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Thesean συνοικισ.


kroor is the nuäduural deme of Melite, a name derived, | Apollo near the Olympium, was also ascribed to Pisis-
.Derhaps, from. the balm which then grew there (the evódns tratus, whose grandson and namesake dedicated an altar
uile che ut Theocta : :25). The historian E. Curtius within it (Thucyd., vi. 54). To Pisistratus was ascribed

Atstte: Smedien, gt: 1.has, indeed, gone so far as to the founding of the Lyceium, or temple of Apollo Lyceius, Lyceum.
regard: these Toekadwellings as earlier than the occupa: which stood on the right bank of the Ilissus, a short
tiqi öf: the Aviapolis itself. But the contrary opinion of distance from the city. The names both of Pericles and
Thucydides is worth something, and the natural strength Lycurgus the orator are also associated with this building ;
of the Acropolis would make it the most obvious spot for yet it is not known who added the gymnasium close by,
primitive occupation. Accordingly, we shall not be giving which afterwards became famous as the favourite haunt of
too free a licence to our imagination if we conceive of Aristotle, and the birthplace of the Peripatetic philosophy.
primitive Athens as a twofold settlement, partly on the The yet more famous seat of the rival philosophy seems
Acropolis and the low ground at its southern foot, and also to have owed something to the Pisistratids, for
partly upon the eastern slopes of the hills on the west. It Hipparchus was said to have enclosed the Academy with a Academs.
may even have been the consolidation of these two villages wall

. This was a gymnasium surrounded by pleasant into one township that gave rise to the legend ascribing to gardens lying to the N. of the city, about a mile from Theseus the συνοικισμος or consolidation of Attica. . It the Dipylum gate. It owes all its fame, of course, to its

would be natural for legend to assign to one definite time, connection with Plato, who lived, taught, and was buried μός. .

and connect with one great mythical name, that process of l there. This site, so full of glorious memories, cannot now
unification which probably was as gradual as it was be identified with certainty. Its trees, like those of the
spontaneous. As the population of the early town con- Lyceium, were despoiled by Sulla to make implements of
tinued to increase, two more districts seem to have been in The name of Pisistratus is connected with another The Agor
corporated-Collytus, extending from the east of Melite, important site. Professor E. Curtius (Attische Studien, pt.
between the Acropolis and Areopagus, and Cerameicus, or 2), supposes that the most ancient Athenian market lay on
the “ Potters' quarter” (“Tuileries"), which extended from the S. of the Acropolis, and that the Pisistratids superseded
the same two hills towards the north and north-west. The it by a new market at the northern foot of the Areopagus.
regions we have now described appear to have made up Be this as it may, we are sure that, as early as their times,
the Athens of Solonian times. The earliest historical this site formed the centre of Athenian commercial and
event which illustrates Athenian topography is the rising civic life. The narrow valley between the Pnyx Hill and
of Cylon (Herod., v. 71; Thucyd., i. 126 ; Pausan., i. 28). the Areopagus, where older topographers placed the
The narratives of that event imply that the Acropolis was Agora, is not a spacious enough site for the purpose. The
already fortified by the Enneapylum, that the Areopagus obvious locality for an Agora would be the rectangular
was already the seat of the court which bore its name (see space enclosed by_the Areopagus on the S., by the

AREOPAGUS), and that near the entrance of the citadel | Acropolis on the E., and on the W. by the eminence Altar of stood an altar of the Semnæ, or Furies, at which Cylon occupied by the Theseium. To the N. and N.E. no barrier the Semnæ. and his partisans were slain. This altar has been immor- existed ; accordingly, the entrance was from the Dipylum

talised by Æschylus in the splendid conclusion of the gate on the N.W., and on the N.E. the market received Leocoriun. Eumenides. Another sacred spot in early Athens must extension in Roman times. The Agora thus stood in the

have been the Leocorium, where Hipparchus was assassin-region known as Cerameicus. But as the Cerameicus
ated (Thucyd., i. 20 ; vi. 57). This was a shrine erected in extended for some miles in a N.W. direction, it became
honour of the daughters of Leo, who were sacrificed by divided by the city wall into the outer and the inner Outer
their father to Athena, in order to avert a pestilence. Cerameicus. The outer Cerameicus was

an agreeable inner The nature of the legend testifies to the antiquity of the suburb, lying on the road to the Academy and Colonus, meicy

site. The words of Thucydides respecting Cylon imply the home of Sophocles; and it was here that citizens who Early city that the early city was already surrounded by a ring-wall, died in their country's wars received a public burial.

and this probably remained intact until the invasion of the Through gate Dipylum one passed into the inner CerameiPersians, although the buildings within the walls under-cus, the most important quarter of which was naturally the went great alteration and improvements under the govern- | Agora itself ; and so it was common to speak of the Agora ment of Pisistratus and his sons.

