« EelmineJätka »
che fall of the ground the upper galleries are on a level with | and more convenient to build a new edifice at a higher the road at the east end, and were originally entered from level, than to repair the old one. The annexed plan and
view show the peculiarities of the existing building. The church is preceded by an atrium, the only perfect example remaining in Rome, in the centre of which is the cantharus, or fountain for ablutions. The atrium is entered by a portico made up of earlier fragments very carelessly put together. The chorus cantorum, which occupies about onethird of the nave is enclosed by a low marble screen, about 3 feet high, a work of the 9th century, preserved from the old church, but newly arranged. The white marble slabs are covered with patterns in low relief, and are decorated with ribbons of glass mosaic of the 13th century. These screen-walls stand quite free of the pillars, leaving a passage between. On the ritual north stands the gospel-ambo, of octagonal form, with a double flight of steps westwards and
Fig. 11.-Ground-Plan of Basilica of St Agnes at Rome. 1. Steps down to the 3. Nave.
5. Altar. church.
4. Side aisles with gal 6. Bishop's throne. 2. Narthex,
7, 7, 7. Modern chapels. it. St Cross originally had similar galleries above the
Fig. 14.-Interior of St Clement, Rome. arcade.
eastwards. To the west of it stands the great Paschal candlestick, with a spiral shaft, decorated with mosaic.
Opposite, to the south, is the epistle-ambo, square in plan, оооооооо
with two inarble reading-desks facing east and west, for the reading of the epistle and the gradual respectively. The sanctuary is raised two steps above the choir, from which it is divided by another portion of the same marble screen. The altar stands beneath a lofty ciborium, supported by marble columns, with a canopy on smaller shafts above. It retains the rods and rings for the curtains to run on. Behind the altar, in the centre of the curved line of the apse is a marble episcopal throne, bearing the monogram of Ana
stasius who was titular cardinal of this church in 1108. The Fig. 12.-Section of Basilica of St Agnes at Rome.
conch of the apse is inlaid with mosaics of quite the end of Though inferior in size, and later in date than most of the 13th century. The subterranean church, disinterred the basilicas already mentioned, that of St Clement is not by the zeal of Father Mullooly, the prior of the adjacent surpassed in interest by any one of them. This is due to Irish Dominican convent, is supported by columns of very its having retained its original ritual arrangements and rich marble of various kinds. The aisle walls, as well as church-fittings more perfectly than any other. These those of the narthex, are covered with fresco-paintings, of fittings have been removed from the earlier church, lying various dates from the 7th to the 11th century, in a marbelow the existing building, which at some unknown date vellous state of preservation. (See St Clement, Pope and and for some unrecorded reason, was abandoned, filled up Martyr, and his Basilica in Rome, by Joseph Mullooly,
O.P., Rome, 1873).
Out of Rome the most remarkable basilican churches are the two dedicated to St Apollinaris at Ravenna. They are of smaller dimensions than those of Rome, but the design and proportions are better. The cathedral of this city, a noble basilica with double aisles, erected by Archbishop Ursus, 400 A.D. (Agincourt, pl. xxiii., No. 21), was
unfortunately destroyed on the erection of the present Fig. 13.-Plan of Basilica of St Clement in Rome.
tasteless building. Of the two basilicas of St Apollinaris,
the earlier, S. Apollinare Nuovo, originally an Arian church 1. Porch
9 Epistle ambo 2. Atrium
erected by Theodoric, 493-525, measuring 315 feet in 8. Nave
11. Bishop's throne. length by 115 feet in breadth, has a nave 51 feet wide, 4. Aisle for men 8. Gospel ambo
separated from the single aisles by colonnades of twentywith earth, and a new building erected upon it as a founda- two pillars, supporting arches, a small prismatic block tion. The most probable account is that the earlier church bearing a sculptured cross intervening with very happy was so completely overwhelmed in the ruin of the city in effect between the capital and the arch. The clerestory 1084, when Robert Guiscard burnt all the public buildings wall is not stilted to the excessive height of the Roman from the Lateran to the Capitol, that it was fouud simpler examples. Below the windows a continuous band of saintly
III. – 53
+, Narthex. b, Nave.
