the resolutions come to at Constance. quasi-aristocratic Government of the city appropriated all Soon after the beginning of the council the Roman curia political rights, and left the inhabitants of the rural dis- took alarm at the zeal and determination of the assembled tricts unrepresented,—which gradually led to much discon- bishops, and by intrigues compelled the Pope, who was tent on the part of the latter, and ultimately to actual really anxious for reform, to do all he could to binder the rebellion. It was not till 1833 that peace was firmly work of the fathers at Basel. Eugenius twice tried to disrestored by the complete separation of the canton into the solve the council; but it resisted, maintaining that a two divisions of Basel-stadt and Basel-landschaft, the council being superior to the Pope could not be dissolved, former being allowed to include not only the city proper, and the Pope yielded. The bishops refused to admit the but also the communes of Reihen, Bettingen, and Klein- Pope's legates until they admitted the supremacy of the Hüningen. The capital of the rural division is Liesthal, council and promised to obey its decrees. with (in 1870) a population of 3873.

The first business to which the members addressed themBASEL, THE COUNCIL OF (1431–1443), was the last of selves was to curb the power of the Pope and of the Roman the three great reforming councils of the 15th century, curia. They tried to do this by attempting to stop the flow coming after the councils of Pisa (1409) and Constance of money from all parts of Europe to Rome. They abolished (1414-18). In ese three councils the aim of the majority the annates ; they declared it illegal in a bishop to send was to reform the church by destroying the absolute the sum of money commonly presented on his investiture, supremacy of the Pope, and by curbing the rule of the &c.; and they passed many laws to restrain the luxury and Roman curia ; and the acts of these councils were all vice of the clergy. These proceedings so alarmed Eugenius designed to re-establish the power of the episcopate by that he resolved either to bring the council within the reach asserting the

supremacy of cecumenical councils. At Pisa of his influence or to dissolve it. The occasion for interthese aims were only indicated ; at Constance they were so ference arose out of a debate which the subject of reunion far successful that schismatic popes were deposed, and the with the Greek Church gave rise to. The Emperor John council practically showed its superiority to the Pope by Palæologus, induced principally by fear of the Turks, had bestowing the papal chair on Martin V.; and although the written both to the Pope and to the council on the subject fathers of Constance were compelled to separate before they of the reunion of Christendom, and both had entertained his could do much else in the way of reform, they practically proposals. The majority, however, of the bishops in the laid the foundation by insisting that councils should be council maintained that this subject could not properly be held frequently, and by ordering a new council to be called discussed in Italy, and that the deliberations must take at the end of five years. The council summoned in place in France, Savoy, or Basel, far from the influence of obedience to this command was the Council of Basel, but the Pope. To this Eugenius would not agree; and when the the results of its meeting were simply to show the helpless-council decided against him, he resolved to assemble another ness of the episcopate and the power of the Roman curia. council, which met first at Ferrara and afterwards at At Basel the labours of Pisa and Constance were undone, Florence. and after this council thoughtful men began to see that The rest of the proceedings of the Council of Basel is the church could not be reformed without destroying the simply a record of struggles with the Pope. In 1437 the Papacy.

council ordered the Pope to appear before them at Basel. The Council of Basel was summoned by Martin V. The Pope replied by dissolving the council; the bishops, (1431). He first appointed it to meet at Pavia, then at backed by the emperor and the king of France, continued Siena, but Basel was at last fixed upon. At the very their deliberations, and pronounced the Pope contumacious beginning Martin died, but his successor, Eugenius IV., for not obeying them. When Eugenius tried to take away sanctioned all his decrees; and the council accordingly the authority of the council by summoning the opposition met at Basel on the 23d of July 1431, under the presidency Council of Florence, the bishops at Basel deposed him. of Cardinal Julian Cesarini. At first all went well. The Eugenius replied by a severe bull, in which he excommunibishops took care so to arrange the organization of the cated the bishops, and they answered by electing a new council and its method of procedure as to make it a true Pope, Amadeus, duke of Savoy, who assumed the name of and fair representative of the whole Catholic Church. The Felix V. The greater part of the church adhered to members of the council were divided into four equal classes, Eugenius, but most of the universities acknowledged the each consisting of about the same number of cardinals, authority of Felix and the Council of Basel. Notwitharchbishops, bishops, abbots, &c., and each completely standing the opposition of Eugenius and his adherents, the organized, with its president, secretaries, and other officers. Council of Basel continued to pass laws and decrees until the This was done to neutralize the votes and prevent the year 1443; and when the bishops separated they declared intrigues of the Italian bishops, who were very numerous, publicly that they would reassemble at Basel, Lyons, or and for the most part under the power of the Roman curia.

