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velocity equal to that which they had before, they will | found in any respect defective, might at any moment tear carry their energy away with them into the ultramundane the whole universe atom from atom. regions. But if this be the case, then the corpuscules We must now leave these speculations about the nature rebounding from the body in any given direction will be of molecules and the cause of gravitation, and contemplate both in number and in velocity exactly equivalent to those the material universe as made up of molecules. Every which are prevented from proceeding in that direction by molecule, so far as we know, belongs to one of a definite being deflected by the body, and it may be shown that this number of species. The list of chemical elements may be will be the case whatever be the shape of the body, and taken as representing the known species which have been however many
bodies may be present in the field. Thus, the examined in the laboratories. Several of these have been rebounding corpuscules exactly make up for those which discovered by means of the spectroscope, and more may are deflected by the body, and there will be no excess of yet remain to be discovered in the same way. The specthe impacts on any other body in one direction or another. troscope has also been applied to analyse the light of the
The explanation of gravitation, therefore, falls to the sun, the brighter stars, and some of the nebulæ and comets, ground if the corpuscules are like perfectly elastic spheres, and has shown that the character of the light emitted by and rebound with a velocity of separation equal to that of these bodies is similar in some cases to that emitted by approach. If, on the other hand, they rebound with a terrestrial molecules, and in others to light from which the smaller velocity, the effect of attraction between the bodies molecules have absorbed certain rays. In this will no doubt be produced, but then we have to find what considerable number of coincidences have been traced becomes of the energy which the molecules have brought between the systems of lines belonging to particular with them but have not carried away.
terrestrial substances and corresponding lines in the spectra If any appreciable fraction of this energy is communicated of the heavenly bodies. to the body in the form of heat, the amount of heat so The value of the evidence furnished by such coincidences generated would in a few seconds raise it, and in like may be estimated by considering the degree of accuracy manner the whole material universe, to a white heat. with which one such coincidence may be observed. The
It has been suggested by Sir W. Thomson that the interval between the two lines which form Fraunhofer's corpuscules may be so constructed so to carry off their line D is about the five hundredth part of the interval energy with them, provided that part of their kinetic energy between B and Gon Kirchhoff's scale. A discordance is transformed, during impact, from energy of translation between the positions of two lines amounting to the tenth to energy of rotation or vibration. For this purpose the part of this interval, that is to say, the five thousandth corpuscules inust be material systems, not mere points. part of the length of the bright part of the spectrum, Thomson suggests that they are vortex atoms, which are would be very perceptible in a spectroscope of moderate set into a state of vibration at impact, and go off with a power. We may define the power of the spectroscope to smaller velocity of translation, but in a state of violent be the number of times which the smallest measurable vibration. He has also suggested the possibility of the interval is contained in the length of the visible spectrum. vortex corpuscule regaining its swiftness and losing part Let us denote this by p. In the case we have supposed p of its vibratory agitation by communion with its kindred will be about 5000. corpuscules in infinite space.