“ The Cerameicus." How much this market-place The Pisis The reign of the Pisistratids was recognised by the may have owed to the designs of the Pisistratids we

ancients as marking an important era in Athenian topo- cannot now determine. The statues of Harmodius and graphy. We have already mentioned the fountain of Aristogiton formed a conspicuous ornament of the south

Enneacrunus as being built by them. It was Pisistratus portion, and Thucydides (vi. 54) informs us that the Olympium, who laid the foundations of the great temple of Zeus grandson and namesake of Pisistratus adorned the Agora

Olympius upon the ancient site above mentioned. His by building the altar of the twelve gods. If the Agora
magnificent design had an eventful history : left unfinished belongs to the age of Pisistratus, some of the civic build-
by its author, the Athenians, perhaps from dislike to lings within it would also be coeval with him.
the “tyrant,” made no effort to complete it. At length, | the Stoa Basileius, or Portico, where the archon basileius
after receiving additions from various foreign princes, it presided ; the Bouleuterium, where the senate of 500 held
was completed by Hadrian (c. 130 A.D.), and formed the its sittings; the Tholus close by it, where the Prytanes of
grandest edifice in the region of the city which, in acknow- the senate sacrificed—a circular building with a dome of
ledgment of the imperial munificence, was called Hadrian- stone, from whence it gained its name; and the Prytan-
opolis. The Olympium was one of the largest temples in eium, said to be founded by Theseus (Thucyd., ii. 15),

the world ; but of its 124 Corinthian columns only 15 are which contained the hearth-fire of the state, and where Pythium. now standing. The Pythium, or sanctuary of the Pythian the Prytanes and public benefactors had the privilege of

dining at the public expense.

The statues of the ten Many of the names of the Attic demes, and indeed of Greek local heroes (eponymi), who gave their names to the Athenian names everywhere, were derived from plants and flowers ; see Tozer's tribes, decorated the Agora probably from the first ; Lectures on the Geography of Greece, p: 338: “The most plausible against these statues were affixed public notices and derivation that has been suggested for the name 'Adîvai is from åt-, the root of avoos, a flower ; and Lobeck proposed to translate it by proclamations. Other buildings in the Agora of later and * Florentia.'"-(ibid., p. 161).

ascertained dates will be enumerated in their proper place.




Such were


Clisthe The revolution which expelled the Pisistratids (510 B.C.), a large scale, hewing out what is still known as the benia,
nean age and gave Athens a free government, left its mark upon the giving the semicircular wall a wider sweep, and raising
The Pelas- topography of the city. The old Pelasgic fortress (rò the tiers of seats at least to a level with the new bema,
gicum. 'Evveámulov), in which the tyrants ” had for a time held if not above it. For there is no reason to suppose that

out, was now broken down, and the site occupied by its the surface of the lower terrace has undergone no change
ruins was devoted by the Delphic oracle to eternal in the lapse of centuries, or that the “ Cyclopean” wall
desolation. Only in the Peloponnesian war, when the surrounding it never exceeded its present height.
country population was crowded within the city walls, do A building of greater architectural importance and of The Diony.
we read of this spot being occupied by dwellings (Thucyd., equal interest belongs to this same period. Dramatic siac theatre,
ii. 17). Another work which may probably be assigned performances at Athens originally took place in wooden

to the age of Clisthenes is the first arrangement of the theatres extemporised for the occasion; but the fall of The Pryz. Pnyx, or place of public assembly. The hill that is one of these led, in the year 500 B.C., to the erection of