figures, male on one side and female on the other, advancing In the Eastern church, though the erection of St Sophia
Fig. 17.-Grourd-Plan of Cathedral of Parenzo, Istria. similar that they must have
a, Cloistered atrium. d, Chorus cantorum. h, Belfry.
i, Chapel of St Andrew. proceeded from the same archi
f, Bishop's throne. C, C, Aisles.
g, Baptistery. tect (Agincourt, pl. lxxiii., No 35).
entirely superseded the old one, the basilican form, or as it The cathedral on the island
was then termed dromical, from its shape being that of a of Torcello near Venice, ori
race-course (dromos), was originally as much the rule as in ginally built in the 7th cen- Fig. 15. -Arches of St Apolli- the West. The earliest church of which we have any clear tury, but largely repaired
nare Nuovo, Ravenna.
account, that of Paulinus at Tyre, 313–322 A.D., described circa 1000 A.D., deserves special attention from the fact by Eusebius (H. E., x. 4, § 37), was evidently basilican, that it preserves, in a more perfect state than can be seen with galleries over the aisles, and had an atrium in front. elsewhere, the arrangements of the seats in the apse. The That erected by Constantine at Jerusalem, on the site bishop's throne occupies the centre of the arc, approached of the Holy Sepulchre, 333, followed the same plan by a steep flight of steps. Six rows of stone benches for (Euseb., Vit
. Const., iii. c. 29), as did the original churches
excellent example of an Oriental
Constantinople still preserves
the Nativity, Bethlehem.
forming a gallery above. There is the usual apsidal terFig. 16. — Apse of Basilica, Torcello, with Bishop's throne and seats mination. The chief difference between the Eastern and
for the clergy. From a drawing by the late Lady Palgrave. Roman basilicas is in the magnitude of the galleries. This platform ; the sanctuary is divided from the nave by a is a characteristic feature of Eastern churches, the galleries screen of six pillars. The walls of the apse are inlaid being intended for women, for whom privacy was more with plates of marble
. The church is 125 feet by 75 feet. studied than in the West (Salzenberg, Altchrist. BaudenkThe narrow aisles are only 7 feet in width.
male von Constantinople). Another very remarkable basilica, less known than it Other basilican churches in the East which deserve nodeserves to be, is that of Parenzo in Istria, circa 542 A.D. tice are those of the monastery of St Catherine on Mount Few basilicas have sustained so little alteration. From Sinai built by Justinian, that of Dana between Antioch the annexed ground-plan it will be seen that it retains its and Bir of the same date, St Philip at Athens, Bosrah atrium, and a baptistery, square without, octagonal within, in Arabia, Xanthus in Lycia, and the very noble church to the west of it. Nine pillars divide each aisle from the of St Demetrius at Thessalonica. Views and descriptions nave, some of them borrowed from earlier buildings. The of most of these may be found in Texier and Pullan's capitals are Byzantine. The choir occupies the three Byzantine Architecture, Couchaud's Choix d'Eglises Byzaneasternmost bays. The apse, as at Torcello, retains the tines, and the works of the count de Vogué. We may bishop's throne and the bench for the presbyters apparently refer to Fergusson's History of Architecture for views and unaltered. The mosaics are singularly gorgeous, and the plans and description of the very interesting early miniaapse walls, as at Torcello, are inlaid with rich marble and ture Christian basilicas, some of which are probably the mother-of-pearl. The dimensions are small, --121 feet by earliest existing Christian buildings in the Mediterranean 32 feet. (See Kunstdenkmale des Oesterreichischen Kaiser- provinces of Africa. The same work (p. 640) also gives stadts, by Dr G. Heider and others).
an account of the early French basilica, dating from the
K, South tower with altar,
6th or 7th century, known as the Basse Euvre at Beauvais ; BASILICA, a code of law, drawn up in the Greek as well as (pp 550-552) of those belonging to the 8th or language, with a view to put an end to the uncertainty 9th century, in the neighbourhood of the Lake of Con- which prevailed throughout the empire of the East in the stance at Reichenau and Romain Motier, and at Granson 9th century as to the authorized sources of law. This on the Lake of Neufchatel.
