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properly belongs to a branch of the great question of commonly takes place so soon as the breeding-season is Natural Selection, its further consideration must here be over, there are plenty of cases where we find the change put off until that is more fully treated, together with what delayed to a later period of the year. This is so with the are known as the “Laws of Plumage," the reader being Swallow (Hirundo rustica), which has long been known to meanwhile referred to those excellent chapters in which moult in midwinter, and it is generally the way with all Mr Darwin has treated the matter with his usual perspi- the Diurnal Birds-of-prey. But unquestionably most birds cuity, though even he has far from exhausted its varied accomplish the change much earlier, and before they leave points of interest.

their breeding-quarters for their winter-haunts, thereby It remains to be remarked that though the annual Moult starting on one of their great annual journeys with all the i The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, chaps, xiii.

external machinery of flight renewed and in the best conxvi. London: 1871.

dition for escaping its attendant perils.

(A. N.)

INDEX TO THE GENERA AND LARGER GROUPS OF BIRDS NAMED.

Acanthositta, 742.
Buteo, 713
Cormoranus, 730.
Formicariidae, 743, 745, Laornis, 729.

Opisthocomi, 743.
Accipiter, 713, 714; 773. Cacatus, 727.
Corvidæ, 748, 750, 751, 746, 747, 748.

Laridæ, 730, 745, 750, 751, Opisthocomidæ, 746. Accipitres, 712; 745, 761, Cactornis, 747.

755.
Francolinus, 736, 760.

753, 755, 756.

Opisthocomus, 721; 743, 763, 776. Cærebida, 745, 746, 747, Corvus, 715, 716; 728, Fratercula, 768.

Larus, 724; 730.

746. Acredula, 759.

749, 750, 752.

730.
Fregata, 721.

Lepidogrammus, 763. Oreot rochilus, 747. Acrocephalus, 741, 760. Calidris, 753.

Corythaix, 715, 721. Fregatidæ, 749, 750, 752. Leptosomidæ, 758. 760. Oriolidæ, 755, 759.
Aedon, 772.
Callæas, 742.
Corythornis, 759.
Fregilupus, 720; 733, 734, Leptosomus, 730.

Oriolus, 768.
Ægialitis, 711; 753, 757, Culonas, 762.
Cotingidæ, 746, 748, 749. 760.

Leucotreron, 739.

Ornithopus, 728.
759.
Calypte, 749.
Coturnix, 730, 760.
Fregilus, 716.

Limicolæ, 729, 730, 745, Orthonyx, 741.
Ægithognathæ, 699, 700, Calyptorhynchus, 715; Cracidæ, 743, 746, 747, Fringilla, 730, 756, 767. 764, 773, 775.

Orthorhynchus, 749. 715, 716, 717. 740.

748, 750.

Fringillide, 738, 739, 740, Liinosa, 730, 753, 775. Oscines, 743. #pyornis, 731, 760. Camarhynchus, 747. Cracirex, 747.

747, 748, 751, 755, 756, Liotrichidæ, 755, 756. Osteornis, 730. Aetomorphæ, 700, 713, Camascelus, 730.

Crateropus, 758.

759, 761, 766.
Lipoa, 741.

Qtididae, 741, 755, 724, 726. Campephagidze, 739, 760, Crax, 699, 712, 727; 731. Fulica, 711; 742.

Lithornis, 729.

Itidiphaps, 741.
Agapornis, 715.

763.
Creadion, 742,
Fuligulinæ, 776.
Lobiophasis, 763.

Otis, 736.
Agnopterus, 730.
Capitonidæ, 746.
Crithagra, 742.
Furnariidæ, 772.
Loddigesia, 747.

Otocorys, 746.
Aithurus, 749.

Caprimulgidæ, 739, 746, Crotophaga, 726; 775. Galbulidæ, 743, 746. Lophopsittacus, 732, 734. Oxynotus, 760.
Alauda, 716; 760, 768,

749, 755.
Crypsirhina, 764,
Galline, 730, 741, 743, Lorius, 740.

Oxyrhamphida, 746. Alaudidæ, 746, 750, 755, Caprimulgus, 723; 741, Crypturi, 743.

763, 775, 776.
Loxia, 769.

Pachycephalidæ, 739. 776.