commonly known as the Pnyx Hill contains one of the the marble theatre on a site already consecrated to
most remarkable ruins in Athens; the silence, however, Dionysus as the Lenæum, upon the S.E. slope of the
of Pausanius respecting what was probably in his day Acropolis. (Suidas, 8. v. IIparivas.) We may be sure
already a mere ruin has occasioned some doubt concerning that the first stone theatre was comparatively simple in
its proper identification. The spot in question consists of construction, consisting of a kollov or auditorium, with
two terraces sloping down the hill towards the Areopagus, tiers of rock-hewn seats, and an ópxnotpá, or space for the
from S.W. to N.E. The upper terrace, indeed, does not chorus, while the stage itself and its furniture were of
slope, but is levelled out of the solid rock near the summit wood. The excavation of the Dionysiac theatre in 1862
of the hill, being about 65 yards in length (E. to W.), has made every one familiar with the row of marble
and about 43 in breadth at its broadest part (N. to s.) thrones for the various priests and officers of state, the
It is bounded at the back (S.) by a rock-wall, and at the elaborate masonry of the stage, the orchestra floor, and
W. end there stands a cubical block, allowed to rise out other features. But these and other interesting decora-
of the solid rock when this upper terrace was levelled. tions of the theatre belong to a later age. It was under
There is good reason for considering this as the altar for the administration of Lycurgus the orator (337 B.C.) that
the sacrifices (teplotia) with which every assembly of the the building was first really completed; and many of the
ecclesia was opened (Bursian, Philologus, 1854, p. 369, foll.; sculptures which have been lately brought to light belong
Dyer, Athens, p. 462). The lower and considerably larger to a restoration of the theatre in the 2d, or perhaps even
terrace is separated from the upper terrace by another wall in the 3d, century A.D.?
cut out of the solid rock. This wall, which is nearly 126 Enough has now been said of the condition of Athens
yards long, is not quite straight, but encroaches slightly upon before the Persian War. It was surrounded by a ring-wall Thesean
the upper terrace, and forms at the centre a very obtuse angle of narrow circuit, some doubtful traces of which are sup wall.
At this point there rises, projecting from the wall, a large posed to remain. At its centre stood the Acropolis, already
cubical mass, cut out of the solid rock, resembling somewhat, crowded with temples and sanctuaries, some upon the
though on a larger scale, the altar described above. It is summit, some built at its foot, and others—like the famous
itself 11 feet square and 5 feet high, and stands on a plat- grotto of Pan, on the N.W. slope-mere caves in its rocky Grotto of
form consisting of three very massive steps. This remarkable sides.
monument has been recognised by tradition as the orála tou The Persian invasion, which forced the Athenians to take After the
Anmooéveos, and almost every traveller since Chandler's refuge in their “ wooden walls,” and to leave their city at Persian
time has regarded it as no other than the famous bema of the mercy of the barbarian, marked an important epoch in war.
the ancient Athenian assembly. The rock-wall from which the annals of Athenian building. Upon the retreat of Mar-
it projects forms the chord of a vast semicircular space, the donius, the Athenians returned to Attica to find their city
enclosure of its are being a wall of “Cyclopean” masonry. virtually in ruins. Its fortifications and public buildings
The radius of the semicircle measures between 76 and 77 had been destroyed or burnt, and the private dwellings
yards from this outer wall to the bema. Here, then, was had been wantonly defaced or ruined by neglect. Amid
the auditorium of the Pnyx. But several difficulties beset the enthusiasm of hope which followed upon the great
the identification. Towards the bottom of the lower bema deliverance of Greece, a natural impulse led the Athenians
Prof. E. Curtius (Attische Studien, pt. i.) has discovered to rear their city more glorious from its ruins. Themis-
another similar though smaller bema. Again, Plutarch tocles fanned their patriotism with the foresight of a
asserts that the bema which had originally faced towards statesman, and Athens rose again with marvellous rapidity.
the sea was by the Thirty Tyrants turned round the other This haste, however, though creditable to their patriotism,
way, in their hatred of the maritime democracy. More- and, indeed, necessary in order to forestall the jealous op-
over, if the block of marble above mentioned be rightly position of Sparta, was not without its evils. The houses
identified as the bema, then it would have the auditorium were rebuilt on their old sites, and the lines of the old
sloping downwards from it, an arrangement ill suited for streets, narrow and irregular as they had been, were too
addressing a tumultuous popular assembly. Dr Curtius readily followed. A similar haste marked the rebuilding of
accordingly pronounces the entire identification to be a the city walls, a work in which men and women, old and
mistake, and would regard this spot as a primitive precinct young, took zealous part, not scrupling to dismantle any
and rock-altar of the Most High Zeus. It would not be building or monument, private or public, which could sup-
difficult, if space allowed, to disprove Dr Curtius's theory. ply materials for the building. But in rebuilding the walls Rebuilding
Far more reasonable is the view of Dr Dyer (Athens, App. Themistocles gave them a wider circuit, especially towards of the
iii.) He thinks that the lower and smaller bema dis- the N. and N.E. (Thucyd., i. 90, 93). At the same time walls.
covered by Dr Curtius was the bema of Clisthenes, which he determined to construct new harbours, and to fortify
did (however much Plutarch's statement is discredited by the Piræeus, regarding the navy of Athens as her principal
his own absurd explanation) face in the direction of the source of strength. It is doubtful whether the “ Long
sea. The orator would thus speak from the arc of the Walls” formed a distinct portion of his designs ; but he
semicircle, having the audience above him. The Thirty may certainly be regarded as the founder of the greatness
may well have defaced the Pnyx, and it would have been