uncertainty had been brought about by the conflicting The first church built in England under Roman influence opinions of the jurists of the 6th century as to the proper was the original Saxon cathedral of Canterbury. From the interpretation to be given to the legislation of the Emperor aunexed ground-plan, as conjecturally restored by Professor Justinian, from which had resulted a system of teaching
which had deprived that legislation of all authority, and CLOISTER
the imperial judges at last were at a loss to know by what rules of law they were to regulate their decisions. An endeavour had been made by the Emperor Leo the Isaurian to remedy this evil, but his attempted reform of the law had been rather calculated to increase its uncertainty ; and it was reserved for Basilius the Macedonian to show
himself worthy of the throne, which he had usurped, by EG DOBAL EAST purifying the administration of justice and once more
reducing the law into an intelligible code. There has been considerable controversy as to the part which the Emperor Basilius took in framing the new code. There is, however, no doubt that he abrogated in a formal manner the ancient laws, which had fallen into desuetude, and the more
probable opinion would seem to be, that he caused a revision Fig. 19.—Ground-Plan of the original Cathedral at Canterbury,
to be made of the ancient laws which were to continue in as restored by Willis,
force, and divided them into forty books, and that this A, High altar. G, Our Lady's altar
code of laws was subsequently enlarged and distributed B, Altar of our Lord.
H, Bishop's throne. C, C, Steps to crypt.
into sixty books by his son Leo the Philosopher. A further D, Crypt.
L, North tower containing school. revision of this code is stated to have been made by ConChorus cantorum
M, Archbishop Odo's tomb. FS
stantinus Porphyrogenitus, the son and successor of Leo, Willis from Eadmer's description, we see that it was an but this statement rests only on the authority of Theodorus aisled basilica, with an apse at either end, containing altars Balsamon, a very learned canonist of the 12th century, standing on raised platforms approached by steps. Beneath who, in his preface to the Nomocanon of Patriarch Photius, the eastern platform was a crypt, or confessio, containing cites passages from the Basilica, which differ from the text relics, “fabricated in the likeness of the confessionary of of the code as revised by the Emperor Leo. The weight of St Peter at Rome" (Eadmer) The western apse, dedicated authority, however, is against any further revision of the to the Blessed Virgin, contained the bishop's throne. From code having been made after the formal revision which it this and other indications Willis thinks that this was the underwent in the reign of the Emperor Leo, who appointed original altar end, the eastern apse being a subsequent a commission of jurists under the presidency of Sympathius, addition of Archbishop Odo, circa 950, the church having the captain of the body-guard, to revise the work of his been thus turned from west to east, as at the already- father, to which he makes allusion in the first of his Novellæ. described basilica of St Lawrence at Rome The choir, às This latter conclusion is the more probable from the circumat St Clement's, occupied the eastern part of the nave, and stance, that the text of the code, as revised by the Emperor like it was probably enclosed by breast-high partitions. Leo, agrees with the citations from the Basilica which There were attached towers to the north and south of the
occur in the works of Michael Psellus and Michael Attanave. The main entrance of the church was under that to liates, both of them high dignitaries of the court of Conthe south. At this suthdure, according to Eadmer, "all stantinople, who lived a century before Balsamon, and who disputes from the whole kingdom, which could not legally are silent as to any second revision of the code having be referred to the king's court, or to the hundreds and taken place in the reign of Constantinus Porphyrogenitus, counties, received judgment.” The northern tower con as well as with other citations from the Basilica, which are tained a school for the younger clergy.