758.
Crypturus, 711.
Gallinaceæ, 700, 706, 711. Lycocorax, 740,

Pachyrhamphus, 716.
Alca, 720: 731, 734, 775. Cardinalis, 717.
Cuculidæ, 748, 749, 750, Gallinula, 711, 726; 732, Macrornis, 730.

Pagophila, 755. Alcedinidæ, 716 ; 739, 740, Cariama, 743.

755, 763.

741, 742.
Mareca, 712.

Palælodus, 730.
741, 751, 755.
Cariamide, 746.
Cuculus, 715; 768. Gallus, 717, 719, 720; 730, Margarops, 749.

Palæocircus, 730,
Alcedo, 716, 719.
Caridonax, 739.
Cuphopterus, 759.

731.

Megalæma, 712, 715. Palæoperdix, 730. Alcidæ, 761, 752, 755, 156, Carinatæ, 699, 700, 711, Cursoriidæ, 755.

Garzetta, 713.
Megalæmide, 738.

Palæornis, 715; 733. 775. 718, 720, 721, 722. Cyanecula, 769.

Gastornis, 729.
Megalornis, 729.

Palæortyx, 730.
Alectoromorphæ, 699,712, Carpophaga, 741.

Cyanopica, 757.
Gaviæ, 773, 775,

Megapodiidæ, 741, 743. Palæotringa, 729 717, 720, 723, 726. Casuariidæ, 699, 720, 721, Cygnus, 719; 731, 774. Gecinus, 717.

Megapodius, 762, 763. Palamedeidæ, 743, 745, Alectoropodes, 743.

722, 727; 740.
Cypselidæ, 699; 751, 755. Geobiastes, 760.

Meleagridæ, 748, 750, 762. 746.
Aletornis, 730.

Casuarius, 722; 740, 741, Cypselomorphe, 700. Geopsittacus, 720; 741. Meleagris, 730, 731. Palapterygida, 731, 742. Aluco, 713; 747, 760.

774.
Cypselus, 719; 767, 768. Geospiza, 747.

Meliphagidæ, 739, 740, Palapteryx, 731.
Amaurornis, 763.
Cathartes, 752.
Dasornis, 729.
Geranomorphæ, 699, 700. 742.

Pandion, 741.
Amblonyx, 728.
Cathartidæ, 713, 726; 749, Dasylophus, 763.

Glaredidæ, 755.
Mellisu ga, 749.

Panuridæ, 755, 756. Ampelidæ, 748, 749, 751. 750, 752.

Daulias, 756.
Goura, 740.
Melopsittacus, 715.

Panurus, 765.
Ampelis, 770.
Cecomorphæ, 699.
Dendrocolaptidæ, 743,
Gracılavus, 729.
Menura, 716; 743.

Paradiseidze, 740, 760. Amphimorphæ, 700, 712. Celeomorphæ, 699, 700, 745, 746, 747.

Gralle, 712; 741.
Menuridæ, 741.

Pareudiastes, 741. Amydrus, 758.

716, 721.
Dendræca, 747.
Grallator, 728.
Mergulus, 765.

Paride, 742, 748, 750,
Anais, 763.
Cephalopterus, 727. Dendrotypes, 738.

Grallatores, 768.
Mergus, 730.

755, 761, 766. Anarhynchus, 742. Cephalopyrus, 761. Desmognathir, 712, 714. Gruidæ, 712; 746, 751, Meropidæ, 755.

Parridæ. 746. Anas, 730, 731, 735. Cereopsis, 731.

Dicæidæ, 739, 755, 756,

755.

Microglossa, 715, 717. Parus, 757, 759, 766. Anatidæ, 742, 745, 746, Certhidea, 747.

759.
Grus, 730, 731, 733, 768. Micropterus, 776.

Passer, 730, 758, 774. 748, 750, 751, 755, 756, Certhiidæ, 742, 748, 750, Dicholophus, 699, 712, Gryphosaurus, 728. Milvago, 746.

Passeres, 712, 730, 737, 775, 776. 755, 763.

713, 714, 720.
Gymnoglaux, 750.
Milvus, 730, 736.

741, 742, 743, 745, 747,
Anatinæ, 776.
Certhiiparus, 742.
Dididze, 699.
Gymnorhina, 712, 716. Mimocichla, 749.