1 The best account yet given of the Dionysiac theatre is to be found
natural for Thrasybulus after the anarchy to restore it on in Dr Dyer's ascent work on Athens.




of Athens, the works and embellishments carried cut by Hippodamus, the eccentric architect, planned the Agora
Pericles being only a fulfilment of the far-sighted aims of which bore his name; and the various public buildings
Themistocles. Thucydides (ii. 13) makes the circuit of the which adorned Piræeus doubtless arose with growth of
city wall to be 43 stades (about 51 miles), exclusive of the Athenian commerce. The harbour-basin was lined with
unguarded space between walls; this is found to correspond porticoes, which served as warehouses and bazaars. Two
accurately enough with the existing remains. In tracing theatres existed in the town, and numerous temples.
the circuit of the ancient walls, we may take our start from The local deity was Artemis Munychia ; but the large
the N.W. side of the city, at the one gate whose site is number of foreigners (uéTOLKOI) who became naturalised at
absolutely certain, the Thriasian gate (called also the Sacred this port led to the introduction of many foreign forms of
gate, as opening upon the sacred way to Eleusis, and also worship. Artemis herself came to be identified with the
TÒ Aímulov, as consisting of two gates, perhaps one within Thracian Bendis, and her festival (Tà Bevdídela) is referred
the other), which is marked by the modern church of the to in the immortal opening of Plato's Republic.
Holy Trinity, a little N. of the bottom of Hermes Street If not a part of the original designs of Themistocles, it Long walls,
a spot attractive to the modern tourist through the beautiful was at least a natural development of them, to carry “ Long -
“street of tombs” here laid bare by recent excavations. Walls” from the newly-fortified Piraeus to the upper city,
From the Thriasian gate the wall of Themistocles ran due and thus combine them both into one grand system of
E. for some distance; thence, skirting the modern theatre, fortification. The experiment of connecting a town by
it ran N.E., parallel to the modern Piræeus Street as far as long walls with its port had been already tried between
the Bank, when it returned in a S.E. direction across the Megara and Nisæa (Grote, Hist. Greece, c. xlv.), and it was
site of the present Mint, as far as the Chamber of Deputies. now repeated on a grander scale under Cimon. From the
Thence towards the S.E. it included nearly all the modern portion of the city wall between the Museium and the
Royal Gardens, and then ran S.W., following the zig-zag Nymphs' Hill a sort of bastion was thrown out to S.W.
of the hills above the north bank of the Ilissus, until as to form an irregular triangle, from the apex of which a
westwards by a straight course parallel with the Acropolis“ long wall," about 4 miles long, was carried down to the
it reached the Museium Hill. Thence it may be traced in N. portion of the Piræean fortifications; this was termed
a direction N. W. and N., following more or less the contour Tò Bópelov teixos. Another “long wall” of somewhat
of the hills, until we return to our starting point at the shorter length ran down to the wall of Phalerum, which
Dipylum gate. Eight other gates (exclusive of wickets, had hitherto served as the port of Athens ; this was tò
muides, which must have existed) are mentioned by an- Palnplkòv teixos. A third wall, between the two, parallel
cient authors—the Piræan, Hippades, Melitides, Itonian, to the first, and but a few yards from it (Tò vóriov teixos,
Diomeian, Diocharis, Panopis, and Acharnian. Their exact tò dià uéoov teixos), was afterwards added by Pericles, and
sites cannot be certainly fixed, but some of them may the maritime fortifications of Athens became complete.
be determined within narrow limits, such as the Piræan But the city owed still more to the munificence of Cimon.
gate, which led out of the Agora, and opened upon the long Out of the spoils of his Persian campaign he fortified the
walls. Having completed the defences of the city proper, S. side of the Acropolis with a remarkably solid wall,
among which must be included the building of the north which terminated in a sort of bastion at the W. end. Here
wall of the Acropolis (Dyer, p. 121), Themistocles pro- he reared a little temple of Athena Nike (otherwise called
ceeded to fortify the Piraeus.