found in the writings of Mathæus Blastares and of ConThere remains one other English basilican church to be stantinus Hermenopulos, both of whom wrote shortly mentioned, that of Brixworth in Northamptonshire, after Balsamon, and the latter of whom was far too learned probably erected by Saxulphus, abbot of Peterborough, a jurist and too accurate a lawyer to cite any but the official circa 690 A.D. It consisted of a nave divided from its text of the code. aisles by quadrangular piers supporting arches turned in Authors are not agreed as to the origin of the term Roman brick, with small clerestory windows above, a short Basilica, by which the code of the Emperor Leo is now chancel terminating in an apse, outside which, as at St distinguished. The code itself appears to have been origiPeter's at Rome, ran a circumscribing crypt entered by nally entitled The Revision of the Ancient Laws (åvakásteps from the chancel. At the west end was a square tapois TÛV Talaiôv vóuwv); next there came into use the tower, the lower story of which formed a porch.
title ή εξηκοντάβιβλος, derived from the division of the Authorities :-Vitruvius, De Architectura, v. i; the same, trans
work into sixty books : and finally, before the conclusion lated, with notes, by W. Wilkins, R. A. ; Gell, Pompeiana ; Mont of the 10th century, the code came to be designated faucon, Antiquités Expliquées, iii
. 178 ; Canina, Edi fizii di Roma 3 Bao lekós, or à Bacidiká, being elliptical forms of o Monumenti; Allatius, De Recent. Græc. Templis, ep. ii. 3-3; Seroux Bagidekos vópos and tà saoudinà vórua, namely the d'Agincourt, L'Histoire de l'Art par les Monumens ; Bunsen and Imperial Law or the Imperial Constitutions. This explaPlattner, Beschreibung der Stadt Rom; Gutensohn and Knapp, Basil- nation of the term “ Basilica" is more probable than the iken ; Hubsch, Altchristliche Kirche ; Letarouilly, Edifices de Rome derivation of it from the name of the father of the Emperor moderne ; Von Quast, Altchristliche Bauwerke von Ravenna; Texier and Pullan, Byzantine Architecture; De Vogué, Eglises de la Terre Leo, inasmuch as the Byzantine jurists of the 11th and Sainte; Couchaud, Eglises Byzantines; Fergusson, History of Architec- 12th centuries ignored altogether the part which the ture; Milman, History of Christianity, ii. 239-342; iii. 373. (E.V.) Emperor Basilius had taken in initiating the legal reforms,
which were completed by his son ; besides the name of the well on low grounds near the sea. The chief towns are father of the Emperor Leo was written Bacles, from Potenza, Melfi, Francavilla, Rionero, and Tursi. which substantive, according to the genius of the ancient BASILIDES, one of the most celebrated of the Gnostics, Greek language, the adjective Baoulikós could not well be flourished probably about 120 A.D. Extremely little is derived.
known of his life. He is said to have been born in Syria
and to have studied at Alexandria, and this is probably No perfect MS. has been preserved of the text of the Basilica,
There is, to some extent, a corresponding and the existence of any portion of the code seems to have been ignored by the jurists of Western Europe, until the important bear- uncertainty with regard to the precise doctrines held by ing of it upon the study of the Roman law was brought to their him. of these there are two distinct expositions, the one attention by Viglius Zuichemus, professor of the Roman law in the given chiefly by Irenæus, which has been long before the university of Padua, in his preface to his edition of the Greek
world, the other contained in the Philosophoumena of Paraphrase of Theophilus, published in 1533. A century, however, elapsed before an edition of the sixty books of the Basilica, as far
Basilica, as far Hippolytus, discovered in 1842. According to Irenæus, as the MSS. then known to exist supplied materials, was published
was published the system of Basilides strongly resembled that of in seven volumes, by Carolus Annibal Fabrotus, under the patron Valentinus. The first principle or root of all things, was age of Louis XIII. of France, who assigned an annual stipend of two thousand livres to the editor during its publication, and placed at
the supreme God, the unknown and unborn Father. From his disposal the royal printing-press. This edition, although it was
Him emanated in succession νους, λόγος, φρόνησις, σοφία, a great undertaking and a work of considerable merit, was a very and dúvapis. From the last, according to Irenæus, sprang imperfect representation of the original code. A newly restored, the powers who created the first heaven ; according to and far more complete text of the sixty books of the Basilica, has
