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large heads, black hair, eyes narrow and flat, small fore- | (8. 448-458), a bishop who shifted sides continually in heads, ears always sticking out, and a swarthy skin. In the Eutychian controversy, and who wrote extensively; his general, they are strong and muscular, and capable of works were published in Paris in 1622. (3.) Basil of Ancyra, enduring all kinds of labour and privation. They profess A. 787; he opposed image worship at the second council Mahometanism, but are little acquainted with its doctrines. of Nicæa, but afterwards retracted. (4.) Basil, the founder In intellectual development they do not stand high. of a sect of mystics who appeared in the Greek Church
See Semenoff, Slovar Ross. Imp. 8. v. ; Frähn, “ De Baskiris," in in the 12th century (cf. Anna Comnena, Alexiad, bk. 15). Mém. de l'Acad. de St Petersburg, 1822 ; and Florinsky, in West- BASILICA, a term denoting (1) in civil architecture, a nik Evropi, 1874.
court of law, or merchants' exchange, and (2) in ecclesiasBASIL THE GREAT, an eminent ecclesiastic in the tical architecture, a church of similar form and arrangement. 4th century. He was a leader in the Arian controversy, a The name basilica, βασιλική (sc. στοά or αυλή), "a distinguished theologian, a liturgical reformer; and his royal portico,” or “hall,” is evidence of a Greek origin. letters to his friends, especially those to Gregory of Nazian- | The portico at Athens in which the second archon, ăpxwv zus, give a great amount of information about the stirring Baoileús, sat to adjudicate on matters touching religion, period in which he lived. Basil came of a somewhat and in which the council of Areopagus sometimes met, was famous family, which gave a number of distinguished known as the otoá Bacinelos or Baoilikń (Pausan., i. 3, § supporters to the church of the 4th century. His eldest | 1; Demosth., Aristogit., p. 776 ; Plato, Charmid., ad init.; sister, Macrina, was celebrated for her saintly life; his Aristoph., Ecclesiaz., 685). From this circumstance the second brother was the famous Gregory of Nyssa ; his term appears to have gained currency as the designation of youngest was Peter, bishop of Sebaste; and his eldest a law-court, in which sense it was adopted by the Romans. brother was the famous Christian jurist Naucratius. It The introduction of basilicæ into Rome was not very early. has been observed that there was in the whole family a Livy expressly tells us, when describing the conflagration tendency to ecstatic emotion and enthusiastic piety. Basil of the city, 210 B.C., that there were none such then,was born about 330, at Cæsarea in Cappadocia. While he “neque enim tum basilicæ erant" (xxvi. 27). The earliest was still a child, the family removed to Pontus; but he soon named is that erected by M. Porcius Cato, the censor, 183 returned to Cappadocia to live with his mother's relations, B.C. (Liv., xxxix. 44), and called after its founder basilica and seems to have been brought up by his grandmother | Porcia. When ouce introduced this form of building Macrina. It was at Cæsarea that he became acquainted found favour with the Romans. As many as twenty with his life-long friend Gregory of Nazianzus, and it was basilicæ are recorded to have existed within the walls of there that he began that interesting correspondence to Rome, erected at different periods, and bearing the names which reference has been made. Basil did not from the of their founders, e.g.- Æmilia, Julia, Sempronia, Ulpia first devote himself to the church. He went to Constanti- or Trajani, &c. The basilicas were always placed in the nople in pursuit of learning, and spent four or five years most frequented quarter of the city, in the immediate there and at Athens. It was while at Athens that he vicinity of a forum, and on its sunniest and most sheltered seriously began to think of the church, and resolved to side, that the merchants and others who resorted thither seek out the most famous hermit saints in Syria and might not suffer from the severity of the weather (Vitruv., Arabia, in order to learn from them how to attain to that De Architect., v. 1). Originally, the basilicas, like the enthusiastic piety in which he delighted, and how to keep Royal Exchange in London and the Bourse at Antwerp, his body under by maceration and other ascetic devices. were unroofed, consisting of a central area surrounded After this we find him at the head of a convent near Arnesi simply by covered porticoes, without side walls. Subsein Pontus, in which his mother Emmilia, now a widow, quently, side walls were erected and the central space was his sister Macrina, and several other ladies, gave them covered by a roof, which was generally of timber, the selves to a pious life of prayer and charitable works. beams being concealed by an arched or coved ceiling, ornaHe was not ordained presbyter until 365, and his ordina- mented with lacunaria. Some basilicas (e.g. that of Maxtion was probably the result of the entreaties of his ecclesi- entius or “the Temple of Peace ") were vaulted. astical superiors, who wished to use his talents against the Arians, who were numerous in that part of the country, and were favoured by the Arian emperor, who then reigned in Constantinople. In 370 Eusebius, bishop of Cæsarea, died, and Basil was chosen to succeed him. [t was then that his great powers were called into action. Cæsarea was an important diocese, and its bishop was, ex officio, exarch of the great diocese of Pontus.