Lausanne.

In 1447 Eugenius died and was succeeded by To each of the four was assigned the investigation of a Nicholas V., who tried to bring about a reconciliation special class of subjects. Each section met separately in between the parties in the church. A compromise was its own hall thrice a week. Each section elected three of effected, by which Felix resigned the pontificate, and the its number to form a committee of business. One-third fathers of Basel having assembled at Lausanne, ratified the of this committee was changed every month. All the abdication of Feliv, and directed the church to obey

III. 52

Nicholas, while Nicholas confirmed by his sanction the the country. The first, Gaulonitis, deriving its name from acts and decrees of the Council of Basel.

the ancient Golan, and coincident more or less exactly with Hefele's Conciliengeschichte, vol. v. ; Mansi, Concilia, vol. xxix ; the modern Jaulân already mentioned, forms the western Æneas Sylvius, De Concilio Basiliense. The Acts of the Council are division, extending from the Jordan lakes to the Haj road. preserved in MS. in Paris and in Basel.

(T.M.L.)

It is spoken of as divided into two sections, the territory BASHAN, a country lying on the east side of the Jordan of Gamala, or Gamalitis, and the territory of Sogana (Bell. valley, towards its northern extremity, often mentioned | Jud., iv. 1, 1). It forms a fertile plateau, diversified on in Jewish history The Hebrew forio of the name is 1pm its northern half by a range of low, richly-wooded hills, or 179?, represented in Greek by Bacáv and Bagavītis the Tell el Faras, which descends from Mount Hermon. (LXX. and Epiphanius), or more frequently by Batavaía The second, Trachonitis (mentioned Luke iii. 1), lay east (Josephus, Ptolemy, Eusebius, &c.). The name is under of the preceding, and adjoined the territory of Damascus, stood to be derived from a root signifying fertile, or, as well as Auranitis and Batanæa (Ant. Jud., i. 6, 4; xv. according to some, basaltic; and in some of the ancient 10,1). This leads us to the remarkable tract, now called the versions of the Old Testament it is occasionally rendered Lejâh, forming one of the two Trachônes, or rocky volcanic by a word indicating fertility; thus, in Ps. xxii. 13, the districts, lying south and east of Damascus, mentioned by LXX. gives for Bashan rioves, Aquila gives ditapoi, Sym- Strabo (Geog. xvi. p. 520). Inscriptions, moreover, have machus, σιτιστοί When we first hear of this region in the been found in the Lejâh (see Burckhardt, Travels in Syria, days of Abraham it is occupied by the Rephaim, whose p. 117), which attest that the district was called Trachôn. chief city is Ashteroth Karnaim (Gen. xiv. 5). These In this province we may with confidence recognize " the Rephaim, with kindred tribes spread over the trans-Jordanic region of Argob," so often mentioned in the Old Testaregion, were in great part subdued and supplanted by the ment, as included in the country of Bashan (Deut. iii. 4, children of Lot (Deut. ii, 10, 11, 19-21), who in their turn 13, 14; 1 Kings iv. 13). The arguments for this were invaded and displaced by the Amorities (Num. XX. identification are, -1st, The etymology of the word Argob 26-30). By this people, at the time of the Exodus, the (see Gesenius and Fürst, sub voce); 2d, the descriptive whole region north of the Arnon was occupied ; and they term usually conjoined with the name, chebel Argob, formed two kingdoms, the more northerly embracing all indicating a tract clearly defined and measured off