the Wingless Victory), although the existing sculptures of Wingless
Athens, like most of the old Greek towns, was built, for the frieze are pronounced on account of their style to Victory.
greater security, at a distance from the coast, and only belong to a somewhat later date (Pausan., i. 28, 3.; Corn.
when more settled times brought her greater prosperity Nep., Cimon, ii; Plutarch, Cimon, xiii.). It was Cimon
was a harbour formed at the nearest bay of Phalerum, who first set the example of providing the citizens with
near the modern church of St George. It is said that agreeable places for promenade (Plutarch, ibid.), by plant-
Themistocles would gladly have transported the Athenian ing the Agora with plane trees, and laying out the Aca-
population bodily from the upper city to the coast, there demy with trees and walks. It is probable that some of
to form a great maritime state. Though this was impos- the porticoes in the Agora were built by Cimon; at all
sible, yet he could strengthen Athens on the seaward side. events, the most beautiful one amongst them was reared by Stoa
The isthmus of Piræeus, though somewhat more distant Pisianax, his brother-in-law, and the paintings with which Pæcile.
than Phalerum, presented obvious advantages as a sea- Polygnotus, his sister's lover, adorned it (representing
port. It formed on its north side the spacious and scenes from the military history of Athens, legendary and
secure basin of Piræeus (now Port Drako), the north and historical) made it ever famous as the Stoà Tolkian. One
south shores of which towards the entrance fall back into more building, the most perfect existing relic of ancient
two smaller bays—harbours within the harbour-known Athens, was also built by Cimon. The Theseium (as we Theseium,
respectively as the kupòs depýv and kávbapos. The neck still may venture to call it, in spite of the doubts lately
of the isthmus on the south is formed by Port Zea (now cast upon its identification) is a hexastyle Doric temple
Phanari), the entrance of which was secured by Phreattys, standing on an eminence due N. of the Areopagus, and is
the headland of Munychia. Round to the east of the the first object which meets the eye of the tourist who
district of Munychia, again, and facing Phalerum, was approaches the city from the Piræeus. Having served in
the harbour known anciently as Munychia, and now Byzantine times for a Christian church, it is now a museum
as Port Stratiotiki. Themistocles thus, in giving up Port of antiquities, and contains some of the choicest treasures
Phalerum, gave Athens three harbours instead of one. discovered by recent excavations.
The fortifications of Piraeus were conceived on a grand We have now brought this sketch of Athenian topography Periclean
scale, and carried out with no sign of hurry. The whole down to the most distinguished period of Athenian history era.
circuit of Piræeus and of the town of Munychia was and Athenian architecture—the era of Pericles. As the
enclosed alike on the sea and land sides by walls of immense champion of Hellenic freedom against the Persians, as the
thickness and strength, which were carried up to a height head of the Ionic confederation, Athens had suddenly grown
of more than 60 feet—this being only half the height to be the foremost city in Greece. But when one by one
intended by Themistocles ! (see Grote, Hist. Greece, c. xliv.) the confederate states sank into the position of subject-
The laying out of the new seaport belonged rather to the

See Dyer, Athens, p. 230, foll., who thinks it is really the temple regime of Pericles (Grote, c. xlvii.) It was then that of the Amazons.