Basil was threatened with confiscation of property, banishment, and even death, if he did not relax his regulations against the Arians; but he refused to yield, and in the end triumphed.
Fig. 1.-Basilica at Pompeii.
3. Side aisles, with galleries over.
small apartments (chalcidica) at the further end, on both The name Basıl also belongs to several distinguished sides of the tribunal. On each side of the central area churchmen besides Basil the Great. (1.) Basil, bishop was one, or sometimes, as in the Ulpian and Æmilian of Ancyra (336-360), a semi-Arian, highly favoured basilicas, two rows of columns. These were returned at by the Emperor Constantine, and a great polemical either end, cutting off a vestibule at one extremity, and the writer; none of his works are extant. (2.) Basil of Seleucia tribunal or court proper, forming a kind of transept,
elevated above the nave, at the other. Above the aisles occupying a semicircular apse, the prætor's curule chair thus formed (porticus) were galleries, formed by a second standing in the centre of the curve. When the assessors row of columns supporting the roof, approached by external were very numerous (according to Pliny, u.s., they sometimes staircases, for the accommodation of the general public- amounted to one hundred and eighty), they sat in two or men on one side, women on the other (Plin., Epist., vi. three concentric curves arranged like the seats of a theatre 33). They were guarded by a parapet wall (pluteus) The advocates and other officials filled the rest of the raised between the columns, high enough to prevent those in the platform, divided from the rest of the building by a screen galleries from being seen by those below. Sometimes, as of lattice-work (cancelli). In the centre of the chord of in Vitruvius's own basilica at Fanum, and in that at the apse stood an altar on which the judices took an oath Pompeii, instead of a double there was only a single row to administer true justice. The tribunal sometimes ended of columns, the whole height of the building, on which the square instead of apsidally. This is so in the basılica at roof rested. In this case the galleries were supported by Pompeii (see the plan annexed), where the tribunal is parted square piers (parastatæ) behind the main columns. The from the body of the hall by a podium bearing a screen of building was lighted with windows in the side walls, and at six columns, and is flanked by staircases to the galleries and the back of the galleries. In the centre of the end-wall by the chalcidica. The larger and more magnificent basilicas were the seats of the judge and his assessors, generally were sometimes finished with an apse at each extremity.