758, 760, 763, 769, 773, Anser, 730, 731, 774. Certhiola, 749, 750, 752. Didunculidæ, 741.

Gypaetus, 736.
Mionornis, 731.

775.
Anthinæ, 776.
Chamæidæ, 750, 752. Didunculus, 741.
Gypogeranus, 713, 714. Miro, 742.

Patagona, 711,
Anthornis, 742.
Charadriidæ, 730, 740, Didus, 699, 721; 732. Gyps, 713, 714.

Miserythrus, 733.

Pavo, 764.
Anthreptes, 761.
742, 745, 746, 751, 755. Dinornis, 720, 722; 731, Gypsornis, 730.

Mniotiltidæ, 745, 747, 748, Pedionomus, 741.
Apatornis, 729.
Charadriomorphæ, 699.

738.
Habroptila, 740.

749, 750, 751.

Pelagornis, 729.
Aphanapteryx, 733. Chauna, 712, 719, 722. Dinornithidæ, 699, 721; Hæmatopodidæ, 750. Momotidæ, 743, 746, 748, Pelargomorphæ, 700, 713.
Aplonis, 741.
Chelidon, 702.

731, 742.
Halcyon, 730.

750.

Pelargopsis, 730.
Aptenodytes, 727.
Chenalopex, 746.
Dolichonyx, 747.
Haliaetus, 730, 753.

Motacilla, 730, 760, 768. Pelecanidæ, 751, 752. Apterygidæ, 699,721, 722; Chenomorphæ, 700, 712, Dolichopterus, 730. Haliastur, 713, 714. Motacillidæ, 750, 751, 755, Pelecanus, 713; 730, 731. 742.

726.
Doricha, 749.
Hapaloderma, 750.

756, 776.

Pelidna, 730.
Apteryx, 718, 721, 722, Chionis, 745.

Drepanidæ, 742.
Harpagornis, 731.
Motacillinæ, 776.

Penelope, 727.
724, 725.
Chlamydera, 740.

Dromæidæ 713. 740, Heliornithidæ, 746. Muelleripicus, 738. Penelopides, 763.
Aptornis, 699, 720; 731. Chloephaga, 746.
Dromeognathæ, 699; 743. Helotarsus, 713, 714. Muscicapa, 755.

Perdix, 775.
Aquila, 713; 730, 774.
Chrysococcyx, 742, 769. Dromæornis, 732,

Hemilophus, 717.

Muscicapidæ, 740, 742, Perissoglossa, 749. Aramide, 749, 750, 752. Cicinnurus, 740. Dromæus, 711, 718, 719, Hesperornis, 729.

755, 756, 763.

Peristeromorphæ, 699 Archæopterygidæ, 699. Ciconia, 713; 768.

722, 723; 732, 741, 774. Heterococcyx, 763. Muscisaxicola, 746. Peristeropodes, 743. Archæopteryx, 719, 720, Ciconiidæ, 755, 775. Drymæca, 760.

Heterolocha, 742, 773. Musophaga, 715.

Pezophaps, 723; 732. 723; 728, 736. Cimoliornis, 729.

Dysporomorphæ. 700, Heteromorphæ, 699. Musophagidze, 730, 758. Phabotreron, 763.
Ardea, 713, 726; 730, 733. Cinclidæ, 746, 750.

713, 724, 726.
Himantopus, 713.
Myiomoira, 742.

Phaeton, 723; 775.
Ardeacites, 730.
Cinclocerthia, 749.
Eclectus, 740.
Hirundinidæ, 747, 751, Myzomela, 739.

Phaetontidae, 750, 752. Ardeidæ, 713, 726; 730, Cinclodes, 746.

Elanus, 713.

755, 759.
Nasiterna, 740,

Phalacrocoracidæ, 751. 746, 747, 751. Circus, 713, 714; 736. Elornis, 730.

Hirundo, 768, 777.

Natatores, 712; 768. Phalacrocorax, 713, 726;
Argozoum, 728.
Cisticola, 760.
Emberiza, 717.
Histrionicus, 757.
Necropsittacus, 733.