The Pirpeus and its buildings.



allies; when the irreuovía of Athens passed insensibly into a vals. The westernmost compartment at the rear of the Tupavvis (Thucyd., ii.63); when the contribution of ships and cella was the Opisthodomus, which served as the national men was commuted in most cases for a money payment, treasury; hither poured in the tribute of the Athenian and the funds of the confederation were transferred from allies. It is important to remember that the Parthenon the Apollonium at Delos to the Athenian Acropolis,-an was never intended as a temple of worship; for this purenormous revenue became at the disposal of the Athenian pose there already existed another temple, presently to be Government. It is to their credit that so little of it found described as the Erechtheium,-standing upon the primeval its way into private pockets. It was natural for the site of that contest between Athena and Poseidon which thoughts of a Greek, especially of an Athenian, to turn to established the claim of the goddess to the Attic citadel the decoration of his city ; it was politic that the central and soil. The Parthenon was simply designed to be the city of the Ionian confederacy should be adorned with a central point of the Panathenaic festival, and the storehouse beauty equal to her prestige. The buildings connected for the sacred treasure. The entire temple should be with the name of Cimon had been chiefly for utility or regarded as one vast åváðnua to the national deity, not as a defence; those of Pericles were mainly ornamental. The place for her worship. Thus directly in front of her statue

first edifice completed by him seems to have been the in the cella there stood an erection, which has been mistaken Oleium. Odeium, on the E. of the Dionysiac theatre, to serve as a for an altar, but which is more probably to be regarded

place for recitations by rhapsodists, and for musical per as the platform which the victorious competitors in the formances. It was burnt by Aristion during Sulla’s siege Panathenaic contests ascended to receive, as it were from the of Athens, but afterwards rebuilt. Mention has already hand of the goddess, the golden chaplets and vases of olive been made of the building of the Long Walls and the laying oil that formed the prizes (see Michaelis's Parthenon, p. 31). out of the Piræeus by Pericles; but it was the Acropolis This consideration lends significance to the decorations of itself which witnessed the greatest splendours of his the building, which were the work of Phidias. Within administration. Within its limited area arose buildings the outer portico, along the outside of the top of the wall and statues, on which the genius of Phidias the sculptor, of the building, ran a frieze 3 feet 4 inches in height, and of Ictinus and Mnesicles the architects, were employed for 520 feet in total length, on which were sculptured figures years; while multitudes of artists and craftsmen of all kinds in low relief ?, representing the Panathenaic procession. were busied in carrying out their grand designs. The Nearly all of these sculptures are in the British Museum, spoils of the Persian War had already been consecrated and the entire series has been recently made complete by

under Cimon to the honour of the national goddess, in the casts from the other fragments, and arranged in the order of Statue of erection of a colossal statue of Athena by Phidias between the original design. The marvellous beauty of these reliefs,

the entrance of the Acropolis and the Erechtheium ; her which was heightened originally by colour, has been long Proina.

warlike attitude gained her the title of IIpópaxos, and the familiar to all the world from numerous illustrated descripgleam of her helmet's plume and uplifted spear was hailed tions. The procession of youths and maidens, of priests by the homeward seaman as he doubled Cape Sunium and magistrates, of oxen for sacrifice, of flute-players and (Pausan., i. 28). But the national deity was to receive yet singers, followed by the youthful chivalry of Athens on greater honours at the hand of Pericles. That an old prancing steeds—is represented as wending its way from temple stood on the site afterwards occupied by the Par- the west towards the eastern entrance.3 Outside of the thenon is proved, less by the doubtful expressions of Hero- building, on the N. and S. sides, the metopes between the dotus (viii. 51, 55), and the testimony of later compilers Doric triglyphs were filled with sculptures representing like Hesychius, than by recent excavations, which reveal scenes from the mythical history of Athens. But the that a large temple must have been at least begun upon glory of the Parthenon were the sculptures of the E. and this spot when the Persian invaders destroyed the old W. pediments. Unhappily but a few figures remain, and buildings of the Acropolis by fire. Here, then, Pericles none are wholly perfect, of the statues which formed these proceeded to rear what has ever since been known as the groups ; and Pausanias appears to have thought it super

Parthenon.. The designer of this masterpiece of architecture fluous to give a minute description of objects so familiar to Parthenon. was Ictinus; the foundations of the old temple were at his every connoisseur and traveller. The sculptures on the

suggestion extended in length and breadth, and thus arose eastern pediment related to the birth of Athena; the cenupon the S. side of the Acropolis a magnificent temple of tral group was early destroyed by the Byzantine Christians the virgin goddess. It was completed in the year 438 in converting the Parthenon into a church, with the Pronaos