FIG. 2.-Interior view of Trajan's Basilica (Basilica Ulpia), as restored by Canina. The plans of Trajan's basilica usually give this arrangement. but really, as Canina has shown, that of the Ulpian basilica, The fragment of the ground-plan in the marble tablets pre- also shows an apse, designated (Atrium) Libertatis. This, served in the Capitol, usually called that of the Æmilian, we know from many ancient authorities, was the locality
Fig. 3.-Ground-Plan of Trajan's Basilica (Basilica Ulpia). for the manumission of slaves; and, therefore, the tribunal | that it was 174 feet in breadth, and more than twice as must have been at the other end, and, doubtless, also apsidal. long as it was broad. (The plan and supposed internal The basilica of Trajan was one of the largest and most arrangements will be seen in the annexed woodcuts from magnificent in Rome. From its existing remains we learn | Canina.) The nave, 86 feet in breadth, was divided from
the double aisles by rows of granite columns, 35 feet high. I of prayers for the emperor's preservation" (Grat. Actio pro An upper row of columns in front of the galleries above Consulatu), are a testimony to the general conversion of the aisles supported a ceiling, covered with plates of these civil basilicas into Christian churches. We know gilt bronze. The total internal height was about 120 this to have been the case with the basilicas of St Cross feet. The walls were cased with white marble from (S. Croce in Gerusalemme) and St Mary Major's at Rome, Luna. It was paved with giallo antico and purple breccia. which were halls in the Sessorian and Liberian palaces A side court, which enclosed the well-known memorial respectively, granted by Constantine to the Christians. We column to Trajan, was flanked by libraries, Bibliotheca may adduce also as evidence of the same practice a passage Græca and Latina (Sidon. Apollinaris, Epigr., ix. 16). from the theological romance known as The Recognitions
of Clement (bk. x. ch. 71), probably dating from the early half of the 3d century, in which we are told that Theophilus of Antioch, on his conversion by St Peter, made over “the basilica of his house" for a church. But however
this may have been, with, perhaps, the single exception of AAA
St Cross, the existing Christian basilicas were erected from the ground for their sacred purpose. At Rome the
columns, friezes, and other materials of the desecrated U
temples and public buildings furnished abundant materials
for their construction. The decadence of art is plainly FIG. 4.-Section of the Basilica of Constantine or Maxentius
shown by the absence of rudimentary architectural know(Temple of Peace).
ledge in these reconstructions. Not only are columns of The basilica of Maxentius (or of Constantine), usually various heights and diameters made to do duty in the same known as the Temple of Peace, in the Forum at Rome, was colonnade, but even different orders stand side by sideon an entirely different plan from those already described. (e.g., Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite at St Mary's in the The internal colonnades were dispensed with, the central Trastevere); while pilasters assume a horizontal position, space being covered by a vast quadripartite brick vault, in and serve as entablatures, as at St Lawrence's. There being three bays; and the aisles were roofed with three huge no such quarry of ready-worked materials at Ravenna, the barrel vaults, each 72 feet in span. Columns were only noble basilicas of that city are free from these defects, and used for ornament. The tribunal was apsidal. Its width exhibit greater unity of design and harmony of proportions. was 195 feet, but it was 100 feet shorter than Trajan's In all cases, however, the type of the civil basilica, which basilica. The ground-plan of a small but interesting had proved so suitable for the requirements of Christian basilica, of which the foundations remain at Otricoli congregations, was adhered to with remarkable uniformity. (Ocriculum), is given by Agincourt (pl. lxxiii. No. 100). The An early Christian basilica may be thus described in its nave is of four bays; beyond the aisles there is an addi- main features :-A porch supported on pillars (as at St tional aisle of annexed buildings or chalcidica; the apse is Clement) gave admission into an open court or atrium, surinternal. A good example of a provincial basilica remains rounded by a colonnaded cloister (St Clement, Old St at Trèves. It is a plain hall, about 90 feet long, the walls Peter's, St Ambrose at Milan, Parenzo). In the centre of being 100 feet high, without aisles, and it has an apsidal the court stood a cistern or fountain (cantharus, phiale), for tribunal elevated considerably above the floor. Under the drinking and ablutions. In close contiguity to the atrium, empire, when architectural magnificence reached an hitherto often to the west, was the baptistery, usually octagonal unparalleled height, basilicæ formed a part of the plan of (Parenzo). The church was entered through a long narrow the palaces erected by the emperors and nobles of Rome porch (narthex), beyond which penitents, or those under (Vitruv., vi. 81). A beautiful example on a small scale, ecclesiastical censure, were forbidden to pass. The narthex the Basilica Jovis, has been recently excavated in the ruins was sometimes internal (St Agnes), sometimes an external of the palace of the Cæsars on the Palatine. Only the portico (St Lawrence's, St Paul's). Three or four lofty doorlower part of the walls remains, but the arrangements of ways, according to the number of the aisles, set in marble the building are singularly perfect, even to the pierced cases, gave admission to the church. The doors themselves marble cancelli, and throw the clearest light on the con- were of rich wood, elaborately carved with scriptural substruction of these halls.