730.
Aridæ, 750, 762.
Clangula, 763.
Emberizidæ, 745, 746, 747, Homolopus, 730.

Necrornis, 730.

Phalaropodidæ, 751. Artamidæ, 739, 763. Cnemiornis, 731.

748, 749, 750, 751, 753, Hydrornis, 730.

Nectarinia, 715: 758 Phalaropus, 775.
Artamus, 716.
Coccygomorphæ, 699,700, 755, 766, 774, 776. Hyetornis, 750.

Nectariniidre, 755, 761. Phasianidæ, 738, 755, 756, Asio, 713, 714; 747.

716, 716.
Emblema, 741.
Hymenolæmus, 742. Neophron, 713, 714.

763.
Atelornis, 760.
Coccyzus, 748.
Eos, 740.
Hypsipetes, 766.
Nesocichla, 742.

Phasianus, 730.
Athene, 713; 738.
Coliidæ, 758.
Erythræna, 733.
Ibididæ, 751.
Nesospiza, 742.

Philepitta, 760.
Atrichia, 747, 773.
Colius, 715, 720.
Erythrosterna, 755. Ibidipodia, 730.

Nestor, 735, 742.

Phænicopteridae, 730.747. Atrichiidæ, 741. Columba, 730, 756.

Eudromias, 745, 775. Ibidorhynchus, 756. Notornis, 731, 732, 742. Phænicopterus, 712; 730, Attagis, 745. Columbæ, 741, 760, 763. Eudynamis, 741, 742, 769. Ibis, 713; 730.

Nucifraga, 770.

751, 752. Balæniceps, 713, 720, 724, Columbidæ, 739, 740, 741, Eudyptes, 741.

Ichthyornis, 729.
Numenius, 711.

Phrygilus, 746.
725, 727; 759.
745, 748, 749, 750, 751, Eulampis, 749.
Icteridae, 745, 746, 747, Numida, 727; 731.

Phyllornithida, 738, 761. Bernicla, 742, 754. 755, 756, 759 762, 763. Eupodotis, 741, 755.

748, 749, 750, 751.
Nyctea, 731.

Phylloscopus, 752, 767,
Botaurus, 713.
Colymbidæ, 729, 751, 752. Euryapteryx, 731.

Insessores, 737.

Nyctibius, 712.
Brachypteracias, 760. Colymboides, 730.
Eurycerotidæ, 758, 760. Irrisoridæ, 758.

Nycticorax, 718.

Phytotomidze, 745, 746. Brontozoum, 728.

Colymbus, 718, 719, 726; Eurylæmidæ, 761, 762. Ixide, 738, 755, 756. Ocydromus, 721; 732, Picariæ, 731, 741, 742, Bubo, 730.

730.
Eurynorhynchus, 756. Jyngidæ, 755.

742.

743, 760, 763, 775. Bucconidæ, 746. Conurus, 750. Eurypyga, 713; 743. Ketupa, 713.

Odontophorinæ, 750. Picide, 699, 712, 716, 725; Buceros, 712, 716, 721. Coracias, 759.

Eurypygide, 746.

Lagopus, 731, 753, 757, Odontopteryx, 729. 736. 730, 738, 746, 747, 748, Bucerotidæ, 761, 762, 763, Coraciidæ, 755.

Eustephanus, 745.

776.
Odontornithes, 729.

749, 750, 751, 755, 756. Budytes, 752. Coracomorphir, 699, 700, Falco, 712, 713, 714, 718; Lampornis, 749.

Edemia, 712.

Picumnus, 716, 717, Buphaga, 759. 712, 715, 716, 720, 730, 757, 766.

Laniarius, 760.
Edicnemidæ, 746.

Picus, 716, 717; 730, 764. Buphagide, 758.

721, 726.
Falconidæ, 740, 745, 746, Laniide 748, 751. 755, Edicnemus, 766.

Pipra, 716.
Butalis, 765.
Corax, 775.

750, 751, 755 774.

756, 763.
Oligomyodae, 743.

Pipridæ, 746.
III.

769.

98

Pittidæ, 765, 756, 760, 702, Psittacidæ, 699; 745, 746, Rhea, 717, 719, 721, 722, Spheniscidæ, 741, 745 Tantalidze, 750, 752.
763.
748.
723: 731, 738.