If the spectrum of the sun contains n lines of a certain We have devoted more space to this theory than it seems degree of intensity, the probability that any one line of the to deserve, because it is ingenious, and because it is the spectrum of a gas will coincide with one of these n lines is only theory of the cause of gravitation which has been so
-11 far developed as to be capable of being attacked and
, defended. It does not appear to us that it can account for
2 P the temperature of bodies remaining moderate while their and when p is large compared with n, this becomes atoms are exposed to the bombardment. The temperature of bodies must tend to approach that at which the average
nearly If there are r lines in the spectrum of the
p kinetic energy of a molecule of the body would be equal to gas, the probability that each and every one shall coincide the average kinetic energy
of an ultramundane corpuscule. Now, suppose a plane surface to exist which stops all the with a line in the solar spectrum is approximately
pa corpuscules. The pressure on this plane will be p=NMu? Hence, in the case of a gas whose spectrum contains several where M is the mass of a corpuscule, N the number in lines, we have to compare the results of two hypotheses. unit of volume, and u its velocity normal to the plane. If a large amount of the gas exists in the sun, we have the Now, we know that the very greatest pressure existing in strongest reason for expecting to find all the r lines in the the universe must be much less than the pressure p, which solar spectrum. If it does not exist, the probability that would be exerted against a body which stops all the p lines out of the n observed lines shall coincide with the corpuscules. We are also tolerably certain that N, the lines of the gas is exceedingly small. If, then, we find all number of corpuscules which are at any one time within the r lines in their proper places in the solar spectrum, we unit of volume, is small compared with the value of N for have very strong grounds for believing that the gas exists the molecules of ordinary bodies. Hence, Mu? must be in the sun. The probability that the gas exists in the sun enormous compared with the corresponding quantity for is greatly strengthened if the character of the lines as to ordinary bodies, and it follows that the impact of the relative intensity and breadth is found to correspond in corpuscules would raise all bodies to an enormous tempera- the two spectra. ture. We may also observe that according to this theory The absence of one or more lines of the gas in the solar the habitable universe, which we are accustomed to regard spectrum tends of course to weaken the probability, but as the scene of a magnificent illustration of the conservation the amount to be deducted from the probability must of energy as the fundamental principle of all nature, is in depend on what we know of the variation in the relative reality maintained in working order only by an enormous intensity of the lines when the temperature and the presexpenditure of external power, which would be nothing sure of the gas are made to vary. less than ruinous if the supply were drawn from anywhere Coincidences obse ed, in the case of several terrestrial else than from the infinitude of space, and which, if the substances, with several systems of lines in the spectra of contrivances of the most eminent mathematicians should be the heavenly bodies, tend to increase the evidence for the
doctrine that terrestrial substances exist in the heavenly | however, the generation of individuals is always going bodies, while the discovery of particular lines in a celestial on, each individual differing more or less from its spectrum which do not coincide with any line in a terres- parents. Each individual during its whole life is undertrial spectrum does not much weaken the general argument, going modification, and it either survives and propabut rather indicates either that a substance exists in the gates its species, or dies early, accordingly as it is more heavenly body not yet detected by chemists on earth, or that or less adapted to the circumstances of its environment. the temperature of the heavenly body is such that some Hence, it has been found possible to frame a theory of substance, undecomposable by our methods, is there split the distribution of organisms into species by means of up into components unknown to us in their separate state. generation, variation, and discriminative destruction. But
We are thus led to believe that in widely-separated parts a theory of evolution of this kind cannot be applied to the of the visible universe molecules exist of various kinds, the case of molecules, for the individual molecules neither are molecules of each kind having their various periods of born nor die, they have neither parents nor offspring, and vibration either identical, or so nearly identical that our so far from being modified by their environment, we find spectroscopes cannot distinguish them. We might argue that two molecules of the same kind, say of hydrogen, have from this that these molecules are alike in all other the same properties, though one has been compounded respects, as, for instance, in mass. But it is sufficient for with carbon and buried in the earth as coal for untold our present purpose to observe that the same kind of ages, while the other has been “occluded” in the iron molecule, say that of hydrogen, has the same set of periods of a meteorite, and after unknown wanderings in the of vibration, whether we procure the hydrogen from water, heavens has at last fallen into the hands of some terrestrial from coal, or from meteoric iron, and that light, having the chemist. same set of periods of vibration, comes to us from the sun, The process by which the molecules become distributed from Sirius, and from Arcturus.
into distinct species is not one of which we know any The same kind of reasoning which led us to believe that instances going on at present, or of which we have as yet hydrogen exists in the sun and stars, also leads us to believe been able to form any mental representation. If we suppose that the molecules of hydrogen in all these bodies had a that the molecules known to us are built up each of some common origin. For a material system capable of vibra- moderate number of atoms, these atoms being all of them tion may have for its periods of vibration any set of exactly alike, then we may attribute the limited number of values whatever. The probability, therefore, that two mate molecular species to the limited number of ways in which rial systems, quite independent of each other, shall have, the primitive atoms may be combined so as to form a to the degree of accuracy of modern spectroscopic measure- permanent system. ments, the same set of periods of vibration, is so very small But though this hypothesis gets rid of the difficulty of that we are forced to believe that the two systems are not accounting for the independent origin of different species independent of each other. When, instead of two such of molecules, it merely transfers the difficulty from the systems, we have innumerable multitudes all, having the known molecules to the primitive atoms. How did the same set of periods, the argument is immensely strength- atoms come to be all alike in those properties which are in ened.