jects, or of bronze similarly adorned and often gilt. On the establishment of Christianity as the imperial Magnificent curtains, frequently embroidered with sacred religion, these vast halls furnished exactly what was wanted figures or scenes, closed the entrance, keeping out the heat for the religious assemblies of the Christian community. of summer and the cold of winter. The basilica was, in fact, a ready-made church, singularly The interior consisted of a long and wide nave, often 80 adapted for its new purpose. The capacious nave accom- feet across, terminating in a semicircular apse, with one or modated the ordinary congregations, the galleries or aisles sometimes (St Paul's, Old St Peter's, St John Lateran) two the females and the more dignified worshippers; while aisles on each side, separated by colonnades of marble pillars the raised tribunal formed the bema, or sanctuary, separated supporting horizontal entablatures (Old St Peter's, St Mary by lattice-work from the less sacred portion below, the Major's, St Lawrence's) or arches (St Paul's, St Agnes, St bishop and his clergy occupying the semicircular apsis. Clement, the two basilicas of St Apollinaris at Ravenna). The prætor's curule chair became the episcopal throne, the Above the pillars the clerestory wall rose to a great height, curved bench of his assessors the seat for the presbyters of pierced in its upper part by a range of plain round-headed winthe church. The inferior clergy, readers, and singers took dows. The space between the windows and the colonnado the place of the advocates below the tribunal ; while on (the later triforium-space) was usually decorated with a series the site of the heathen altar rose the holy table of the of mosaic pictures in panels (Old St Peter's, St Paul's, St Eucharistic feast, divided from the nave by its protecting Mary Major's, St Apollinaris within the walls at Ravenna). lattice-work screen, from which were suspended curtains The upper galleries of the secular basilicas were not usually guarding the sacred mysteries from the intrusive gaze of adopted in the West, but we have examples of this the profane.
arrangement at St Agnes, St Lawrence's, and the Quattro The words of Ausonius to the Emperor Gratian, in which Santi Coronati. They are much more frequent in the East. he speaks of “the basilicas once full of business, but now The colonnades sometimes extended quite to the end of
the church (St Mary Major's), sometimes ceased some little which was usually covered with plates of marble mosaics distance from the end, thus forming a transverse aisle or or painted stucco (Old St Peter's, St Lawrence's). This part transept (St Paul's, Old St Peter's, St John Lateran). was frequently crowned with a hollow projecting cornice (St Where this transept occurred it was divided from the nave Lawrence's, Ara Cali). But in spite of any decorations the by a wide arch, the western face and soffit of which were external effect of a basilica must always have been heavy richly decorated with mosaics. Over the crown of the arch and unattractive. The annexed view of St Apollinaris in we often find a bust of Christ or the holy lamb lying Classe at Ravenna affords a typical example. upon the altar, and, on either side, the evangelistic sym- To pass from general description to individual churches, bols, the seven candlesticks, and the twenty-four elders. the first place must be given, as the earliest and grandest Another arch spanned the semicircular apse, in which the examples of the type, to the world-famous Roman basilicas; church always terminated. This was designated the arch those of St Peter, St Paul, and St John Lateran, “omnium of triumph, from the mosaics that decorated it representing urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput.” It is true that the triumph of the Saviour and His church. The conch no one of these exists in its original form, Old St Peter's or semi-dome that covered the apse was always covered with having been entirely removed in the 16th century to make mosaic pictures on a gold ground, usually paintings of our room for its magnificent successor ; and both St Paul's and Lord, either seated or standing, with St Peter and St Paul, St John Lateran having been greatly injured by