, and Bashan and a part of Gilead (Deut. iii. 8, 13; Josh. xii. applied elsewhere to the line of the sea coast, which the 4, 5). Og, who is described as a man of gigantic stature, boundary of the Lejâh resembles (cf. Porter, op. cit., vol. belonging to the race of the Rephaim, was, at the time ii. p. 241); 3d, by the Targumists the name Argob is referred to, the ruler of this kingdom ; and having come out rendered Trachôna (Lightfoot, Chorographical Notes, § 4). against the Israelities, he was overthrown in battle at Edrei, The third province, Auranitis, presents a name known both one of his own cities. Subsequently, his country became in ancient and in modern times. In Ezekiel (xlvii. 16, 18) the allotment of the half tribe of Manasseh (Josh. xiii. 29–31). mention is made of Haurân (in the LXX. Aúpavîtis), as a

The information given in connection with the Israelitish locality on the border of the land of Israel. The name is conquest enables us to define with considerable exactness found also on the inscriptions of Assyria, under the form the limits of the ancient Bashan. Towards the west it Havranu (Schrader, Die Keilinschriften und das A. T., p. included Golan (Deut. iv. 43; Josh. xx. 8, xxi. 27), a 237), and it is common in Arabian writers. In regard to name which to the present day has continued attached to its modern use Porter says (Jour. Sac. Lit., July 1854, the district, the Jaulân, lying on the east of the Jordan, p. 303), “ The name Haurân is at present applied by those in its upper course; while towards the east, it reached to at a distance to the whole country east of Jaulån and Salchah (Deut. iii. 10, &c.), the modern Salkhat, situated Jeidûr. By the people of that country, however, it is used on the south-eastern slope of the Haurân mountains. On in a much more restricted sense, and is given only to the the south it is represented as immediately adjoining the fertile plain on the south of the Lejâh, with the narrow country of Gilead, whose northern boundary is known to strip on the west. The whole of this district is perfectly have been the river Jarmuk, and on the north, it is flat, with little conical hills at intervals. The soil is the expressly said to have extended to Mount Hermon (Deut. most fertile in Syria, admirably adapted to the produetion iv. 48, xxxiii. 22; Josh. xii

. 5, xii. 11, 12). Within the of wheat.” (Cf. Burckhardt, op. cit., p. 285). The fourth limits thus indicated, may be pointed out the towns and district is Batanæa, a name obviously derived from, and other localities mentioned as belonging to Bashan. Ashta- often used by Josephus and others co-extensively with, the roth, Og's metropolis, doubtless the Ashteroth Karnaim of old name Bashan. It has, however, a special application Gen. xiv. 5, called also Beeshterah (cf. Josh. xxi. 27, and to the district lying on the east of the Lejâh and of the 1 Chron. vi. 71), has been sought in various places, Haurân plain, including the central masses of the Jebel edespecially in Tel Ashtereh (see Newbold, Jour. Geog. Soc., Druz or Haurân mountain (apparently the Alsadamus or vol. xvi.), but has now, with much probability, been Alsalamus mons of Ptolemy, and, perhaps, the Salmon of identified (by Wetzstein, Reisebericht über Haurán, p. 110) Ps. lxviii. 14; see Reland, Palæstina, p. 458 ; Wetzstein, with the well-known 'Busrâh, the Bostra of the Latins, op. cit., p. 90) and its eastern slopes. To this portion of whose position admirably adapts it for a capital city, and the kingdom of Bashan, the name Ard-el-Bathanyeh is still whose ruins attest its ancient splendour. Edrei, already applied by the natives. Says Porter (op. cit., p. 305), mentioned, is to be identified with Derât, on the west of “One of the most intelligent Druzes I met with in my Busrâh (Wetzstein, op. cit., p. 47, 77). The position of whole journey, told me the whole mountains were comGolan and Salchah has been indicated, whilu Kenath prehended in the Ard-el-Bathanyeh.” (Num. xxxii. 42) is recovered in the modern Kunawât The history of Bashan, after its conquest by the (Porter, Five Years in Damascus, vol. ii

. p. 111). The Israelites, merges into the general history of that nation, region of Argob will be referred to immediately.