themselves capable of assuming any value ? Admitting, then; tuat there is a real relation between If we adopt the theory of Boscovich, and assert that the any two molecules of hydrogen, let us consider what this primitive atom is a mere centre of force, having a certain relation may be.
definite mass, we may get over the difficulty about the We may conceive of a mutual action between one body equality of the mass of all atoms by laying it down as a and another tending to assimilate them. Two clocks, for doctrine which cannot be disproved by experiment, that instance, will keep time with each other if connected by a mass is not a quantity capable of continuous increase or wooden rod, though they have different rates if they were dis- diminution, but that it is in its own nature discontinuous, connected. But even if the properties of a molecule were as like number, the atom being the unit, and all masses being capable of modification as those of a clock, there is no physical multiples of that unit. We have no evidence that it is connection of a sufficient kind between Sirius and Arcturus. possible for the ratio of two masses to be an incommensur
There are also methods by which a large number of able quantity, for the incommensurable quantities in bodies differing from each other may be sorted into sets, so geometry are supposed to be traced out in a continuous than those in each set more or less resemble each other. medium. If matter is atomic, and therefore discontinuous, In the manufacture of small shot this is done by making it is unfitted for the construction of perfect geometrical the shot roll down an inclined plane. The largest specimens models, but in other respects it may fulfil its functions. acquire the greatest velocities, and are projected farther But even if we adopt a theory which makes the equality than the smaller ones. In this way the various pellets, of the mass of different atoms a result depending on the which differ both in size and in roundness, are sorted into nature of mass rather than on any quantitative adjustment, different kinds, those belonging to each kind being nearly the correspondence of the periods of vibration of actual of the same size, and those which are not tolerably spherical molecules is a fact of a different order. being rejected altogether.
We know that radiations exist having periods of vibration If the molecules were originally as various as these leaden of every value between those corresponding to the limits pellets, and were afterwards sorted into kinds, we should of the visible spectrum, and probably far beyond these have to account for the disappearance of all the molecules limits on both sides. The most powerful spectroscope can which did not fall under one of the very limited number deteet no gap or discontinuity in the spectrum of the light of kinds known to us; and to get rid of a number of emitted by incandescent lime. indestructible bodies, exceeding by far the number of the The period of vibration of a luminous particle is therefore molecules of all the recognised kinds, would be one of the a quantity which in itself is capable of assuming any one severest labours ever proposed to a cosmogonist.
of a series of values, which, if not mathematically conIt is well known that living beings may be grouped into tinuous, is such that consecutive observed values differ a certain number of species, defined with more or less preci- from each other by less than the ten thousandth part of sion, and that it is difficult or impossible to find a series of either. There is, therefore, nothing in the nature of time individuals forming the links of a continuous chain between itself to prevent the period of vibration of a molecule from one species and another. In the case of living beings, I assuming any one of many thousand different observable values. That which determines the period of any particular But the equality of the constants of the molecules is a kind of vibration is the relation which subsists between the fact of a very different order. It arises from a particular corresponding type of displacement and the force of restitu- distribution of matter, a collocation, to use the expression tion thereby called into play, a relation involving constants of Dr Chalmers, of things which we have no difficulty in of space and time as well as of mass.
imagining to have been arranged otherwise. But many of It is the equality of these space- and time-constants the ordinary instances of collocation are adjustments of for all molecules of the same kind which we have next to constants, which are not only arbitrary in their own nature, consider. We have seen that the very different circum- but in which variations actually occur; and when it is stances in which different molecules of the same kind have pointed out that these adjustments are beneficial to living been placed have not, even in the course of many ages, beings, and are therefore instances of benevolent design, it produced any appreciable difference in the values of these is replied that those variations which are not conducive to constants. If, then, the various processes of nature to the growth and multiplication of living beings tend to their which these molecules have been subjected since the world destruction, and to the removal thereby of the evidence of began have not been able in all that time to produce any any adjustment not beneficial. appreciable difference between the constants of one mole- The constitution of an atom, however, is such as to cule and those of another, we are forced to conclude that it render it, so far as we can judge, independent of all the is not to the operation of any of these processes that the dangers arising from the struggle for existence. Plausible uniformity of the constants is due.