It stood upon the highest platform of the Acropolis, for its apse. But nearly all the subordinate figures are so that the pavement of the peristyle of the Parthenon was preserved in a more or less injured condition in the British on a level with the capitals of the columns of the east Museum. The noble head of the horse of the car of Night, portico of the Propylæa. The temple was built entirely of the seated female figures of “The Fates," and the grand white marble from the quarries of Mount Pentelicus. torso commonly known as the “ Theseus," are familiar to Ascending a flight of three steps, you passed through the us all. It would be out of place here even to enumerate great east entrance into the Pronaos, wherein was stored a the many attempts that have been made to reconstruct the large collection of sacred objects, chiefly of silver. From groups of either pediment. The sculptures on the W. the Pronaos a massive door led into the cella, called represented the contest between Athena and Poseidon for Hecatompedos (véws ó 'Ekatóurredos), because it measured the possession of Attica; and although scarcely any porin length 100 Attic feet. The treasure here bestowed tions of these figures are now existing, yet they are better consisted chiefly of chaplets and other objects of gold. known to us than the E. pediment by means of the faithful The west portion of the cella was railed off (by Klyxides), (if clumsy) sketches made by the Frenchman Carrey in and formed the Parthenon proper, i.e., the adytum occupied 1674, when they were in a comparatively perfect state. by the chryselephantine statue by Phidias of Athena Those who desire to know all that is to be known concernParthenos, -a work which yielded the pre-eminence only ing the sculptures of the Parthenon should consult the to one other statue by the same artist, viz., the Zeus at beautiful work of Michaelis, Der Parthenon, while the Olympia. In this adytum were stored a number of silver bowls and other articles employed at the Panathenaic festi

* See the remarks of Mr Ruskin, Aratro Pentelica, p. 174.

3 He who desires to enjoy these sculptures, should come from a

perusal of Michaelis's eloquent work Der Parthenon, and spend a day * See the animated description in Plutarch, Pericles, 12, fol. in the British Museum with the guide-book in his band.


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measurements and architectural details of the edifice have ways, still in existence, by which the citadel was entered.
never been so splendidly given as by our countryman The wall in which these doors were pierced was throwni
Penrose, in his Principles of Athenian Architecture, back about 50 feet from the front of the artificial opening

We will turn now to the other buildings of the Acropolis, of the hill, and the whole may therefore be said to have
none of which, however, are so full of significance as the resembled a modern fortification, although, in fact, the
Parthenon itself. For, indeed, standing as it does on the Propylæa was designed, not for defence, but for decoration.
highest point of Athenian soil, its erection marked the The whole building was of Pentelic marble. The Megaron
culininating point of Athenian history, literature, politics, or great vestibule in the centre consisted of a front of six
and art. The “ Birth of Athena,” over the eastern entrance, Auted Doric columns, mounted upon four steps, which
may symbolise to us the sudden growth of Athenian great supported a pediment, and measured 5 feet in diameter and
ness, while in the contest between the armed goddess of nearly 29 in height, with an intercolumniation of 7 feet,
peaceful wisdom and the violent god of sea, which adorned except between the two central columns, which were 13
the western front, we may see an allegory of the long feet apart

, in order to furnish space for a carriage-way. struggle between the agricultural and the maritime interests Behind this Doric colonnade was a vestibule 43 feet in which forms the central thread of Athenian history. depth, the roof of which was sustained by six inner columns