Clemens Alex., however, from Súvapus sprang dekalogúvn recently issued from the press of Johannes Ambrosius Barth at Leipsic, in six volumes, edited by Professor Charles William Ernest and cipůvn, and these seven with the Father formed the Heimbach of the university of Jena, assisted by his brother Gustavus first Ogdoad, or octave of existence. From them emanated Ernest Heimbach. This is one of the most important literary works other powers, by whom the second heaven was made, and of the 19th century. The learned editor lived long enough to
so on in succession, each system being a more shadowy witness the completion of the text of the Basilica by the publication of the fifth volume in 1850. He died in 1865, leaving behind him type or reflex of the original ogdoad. The number of a valuable historical introduction to the code, and a manual of its heavens was 365, whence the whole series was called contents, which are printed in the sixth and last volume, published Abraxas, or Abrasax, a name frequently applied to the at Leipsic in 1870. Several MSS., which contain portions of the lower deity, or even, as by Tertullian, to the supreme God. code or of works bearing directly on the code, have been available for this edition, which were not accessible to Fabrotus when he
The powers of the lowest heaven, of whom the chief was published his edition in 1647. Amongst others may be mentioned called the apxwv, created the earth. This apxwv is the God MS. Coislin 151, of the 19th century, now in the Bibliothèque of the Jews, and against Him the other powers were arrayed. Nationale in Paris, which came direct from Mount Athos into the
To alleviate the misfortunes of the earth, the vows, or first hands of Chancellor Seguier, and which contains a general index of the contents of the sixty books of the Basilica ; MS. Coislin 152,
emanation, became incarnate and descended upon earth. of the 13th century, also in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris ; a The vous as incorporeal could not suffer death ; accordingly, Palimpsest MS. of the Holy Sepulchre (Toù åylov rápov), which he changed forms with Simon of Cyrene, and stood by the was discovered in 1838 by Dr C. E. Zachariæ von Lingenthal, in the
cross, laughing at his enemies, while Simon suffered in his palace of the patriarch of Jerusalem in Constantinople. The text of four books of the Code has been restored by Dr C. E. Zachariæ von
place. Salvation is spiritual, pertains only to the soul ; Lingenthal from this MS., and is printed in an appendix to the
outer actions are not in themselves good or bad. That third volume of Heimbach's edition. A further MS. deserves Basilides taught this doctrine of moral indifference is not notice
, being No. 853 in the Vatican Library at Rome ; it belongs perfectly clear, but Irenæus reports that his disciples acted to the 14th century, and is the only MS. which contains the work known as Tipucitus. This MS. has been very carefully collated by Gustavus Ernest Heimbach, and the text of a portion of
The exposition given by Hippolytus is widely different. Tipucitus has been printed from this MS. in the appendix to the According to the account he gives, Basilides started second volume of Heimbach's edition, the remaining portions of the neither with a dualism of God and matter or evil, nor with work having been incorporated by Heimbach into the text of the restored code. It may seem strange that so important a body of law as
a theory of emanation. His first principle was God, the the Basilica should not have come down to us in its integrity, but a unknown, incomprehensible, unspeakable, non-existent one, letter has been preserved, which was addressed by Mark the patriarch of whom nothing can be predicated, for no words are adequate of Alexandria to Theodorus Balsamon, from which it appears that
to express His essence. This non-existent God, by the copies of the Basilica were in the 12th century very scarce, as the patriarch was unable to procure a copy of the work. The
great exercise of what may be called volition, created the bulk of the code was an obstacle to the multiplication of copies of Tavotepuía, or seed, which contained in itself the germs it, whilst the necessity for them was in a great degree superseded by of all things. In this chaotic mass, which strongly resembles the publication from time to time of synopises and encheiridia of the ĝuolomepê of Anaxagoras, there is a mixture of its contents, composed by the most eminent jurists, of which a very full account will be found in the Histoire du Droit Byzantin,
elements,-σύγχισις αρχική,-and at the same tine are by the advocate Mortreuil, published in Paris in 1846.