reasons may, no doubt, be assigned for believing that if the The formation of the molecule is therefore an event not constants had varied from atom to atom through any belonging to that order of nature under which we live. sensible range, the bodies formed by aggregates of such It is an operation of a kind which is not, so far as we are atoms would not have been so well fitted for the construcaware, going on on earth or in the sun or the stars, tion of the world as the bodies which actually exist. But either now or since these bodies began to be formed. as we have no experience of bodies formed of such variable It must be referred to the epoch, not of the formation of atoms this must remain a bare conjecture. the earth or of the solar system, but of the establishment Atoms have been compared by Sir J. Herschel to of the existing order of nature, and till not only these manufactured articles, on account of their uniformity. worlds and systems, but the very order of nature itself is The uniformity of manufactured articles may be traced to dissolved, we bave no reason to expect the occurrence of very different motives on the part of the manufacturer. any operation of a similar kind.
In certain cases it is found to be less expensive as regards In the present state of science, therefore, we have strong trouble, as well as cost, to make a great many objects reasons for believing that in a molecule, or if not in a exactly alike than to adapt each to its special requirements
. molecule, in one of its component atoms, we have something Thus, shoes for soldiers are made in large numbers without which has existed either from eternity or at least from any designed adaptation to the feet of particular men. In times anterior to the existing order of nature. But besides another class of cases the uniformity is intentional, and is this atoni, there are immense numbers of other atoms of designed to make the manufactured article more valuable. the same kind, and the constants of each of these atoms Thus, Whitworth’s bolts are made in a certain number of are incapable of adjustment by any process now in action. sizes, so that if one bolt is lost, another may be got at once, Each is physically independent of all the others.
and accurately fitted to its place. The identity of the arrangeWhether or not the conception of a multitude of beings ment of the words in the different copies of a document existing from all eternity is in itself self-contradictory, the or book is a matter of great practical importance, and it is conception becomes palpably absurd when we attribute a more perfectly secured by the process of printing than by relation of quantitative equality to all these beings. We are that of manuscript copying. then forced to look beyond them to some common cause or In a third class not a part only but the whole of the common origin to explain why this singular relation of value of the object arises from its exact conformity to a equality exists, rather than any one of the infinite number given standard. Weights and measures belong to this of possible relations of inequality.
class, and the existence of many well-adjusted material Science is incompetent to reason upon the creation of standards of weight and measure in any country furnishes matter itself out of nothing. We have reached the utmost evidence of the existence of a system of law regulating the limit of our thinking faculties when we have admitted that, transactions of the inhabitants, and enjoining in all probecause matter cannot be eternal and self-existent, it must fessed measures a conformity to the national standard. have been created. It is only when we contemplate not There are thus three kinds of usefulness in manufactured matter in itself, but the form in which it actually exists, articles—cheapness, serviceableness, and quantitative accuthat our mind finds something on which it can lay hold. racy. Which of these was present to the mind of Sir J.
That matter, as such, should have certain fundamental Herschel we cannot now positively affirm, but it was at properties, that it should have a continuous existence in least as likely to have been the last as the first, though it space and time, that all action should be between two seems more probable that he meant to assert that a number portions of matter, and so on, are truths which may, for of exactly similar things cannot be each of them eternal aught we know, be of the kind which metaphysicians call and self-existent, and must therefore have been made, and necessary. We may use our knowledge of such truths for that he used the phrase "manufactured article to suggest purposes of deduction, but we have no data for speculating the idea of their being made in great numbers. on their origin.
(J. C. M.