and of Western Asia. It is last mentioned in the Old Within the same limits lie the provinces included by Testament, in 2 Kings x. 33, in connection with the attacks Josephus in the Bashan of the Israelites (cf. Ant. Jud., iv. made by Hazael

, the king of Damascus, upon the territory 5, 3; ix. 8, 1; Bell. Jud., ii. 6, 3; iii. 3, 5), and recog

of Israel. Throughout the Psalms and the Prophets, nized generally by the Greek and Roman writers

. They Bashan is celebrated for its fertility and luxuriance, its rich are four-Gaulonitis, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and Batanæa, pastures, its strong bulls, its fatlings “ of rams, of lambs, answering as nearly as possible to the natural divisions of land of goats, of bullocks ;" its oaks and its firs (Ps. xxii.

12; Amos iv. 1; Isa. ii. 13; Jer. 1. 19; Ezek, xxxix. 18, | found in this region,—most of them composed in Greek, a xxvii. 6); and its extraordinary fertility is attested by the considerable number in two forms of Shemitic writing (the density of its population (Deut. iii. 4, 5, 14)—a density Palmyrenian or Aramæan, and the Sinaitic or Nabathæan), proved by the unparalleled abundance with which ruined and some in an unknown character, resembling the towns and cities are now strewn over the whole country. Himyaritic. Arabic inscriptions are numerous on buildings In the disturbed period which followed the breaking up of of more recent date. The oldest recognizable Greek record the empire of Alexander, its possession was an object of bears the name of Herod the Great; and the Nabathæan continual contest. “ Idumean princes, Nabathæan kings, kings, of the dynasty of Aretas, who reigned from about Arab chiefs, ruled in their turn.” The central portion of 100 B.C. at Bozrah have also left memorials. the country, Trachonitis, early became a refuge for outlaws To the works on this region above referred to the following may and haunt of robbers, a character for which it is singularly be added : Seetzen, Reisen durch Syrien ; Buckingham, Travels fitted by nature, and which it retains to the present day.

among the Arab Tribes; Graham, Jour. Geog. Soc., vol. xxviii.;

De Vogué, Syrie Centrale; Waddington, Inscriptions Grecques (Cf. Josephus, Ant. Jud., xv. 1; xvi. 9, 2; Strabo, Geog. de la Syrie ; Freshfield, Travels in the Central Caucasus and xvi. p. 520; Gul. Tyr., Hist., xv. 10.) In Arabian tradi Bashan.

(W. TU.) tion Bashan is regarded as the country of the patriarch Job BASHKIRS, a people who inhabit the Russian govern(see Abulfeda, Hist. Anteislamica, p. 27, 208, and esp. ments of Orenburg, Perm, and Samar, and parts of Viatka, Wetzstein, in Delitzsch, Das Buch Job, p. 507, f.); and it especially on the slopes and confines of the Ural, and in the holds a prominent place in authentic Arabian history as neighbouring plains. The Bashkirs are a Tatarized Finnish the seat of the dynasty of the Ghassanides (see Caussin de race, and are called Eestyak by the Kirghiz, in allusion to Perceval, L'Histoire des Arabes, vol. ii. 202, f.; Wetzstein, their origin from a mixture of Ostyaks and Tatars. The op. cit., 121, f.). At the present day the Haurân is one of name Bashkir or Bash-kûrt appears for the first time in the the seats of that singular people, the Druzes (see Druzes). beginning of the 10th century in the writings of Ibn-Foslan,

Both in its natural and its archæological aspects, the who, describing his travels among the Volga-Bulgarians, country of Bashan is full of interest. The Jebel ed-Druz, mentions the Bashkirs as a warlike and idolatrous race. which rises to nearly 6000 feet in height, is a congeries The name was not used by the people themselves in the of extinct volcanoes, and the products of eruption from 10th century, but is a mere nickname. It probably points this source, spread over the adjoining plains, have given to the fact that the Bashkirs, then as now, were distinto the soil that character of fertility for which it has been guished by their large, round, short, and, possibly, closein all ages remarkable. (Cf. Lyell