fire, and and other apostles and saints, on either hand. The beams the last named being so completely modernized as to have of the roof were generally concealed by a flat ceiling, richly carved and gilt. The altar, standing in the centre of the chord of the apse on a raised platform, reached by flights of steps, was rendered conspicuous by a lofty canopy supported by marble pillars (ciborium, baldacchino), from which depended curtains of the richest materials. Beneath the altar was the confessio, a subterranean chapel, containing the body of the patron saint, and relics of other holy persons. This was approached by descending flights of steps from the nave or aisles. The confessio in some cases reproduced the original place of interment of the patron
WEB saint, either in a catacomb-chapel or in an ordinary grave,
MILLMBAR and thus formed the sacred nucleus round which the church arose. We have good examples of this arrangement at St Peter's, St Paul's, St Pudenziana, and St Lawrence. It was copied, as we will see hereafter, in the original cathedral of Canterbury. The bishop or officiating presbyter advanced from his seat in the centre of the semicircle
FIG. 6.-Façade of old St Peter's, Rome. of the apse to the eastern side (ritually) of the altar, and lost all interest. Of the two former, however, we poscelebrated the Eucharist with his face to the congregation sess drawings, and plans, and minute descriptions, which below. At the foot of the altar steps a raised platform give an accurate conoccupying the upper portion of the nave formed a choir forception of the orithe singers, readers, and other inferior clergy. This oblong ginal buildings. To space was separated from the aisles and from the western commence with St portion of the nave by low marble walls or railings. From Peter's, from the these walls projected ambones, or pulpits with desks, also woodcuts annexed of marble, ascended by steps. That for the reader of the it will be seen that gospel was usually octagonal, with a double flight of steps the church was enwestward and eastward. That for the reader of the epistle tered through a vast was square or oblong.
colonnaded atrium, The exterior of the basilicas was usually of a repulsive 212 feet by 235 feet, plainness. The vast brick walls were unrelieved by orna- with a fountain in the
steps lower than the
side aisles, of which
there were two on 1
each side. The four
Fig. 7.-Ground-Plan of the original Baswere each of twenty.
ilica of St Peter's at Rome. two Corinthian
|h, Altar, protected by a columns. Those next
double screen. c, Cloisters.
i, Bishop's throne in the nave supported
centre of the apse. horizontal entabla
k, Sacristy. Fig. 5.—Exterior view of St Apollinaris in Classe, Ravenna.
1, Tomb of Honorius. tures. The inner co
m, Church of St Andrew. ment, without any compensating grace of outline or beauty lonnades bore arches, with a second clerestory. The main of proportion. An exception was made for the west front, clerestory walls were divided into two rows of square panels
containing mosaics, and had windows above. The transept | altar rose above a crypt, or confessio, traditionally believed projected beyond the body of the church,-a very un- to be the catacomb of Lucina, a noble Roman Christian usual arrangement. The apse, of remarkably small dimen: matron, to which the body of the apostle Paul had been sions, was screened off by a double row of twelve wreathed removed 251 A.D. The narthex was external. St Paul's columns of Parian marble, of great antiquity, reported had completely lost its atrium. The bronze doors, covered
with scriptural reliefs, had been brought from Constantinople.
Fig. 10.-Section of the Basilica of St Paul, Rome.
St John Lateran (of which we have a plan in its original is
state, Agincourt, pl. lxxiii. No. 22) which retain any interest, are the double vaulted aisle which runs round the apse, a most unusual arrangement, and the baptistery. The latter is an octagonal building standing some little distance
from the basilica to the south. Its roof is supported by a Fig. 8.--Sectional view of the old Basilica of St Peter, before its
double range of columns, one above the other, encircling destruction in the 15th century.
the baptismal basin sunk below the floor.