ATOOI, one of the larger Sandwich Islands, in the The chief ports are Waimea and Hanalei
. The island was South Pacific Ocean. Towards the N.E. and N.W. the one of the stations chosen for the observation of the transit country is rugged and broken, but to the southward it is of Venus in 1874. It is nearly 40 miles in length, and more level. The hills from the sea with a gentle contains about 10,000 inhabitants. Long. 159° 40' W., acclivity, and, at a little distance back, are covered with lat. 21° 57' N. wood; the central peaks attain an elevation of 7000 feet. ATRATO, a river of Colombia, South America, which,
after a course of 250 miles, almost due N., for the most cloister, situated between the porch or vestibule and the part through a low and swampy region, falls into the Gulf body of the church. In the centre was placed a fountain, of Uraba or Darien. The gold and platinum mines of wherein the worshippers washed their hands before enterChoco were on some of its affluents, and its sands are still ing church. In the atrium those who were not suffered auriferous. The river has attracted considerable attention to advance farther, and more particularly the first class of in connection with schemes for the construction of a ship- penitents, stood to solicit the prayers of the faithful as canal across the isthmus. It is navigable for small vessels they went into the church. It was also used as a buryingfor about 140 miles.
ground, at first only for distinguished persons, but afterATREK or ATTRUCK, a river which rises in the moun- wards for all believers. tains of Khorasan, and flows W. along the borders of Persia ATROPHY (a priv., Tpooń, nourishment), a term in and the Russian possessions, till it falls in the south-eastern medicine used to describe a state of wasting due to some corner of the Caspian, a short distance to the N. of interference with the function of healthy nutrition. In Ashurada.
the living organism there are ever at work changes involvATREUS, in Greek Legend, a son of Pelops, had, with ing the waste of its component tissues, which render neceshis brother Thyestes, settled in Mycenæ, where he succeeded sary, in order to the preservation of life, the supply and Eurystheus in the sovereignty, in which he was secured proper assimilation of nutritive material. It is also essenby the possession of a lamb or ram with a golden fleece. tial for the maintenance of health that a due relation exist His wife Aërope, a daughter of Minos, bribed by Thyestes, between these processes of waste and repair, so that the assisted the latter to carry off the ram. But Zeus, in the one may not be in excess of the other. When the approinterest of Atreus, wrought a miracle, causing the sun priation of nutriment exceeds the waste, hypertrophy or which before had risen in the west to rise in the east. increase in bulk of the tissues takes place. (See HYPERThyestes was driven from Mycenæ, but returned to his TROPHY.) When, on the other hand, the supply of nutritive brother begging to be forgiven. Atreus, appearing to matter is suspended or diminished, or when the power of welcome him, invited him to a banquet to eat of his own assimilation is impaired, atrophy or wasting is the result. son, whom he had slain. From this crime followed the ills Thus the whole body becomes atrophied in many diseases ; which befel Agamemnon, the son of Atreus (Æschylus, and in old age every part of the frame, with the single Agam. 1583, foll.)
exception of the heart, undergoes atrophic change. Atrophy ATRI or Atria, the ancient Hadria, a town of Naples, may, however, affect single organs or parts of the body, in the province of Abruzzo Ulteriore I., situated on a steep irrespective of the general state of nutrition, and this may mountain 5 miles from the Adriatic, and 18 miles S.E. of be brought about in a variety of ways. One of the most Teramo. It is the see of a bishop, and has a cathedral, a frequently observed of such instances is atrophy from parish church, and several convents and hospitals. It con- disuse, or cessation of function. Thus, when a limb is tains 9877 inhabitants. Remains of the ancient city have deprived of the natural power of motion, either by paralysis been discovered to the S. of the present site, consisting of or by painful joint disease, the condition of exercise essenthe ruins of a theatre and baths, with pavements, and vases tial to its nutrition being no longer fulfilled, atrophy of all of Greek manufacture. It was a very flourishing commercial its textures sooner or later takes place. The brain in port at an early period, but had declined into a small town imbeciles is frequently observed to be shrivelled, and in in the time of Strabo. Its modern revival has been many cases of blindness there is atrophy of the optic nerve furthered by the excavation of new canals.