embedded in it three degrees of kinds of divine sonship,
consubstantial with the Deity. The first kind is refined BASILICATA, or, as it is also called, POTENZA, a and pure, the second gross, the third requiring purification. province of Italy, bounded on the N. by Capitanata, N.E. As all things naturally tend towards God, the first sonship by Terra di Bari, E. by Otranto and the Gulf of Taranto, ascended and sat beside the Father. The second also strove S. by Calabria Citra, S. W. by the Mediterranean, W. by to ascend by means of the Spirit, which is to him as a Principato Citra, and N.W. by Principato Ultra. . It has wing, but he could not rise quite to the Deity, and occupied an area of 4120 English square miles, and is divided into an inferior position, while the wing or spirit formed the the four districts of Lagonegro, Matera, Melfi, Potenza. The firmament. The third sonship still remained immersed in population in 1871 was 500,543. In the N.W. of the matter. Then from the world seed there burst forth the territory the Apennines divide into two branches, the one great apxwv, or ruler, who ascended as far as the firmament, running eastward to Terra di Bari, and the other southward and, imagining that there was nothing beyond, glorified to Calabria. The principal rivers are the Bradano, Basento, himself as the brightest and strongest of all beings. This Salandrella, Agri, and Sinno, all flowing into the Gulf of ruler, who is sometimes called Abraxas, but whose true Taranto. The principal productions are maize, wine, name is ineffable, produced a son wiser and better than linen, hemp, and tobacco; swine, goats, and sheep, are himself, by whose aid he laid the foundations of the world. numerous ; and the produce of the silkworm forms a con The seat of their rule is called the Ogdoad, and it extends siderable branch of industry. The cotton plant thrives through all the ethereal region down to the moon's sphere,
up to it.
where the grosser air begins. This lower dominion is ruled | producing types much superior in distinctness and elegance by a second and inferior õpxwv, the God of the Jews, who to any that had hitherto been employed. He then set up also had produced a son; and their seat is called the a printing-house, and published his first work, a Virgil in Hebdomad. Meanwhile, the third sonship, which is truly royal quarto. Horace, Terence, Catullus, and others were the spiritual element in the elect, is tied to matter, and is also printed by him. These books are admirable specimens in need of deliverance. Freedom is given by the truth, of typography; and Baskerville is deservedly ranked i.e., by a knowledge of the true system of things, and it is among the foremost of those who have advanced the art given by a series of illuminations. First the mind of the of printing. He did not print many works, as the sale son of the Great Archon is enlightened, and he instructs did not meet his expectations ; after 1765, indeed, he his father, who learns with fear and repentance that there seems to have put forth very little. Specimens from the is a sphere of being higher than his own. The light then Baskerville press are not easily had, and are of considerable passes to the son of the Archon of the Hebdomad, who value. likewise instructs his father. Finally, the mind of Jesus BASKET, a utensil made of twigs, rushes, or strips of is illuminated, and he instructs those of mankind who are wood, as well as of a variety of other materials, interwoven able to receive the truth. There are thus three great stages together, and used for holding or carrying any commodity. in the world's religious history, each being an advance on Modern ingenuity has applied many substances before its predecessor. These periods are the Ante-Jewish, the unthought of to the construction of baskets, such as iron Jewish, and the Christian. All the souls capable of receiving and even glass. But wicker-work being the oldest as well the light ascend upwards, while their bodies return to the as the most universal invention, it alone will be treated of primeval chaos; the minds of all others are shrouded in in the present article. The process of interweaving twigs, eternal night, the darkness of ignorance. For the relation seeds, or leaves, is practised among the rudest nations of of Basilides to other Gnostics, and for the interpretation of the world ; and as it is one of the most universal of arts, his intensely symbolic impressions, see GNOSTICS.
so also does it rank among the most ancient industries, The earlier accounts of Basilides, such as those of Neander, Baur being probably the origin of all the textile arts of the world. in the Christliche Gnosis), and Matter, were based for the most part A bundle of rushes spread out may be compared to the on Irenæus. The discovery of the Philosophoumena threw unexpected light on the subject, and the later expositions generally follow
warp of a web, and the application of others across it to Hippolytus as the exponent of the original system of Basilides.