, Principles of Geology, cropped heads. Of European writers the first to mention 9th ed., p. 394.) This volcanic soil, we are told, yields the Bashkirs are Plano-Carpini and Rubruquis. These on the average, in some places, eighty returns of wheat, and travellers, who fell in with them in the upper parts of the a hundred of barley (Wetzstein, op. cit., p. 30.) The River Ural, call them Pascatir, and assert that they spoke mountains themselves are richly clothed, at least on their at that time the same language as the Hungarians. Till western side, with forests of various kinds of trees, among the arrival of the Mongolians, about the middle of the which the evergreen oak is especially abundant. The Lejâh 13th century, the Bashkirs were a strong and independent is one of the most remarkable regions on the earth's surface. people, and troublesome to their neighbours, the Bulgarians It is,” says one of the latest observers (Burton, Unex and Pechenegs. At the time of the downfal of the Kazan plored Syria, vol. i. p. 164), “ in fact a lava bed ; a stone kingdom they were in a weak state. In 1556 they volun

over the ruddy yellow clay and tarily recognized the supremacy of Russia, and, in consethe limestone floor of the Haurân valley, high raised by quence, the city of Upha was founded to defend them from the ruins of repeated eruptions, broken up by the action of the Kirghiz, and they were subjected to a fur-tax. In fumaroles or blow holes, and cracked and crevassed when 1676 they rebelled under a leader named Seit, and were cooling by earthquakes, and by the weathering of ages." with difficulty reduced ; and again in 1707, under Aldar (See also Burckhardt, op. cit., p. 112; Porter's Five Years and Kûsyom, on account of ill-treatment by the Russian in Damascus, vol, ii, p. 241 ; Wetzstein, op. cit., p. 25.) officials. Their third and last insurrection was in 1735,

In regard to the architectural monuments of the at the time of the foundation of Orenburg, and it lasted Haurân, the “striking feature,” says Count de Vogué

for six years.

In 1786 they were freed from taxes; and (Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 423), “is the exclusive use of in 1798 an irregular army was formed from among them. stone. The country produces no wood, and the vuly rock They are now divided into thirteen cantons, and each which can be obtained is a basalt, very hard and very canton into yûrts or districts, the whole being under the difficult to work.” The walls are formed of large blocks, jurisdiction of the Orenburg governor-general. In military carefully dressed, and laid together without cement, and matters they are subject to an Ataman, chosen from the often let into one another with a kind of dovetail. Roofs, generals of the army; but in civil affairs the yûrts and doors, stairs, and windows, are all of stone. This, of cantons are administered by Bashkir officials. They maincourse, imparts to the buildings great massiveness of tain a military cordon, escort caravans through the Kirghiz appearance and great solidity, and in multitudes of cases steppes, and are employed in various other services. By the houses, though “without inhabitant,” are as perfect as mode of life the Bashkirs are divided into settled and when first reared. Since buildings so strong are apparently nomadic. The former, who are not distinguishable from the capable of enduring for any length of time, and since some inhabitants of the Tatar villages, are engaged in agriculture, of these are known, from the inscriptions upon them, to cattle-rearing, and bee-keeping, and live without want. The date from before the commencement of the Christian era, nomadic portion is subdivided, according to the districts in it is not unnatural to regard them as, in fact, the work of which they wander, into those of the mountains and those the earliest known inhabitants of the land, the Amorites of the steppes. Almost their sole occupation is the rearing or the Rephaim. (See Ritter, Paläst. and Syrien, ii. 964, of cattle ; and they attend to that in a very negligent Porter, Giant Cities, p. 79, f.). This, however, is contested, manner, not collecting a sufficient store of winter fodder on the ground that the extant inscriptions and the archi for all their herds, but allowing part of them to perish. tectural style point to a much later date, and must be The Bashkirs are usually very poor, and in winter live regarded as at least unproved. (See Wetzstein, op. cit., p. partly on a kind of gruel called yûryu, and badly prepared 103 ; Fergusson, in Atheneum, July 1870, p. 148, Burton, cheese named skûrt. They are hospitable but suspicious, op. cit., vol. i. p. 192.) Many inscriptions have been apt to plunder, and to the last degree lazy. They have

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