and optic tract. This form of atrophy is likewise well ATRIUM, the principal apartment in a Roman house, exemplified in the case of those organs and structures of was entered through the ostium or janua, which opened the body which subserve important ends during fætal life, off the vestibulum, a clear space between the middle of the but which, ceasing to be necessary after birth, undergo a house and the street, formed by the projection of the two sort of natural atrophy, such as the thymus gland, and sides. It was generally quadrangular in shape, and was certain vessels specially concerned in the fatal circulation. roofed all over, with the exception of a square opening, The uterus after parturition undergoes a certain amount called compluvium, towards which the roofs sloped, and by of atrophy, and the ovaries, after the child-bearing period, which the rain-water was conducted down to a basin become shrunken. Atrophy of a part may also be caused (impluvium) fixed in the floor. The opening in the roof by interruption to its normal blood supply, as in the case seems sometimes to have been called impluvium (Terence, of the ligature or obstruction of an artery. Again, long Eun., iii. 5; Phorm., iv. 4). In the early periods of standing disease, by affecting the nutrition of an organ and Roman civilisation, the atrium was the common public apart- by inducing the deposit of morbid products, may result in ment, and was used for the reception of visitors and clients, atrophy, as frequently happens in affections of the liver and for ordinary domestic purposes, as cooking and dining and kidneys. Parts that are subjected to continuous presIn it were placed the ancestral pictures, the marriage-couch, sure are liable to become atrophied, as is sometimes seen the focus, or hearth, and generally a small altar. Here, in internal organs which have been pressed upon by too, were kept the looms at which the mistress of the house tumours or other morbid growths, and is well illustrated in sat and span with her maid-servants. At a somewhat later the case of the feet of Chinese ladies, which are prevented period, and among the wealthy, separate apartments were from growing by persistent compression exercised from built for kitchens and dining-rooms, and the atrium was birth. Atrophy may manifest itself simply by loss of subkept as a general reception room for clients and visitors.stance ; but, on the other hand, it is often found to co-exist It appears sometimes to have been called cavædium, but with degenerative changes in the textures affected and the the relation of these two is somewhat obscure. According formation of adventitious growth, so that the part may not to some authorities, the cavædium was simply the open be reduced in bulk although atrophied as regards its proper space formed when the impluvium was surrounded with structure. Thus, in the case of the heart, when affected pillars to support the roof ; according to others, the cave- with fatty degeneration, there is atrophy of the proper dium was really the principal room, to which the atrium muscular texture, which, however, being largely replaced served as an antechamber.
by fatty matter, the organ may undergo no diminution in Atrium, in Ecclesiastical Antiquities, denotes an open volume, but may, on the contrary, be increased in size. place or court before a church. It consisted of a large area Atrophy is usually a gradual and slow process, but someor square plat of ground, surrounded with a portico or times it proceeds rapidly. In the disease known by the
name of acute yellow atrophy of the liver, that organ under- cretion, in the same manner as upon a conviction for a goes such rapidly destructive change as results in its misdemeanour at common law. Sir W. Blackstone observes shrinking to half, or one-third, of its normal size in the that “this method of making the defendant answer upon course of a few days.
oath to a criminal charge is not agreeable to the genius The term progressive muscular atrophy (synonyms, of the common law in any other instance," and it may wasting or creeping palsy) is applied to an affection of the be added that the elasticity of the legal definitions of muscular system, which is characterised by the atrophy contempt of court, especially with respect to and subsequent paralysis of certain muscles, or groups of ments on judicial proceedings, is the subject of much commuscles, and is associated with morbid changes in the plaint. anterior roots of the nerves of the spinal cord. This ATTACHMENT OUT OF CHANCERY enforced answers disease begins insidiously, and is often first observed to and obedience to decrees and orders of that court, now affect the muscles of one hand, generally the right. The merged in the High Court of Justice under the Judicature attention of the sufferer is first attracted by the power of Act, 1873, and was made out without order upon an affithe hand becoming weakened, and then there is found to davit of the due service of the process, &c., with whose be a wasting of certain of its muscles, particularly those of requirements compliance was sought. A corporation, howthe ball of the thumb. Gradually other muscles in the ever, is proceeded against by distringas and not by attacharms and legs become affected in a similar manner, their ment. It was formerly competent to the plaintiff to atrophy being attended with a corresponding diminution in compel the appearance of a defendant in Chancery by power. Although sometimes arrested, this disease tends attachment, but the usual course was to enter appearance to progress, involving additional muscles, until in course for him in case of default. By the proposed rules of time the greater part of the muscular system is impli- | under the Judicature Act, 1873, a writ of attachment is cated, and a fatal result ensues,