the woof, also an early discovery; for basket-work is Hilgenfeld still retains the older view. °Full information is to be literally a web of the coarsest materials. The ancient found in Baur, Kirchengeschichte, i.; Lipsius, Gnosticismus; Uhlhorn, Britons appear to have excelled in the art of basket-nıaking, Dus Basilideanische System; Mansel, Gnostic Heresies.
and their baskets were highly prized in Rome as we learn BASILISK, ---Baolliokos of the Greeks, and Tsepha from Martial (xiv. 99:(cockatrice) of the Hebrews,-a name applied by the ancients to a horrid monster of their own imagination, to
“Barbara de pictis veni bascauda Britannis; which they attributed the most malignant powers and
Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma suam." an equally fiendish appearance. The term is now applied, Among many uncivilized tribes at the present day owing to a certain fanciful resemblance, to a genus of Lizards baskets of a superior order are made and applied to various belonging to the family Iguanidæ, the species of which are useful purposes. The North American Indians prepare characterized by the presence of a membranous bag on the strong water-tight “Wattape” baskets from the roots of a crown of the head, which they can distend or contract at species of Abies, and these they frequently adorn with very will, and of a fin-like ridge along the back and part of the pretty patterns made from the dyed quills of their native tail. Both appendages are admirably adapted for aiding porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum. The Indians of South the basilisk in swimming, while they do not impede its America weave baskets equally useful from the fronds of movements on land,—its mode of life being partly aquatic, the Carnahuba and other palms. The Kaffres and Hottentots partly arboreal. The Mitred Basilisk occurs in Guiana, the of South Africa are similarly skilful in using the Ilala Hooded Basilisk in Amboyna.
reed and the roots of plants; while the tribes of central BASINGSTOKE, a market and borough town in the Africa and the Abyssinians display great adroitness in the county of Hants, 45 miles from London. It occupies a art of basket-weaving. pleasant situation, and has a good
Basket-making, however, has by no means been confined trade in corn and malt, which has
to the fabrication of those simple and useful utensils from been greatly facilitated by the canal
which its name is derived. Of old, the shields of soldiers which joins the rivers Wey and
were fashioned of wicker-work, either plain or covered Thames. The parish church, St
with hides; and the like has been witnessed among modern Michael's, is a spacious and hand
savages. In Britain the shields of the ancient warriors, some structure, dating from the
and also their huts, even up to the so-called palaces of the reign of Henry VIII. In the neigh
Saxon monarchs, were made of wicker-work; and their bourhood is Basing House, remark
boats of the same material, covered with the skins of able for its defence by the marquis
Arnis of basingstoke.
animals, attracted the notice of the Roinans. Herodotus of Winchester against the Parliamentary forces in 1645. mentions boats of this kind on the Tigris and Euphrates, but Population in 1871, 5574.
with this difference, that the former
seem to have been of BASKERVILLE, JOHN, a celebrated printer, and the the ordinary figure of a boat, whereas the latter were round introducer of many improvements in type-founding, was and were covered with bitumen. Boats of this shape, about born at Wolverley in Worcestershire in 1706, and died in 71 feet in diameter, are used at the present day on these 1775. About the age of twenty he became a writing- rivers ; and boats of analogous construction are employed master at Birmingham, and he seems to have had a in crossing the rivers of India which have not a rapid great talent for caligraphy and carving in stone. While at current. Nothing can be more expeditious or more simple Birmingham his attention was attracted to the business of than the fabrication and materials of these vessels, if they japanning, which he took up with great zeal. He made merit that name. One may be made by six men in as some important improvements in the process, and gained a many hours,-only two substances, hides and bamboo, considerable fortune. About the year 1750 he began to almost always accessible, being used. Window screens, make experiments in type-founding, and soon succeeded in perambulators, chairs, &c., are now largely made of basket