Opposite to the Parthenon, on the northern edge of the in a double row, so as to divide the vestibule into three Acropolis, stands another remarkable temple, far smaller aisles or compartments; and these columns, although only in size, and built in the most graceful forms of the Ionic three feet and a half in diameter at the base, were, includ. order. The Erechtheium appears to be designed expressly ing the capitals, nearly 34 feet in height, their architraves to contrast with the severe sublimity of the Parthenon; being on the same level with the frieze of the Doric and on the side which confronts those mighty Doric shafts, colonnade. The ceiling was laid upon marble beams, the columns of the smaller building are allowed to trans- resting upon the lateral walls and the architraves of the form themselves into Canephori. The temple of Athena two rows of Ionic columns,—those covering the side aisles Polias, which contained the ancient wooden image of the being 22 feet in length, and those covering the central goddess, and formed the centre of her worship, suffered aisles 17 feet, with a proportional breadth and thickness. from fire in the Persian War (479 B.C.) A building so Enormous masses like these, raised to the roof of a building, sacred would hardly have been allowed to remain for long standing upon a steep hill, and covered with a ceiling in ruins; but it was reserved for Pericles to set about a which all the resources of art had been employed to complete restoration of it. However, the Peloponnesian beautify, might well overcome the reserve of a matter-ofWar seems to have interrupted his designs, and in the year fact topographer like Pausanias, and at once account for 409 B.c. the edifice was still unfinished, and soon after and justify the unusual warmth of his language when he is this it was totally destroyed by fire. But soon afterwards speaking of the roof of the Propylaa (i. 22). Of the five it must have been rebuilt, without doubt retaining all its doors at the extremity of the vestibule, the width of the original features. The temple in its present state consists central and largest was equal to the space between the two of an oblong cella extending fom E. to W. From each central columns of the Doric portico in front, and the same side of the W. end of the cella projects a portico, forming a

also as that between the two rows of Ionic columns in the
sort of transept. The eastern portico formed the temple of vestibule ; but the doors on either side of the principal one
Athena Polias, upon the site of her ancient contest with were of diminished height and breadth, and the two beyond
Poseidon. The west portion was the Pandroseium, dedicated these again were still smaller in both dimensions. These
to Athena Pandrosus. The building thus formed two five gates or doors led from the vestibule into a back portico
temples in one, and is styled by Pausanias a dut doûv oiknua. 18 feet in depth, which was fronted with a Doric colonnade
It seems at a later time to have been commonly called the and pediment of the same dimensions as those of the
Erechtheium, because of a tradition that Erechtheus was western or outer portico, but placed on a higher level, there
buried on this site.

being five steps of ascent from the western to the level of
Among the many glories of the Acropolis, the Propylæa the eastern portico. From the latter or inner portico
are described by Pausanias as being exceptionally magni- there was a descent of one step into the adjacent part of
ficent (i. 22). They rivalled even the Parthenon, and the platform of the Acropolis.
were the most splendid of all the buildings of Pericles. The wings of the Propylæa were nearly symmetrical in
The western end of the Acropolis, which furnished, and front, each presenting on this side a wall adorned only with
still furnishes, the only access to the summit of the hill, a frieze of triglyphs, and with antæ at the extremities.
was about 160 feet in breadth,—a frontage so narrow, that The inner or southernmost column of each wing stood in
to the artists of Pericles it appeared practicable to fill up a line with the great Doric columns of the Megaron ; and
the space with a single building, which, in serving the

as both these columns and those of the wings were upon
main purpose of a gateway, should contribute to adorn as the same level, the three porticoes were all connected
well as to guard the citadel. This work, which rivalled the together, and the four steps which ascended to the Megaron
Parthenon in felicity of execution, and surpassed it in were continued also along the porticoes of the two wings.
boldness and originality of design, was begun in the But here the symmetry of the building ended; for, in
archonship of Euthymenes, in the year 437 B.C., and com- regard to interior size and distribution of parts, the wings
pleted in five years, under the directions of the architect were exceedingly dissimilar. In the northern or left wing,
Mnesicles. Of the space which formed the natural entrance a porch of 12 feet in depth conducted by three doors
to the Acropolis, 58 feet near the centre were left for the into a chamber of 34 feet by 26, the porch and chamber
grand entrance, and the remainder on either side was thus occupying the entire space behind the western wall of
occupied by wings projecting 32 feet in front of the central that wing; whereas the southern or right wing consisted
colonnade. The entire building received the name of only of a porch or gallery of 26 feet by 16, which, on the
Propylæa from its forming the vestibule to the five door-S. and E. sides, was formed by a wall connected with

and of the same thickness as the lateral wall of the . An important inscription in the British Museum gives a survey of Megaron, and, on the W, side, had its roof supported by the works as they stood in that year, drawn up by a commission ap

a narrow pilaster, standing between the N.W. column pointed for the purpose. See Greek Inscriptions in the British Mu of the wing and an anta, which terminated its southern

wall. In front of the southern or right wing of the



vol. i. No. 35.

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