Of the three-aisled basilicas the best example is the to have been brought from Greece, or from Solomon's Liberian or St Mary Major’s, dedicated 365, and reTemple. The pontifical chair was placed in the centre of constructed 432 A.D. Its internal length to the chord of the curve of the apse, on a platform raised several steps the apse is 250 feet, by 100 feet in breadth. The Ionic above the presbytery. To the right and left the seats of pillars of grey granite, uniform in style, twenty on each the cardinals followed the line of the apse. At the centre side, forma colonnade of great dignity and beauty, of the chord stood the high altar beneath a ciborium, resting unfortunately broken towards the east by intrusive arches on four pillars of porphyry.
opening into chapels. The clerestory, though modern, is Beneath the altar was the
excellent in style and arrangement. Corinthian pilasters subterranean chapel, the
divide the windows, beneath which are very remarkable centre of the devotion of so
mosaic pictures of subjects from Old Testament history, large a portion of the Chris
generally supposed to date from the pontificate of Sixtus tian world, believed to con
III., 432-440. The face of the arch of triumph pretain the remains of St Peter;
sents also a series of mosaics illustrative of the infancy of a vaulted crypt ran round
our Lord, of great value in the history of art. the foundation wall of the
is of later date, reconstructed by Paschal I. in 818. apse in which many of the
The Sessorian basilica, now St Cross (Santa Croce in popes were buried. The roof
Gerusalemme), is of exceptional arrangement. Originally showed its naked beams and
a hall of the palace known as Sessorium, it was granted by rafters.
Constantine for the purposes of Christian worship, and a The basilica of St Paul
vast apse, nearly the whole breadth of the hall, was added without the walls, dedicated
at the east end. The side walls are pierced by two tiers 324 A.D., rebuilt 388-423,
of large arched openings, originally communicating with remained in a sadly neglected
a second range of aisles. Of these the lower range has state, but substantially un
been built up, but the upper is still open, forming imaltered, till the disastrous fire
mense windows. of 1823, which reduced the
Among the remaining basilicas of Rome those of St nave to a calcined ruin. Its
Lawrence (S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura) and St Agnes deserve plan and dimensions were
special mention, as exhibiting a gallery corresponding to almost identical with those of
those of the civil basilicas and to the later triforium, carried St Peter's, as will be seen
above the aisles and returned across the west end. The from the annexed woodcuts.
Fig. 9.-Ground-Plan of St Paul's,
Rome, before its destruction by architectural history of St Lawrence's is curious. When Its double aisles were formed fire.
originally constructed, 578–590, it consisted of a short by four colonnades, each of
d. Altar. nave of six bays, with an internal narthex the whole height twenty Corinthian pillars, 33
of the building. In the 13th century Honorius III. dis
1, Apse. feet high, all supporting
orientated the church, by pulling down the apse, and erecting arches. Of these pillars twenty-four were of the best period a nave of twelve bays on its site and beyond it, thus conof Roman art, taken from the mausoleum of Augustus, or verting the original nave into a square-ended choir, the from the basilica Æmilia. The contrast between them level being much raised, and the magnificent Corinthian and those of the 5th century, standing side by side with columns half buried. As a consequence of the church them, shows how greatly art had declined. As at St being thus shifted completely round, the face of the arch Peter's, the walls above the arches were lined with a double of triumph, turned away from the present entrance, but row of mosaic panels, below which was a band of circles towards the original one, is invested with the usual mosaics containing portraits of the popes, from St Peter downwards. (Agincourt, pl. xxviii. Nos. 29, 30, 31). The basilica of The transept was parted from the nave by a solid wall, St Agnes, 625-638, of which we give a plan and with openings pierced in it, and in later times was divided section, is a small but interesting building, much like what down the middle by a transverse colonnade. The high | St Lawrence's must have been before it was altered. From