(J. O. A.) to have the same force and effect as the old attachment ATROPOS (a priv., and Tpételv, to turn), the eldest of the out of Chancery. It is one of the modes of execution three Moirai, Parcæ, or Fates. Her name, The Unalter- allowed for the recovery of property other than land or able, indicates the part generally played by her, viz., that of money. rendering the decisions of her sisters irreversible or immut- ATTACHMENT OF THE FOREST is the proceeding in the able. This is the function ascribed to her by Plato (Rep., Courts of Attachments, Woodmote, or Forty Days' Courts. x. 620), who also assigns to her supremacy over future These courts have now fallen into absolute desuetude. They events (617). Ancient authorities, however, are not were held before the verderers of the royal forests in difunanimous in their distribution of the parts of the three ferent parts of the kingdom once in every forty days, for
Atropos is most frequently represented with scales, the purpose of inquiring into all offences against "vert a sun-dial, or a cutting instrument, the “abhorred shears,” and venison." The attachment is by the bodies of the with which she slits the thin-spun thread of life that has offenders, if taken in the very act of killing venison, or been placed on the spindle by Clotho and drawn off by stealing wood, or preparing so to do, or by fresh and Lachesis. See PARCÆ,
immediate pursuit after the act is done; else they must be ATTACHMENT, in English Law, is a process from a attached by their goods. These attachments were received court of record, awarded by the justices at their discretion, by the verderers and enrolled, and certified under their on a bare suggestion, or on their own knowledge, and is seals to the Court of Justice seat, or Sweinmote, which properly grantable in cases of contempt. It differs from formed the two superior of the forest courts. arrest, in that he who arrests a man carries him to a person ATTACHMENT, FOREIGN, is an important custom prevailing of higher power to be forthwith disposed of ; but he that in the city of London, whereby a creditor may attach money attaches keeps the party attached, and presents him in owing to his debtor, or property belonging to him in the court at the day assigned, as appears by the words of the possession of third parties. The person holding the prowrit. Another difference is, that arrest is only upon the perty or owing the money must be within the city at the body of a man, whereas an attachment is often upon his time of being served with the process, but all persons are goods. It is distinguished from distress in not extending entitled to the benefit of the custom. The plaintiff having to lands, as the latter does ; nor does a distress touch the commenced his action, and made a satisfactory affidavit of body, as an attachment does. Every court of record has his debt, is entitled to issue attachment, which thereupon power to fine and imprison for contempt of its authority. affects all the money or property of the defendant in the Attachment being merely a process to bring the defendant hands of the third party, who in these proceedings is called before the court, is not necessary in cases of contempt in the garnishee. The garnishee, of course, has as against the the presence of the court itself. Attachment will be attachment all the defences which would be available to granted against peers and members of Parliament, only for him against the defendant, his alleged creditor. The such gross contempts as rescues, disobedience to the Queen's garnishee may plead payment under the attachment, if writs, and the like. Attachment will not lie against a there has been no fraud or collusion, in bar to an action corporation. The County Courts in this respect are regu- by the defendant for his debt or property. The court to lated by the 9 and 10 Vict. c. 95, $ 113, and the 12 and which this process belongs is the Mayor's Court of London, 13 Vict. c. 101, § 2. They can only punish for contempts the procedure in which is regulated by 20 and 21 Vict. c. committed in presence of the court. (See CONTEMPT OF 157. This custom, and all proceedings relating thereto, Court.) Attachments are granted on a rule in the first are expressly exempted from the operation of the Debtor's instance to show cause, which must be personally served Act, 1869. Similar customs exist in Bristol and a few before it can be made absolute, except for non-payment of other towns in England, and also in Scotland. See costs on a master's allocatur, and against a sheriff for not ARREST and ARRESTMENT. obeying a rule to return a writ or to bring in the body. ATTACHMENT OF DEBTS.—It was suggested by the The offender is then arrested, and when committed will be common law commissioners in 1853 that a remedy compelled to answer interrogatories, exhibited against him analogous to that of Foreign Attachment might be made by the party at whose instance the proceedings have been available to creditors, after judgment, against debts due to had; and the examination when taken is referred to the their debtors. Accordingly, the Common Law Procedure master, who reports thereon, and on the contempt being Act, 1854, enacted that any creditor, having obtained reported, the court gives judgment according to its dis- I judgment in the superior courts, should have an order that