746, 747

Tatare, 741. Pityriasis, 763.

Psittacomorpha, 700, 714. Rheidæ, 699, 722; 743, Spheniscomorpha, 699, Telmatornis, 729. Platalea, 712, 713; 735. Psittacula, 747.

745, 746.

72.

Temnotrogon, 750. Plataleilæ, 751, 752. Psittacus, 730, 759. Rhinochetus, 711, 712, Spheniscus, 747.

Teracus, 730. Platycercinse, 740. Psophia, 716, 718; 746. 717; 7+1.

Spindalis. 749.

Tetrao, 727; 730, 731, 736,
Ploceidie, 738,739,740,759. Psophiidae, 743, 746. Rhodostethia, 753. Sporadinus. 749.

Tetraonidæ, 738, 743, 750,
Plotidæ, 750, 762.
Ptenornis, 730.
Rhynchæa, 745.
Starnonas, 749.

751, 755, 756.
Plyctolophus, 715.
Pterocleidæ, 755, 756, Rhynchotus, 711.

Steatornis, 712, 715, 723, Tetraoninæ, 750.
Podargide, 739.

775.
Rhytoceros, 761.

726; 746.

Thamnobia, 772. Podargus, 712, 715, 727. Pteroclomorphe, 699. Sarcops, 763.

Steatornithide, 746, 747. Thinocoridæ, 745. Podiceps, 730, 760. Pteroptochidæ, 741, 743, Sarcorhamphus, 713, 714. Steganopodes, 729. 775. Thinocorine, 700. Podicipedidæ, 745, 751, 745, 746.

Saurognathæ, 699, 700, Strigidæ, 742, 747, 748, Thinocorus, 699, 715; 745. 775. Ptilocolpa, 763

716.

749, 750, 751, 755, 756, Thinornis, 742.
Pogonoruis, 742.
Ptilotis, 739.
Saurothera, 750.

759, 763, 775.

Thresciornis, 712, 713.
Poly bori, 747.
Puffinus, 730.
Saururæ, 699.
Strigopidze, 742.

Tigrisoma, 713.
Polymyodæ, 743.
Pyranga, 750.
Saxicola, 753, 769.
Strigops, 699, 720.

Timeliidæ, 740, 742, 755,
Porphyrio, 732.
Pyrocephalus, 747.
Scansores, 712.
Strix, 713; 730.

756, 759, 761, 762.
Porzana, 760.
Pyrrhula, 752, 756, 761. Sceloglaux, 742.

Struthio, 717, 718, 721, Tinamida, 716; 743, 745,
Pratincola, 760.
Querquedula, 712.

Schizognathæ, 699, 711, 722, 723; 730, 733, 758. 746, 774, 775.
Prioniturus, 763.
Rallidæ, 699, 711; 729, 712, 713.

Struthionidæ, 699, 709, Tinamomorphæ, 699.
Prionoteles, 750.
741, 742, 747, 749, 751. Schizorhis, 715.

722; 758.

Tinamus, 711, 717, 722.
Procellaria, 727.
Rallus, 730, 740.
Schwaneria, 763.

Sturnidze, 741, 742, 755, Tinnunculus, 750.
Procellariidae, 751.
Rapaces, 711, 714, 725. Scolopacidæ, 745, 750, 756, 760, 763.

Toccus, 759.
Progne, 747.
Raptores, 712, 724.

751, 752, 755, 756. Sula, 713, 726; 730. Todidæ, 743, 749, 750. Prosthemadura, 712. Ratitæ, 699, 700, 705, 706, Scolopax, 730, 753, 775 Sulidze, 751.

Todus, 720. Protornis, 730. 718, 720, 721, 72, 726, Scopus, 713.

Sylvia, 776.

Totanus, 718; 730. Psamathia, 741. 727; 738, 742, 745, 753, Scotopelia, 720

Sylviidæ, 730, 738, 742, Totipalmate, 725.
Psephotis, 715.

760, 775, 776.
Scythrops, 715.

746, 748, 750, 751, 755, Tracheophonæ, 743. Pseudogryphus, 742. Recurvirostridæ, 750. Semioptera, 740

756, 759.

Tribonyx, 741.
Pseudolalage, 763.
Regulus, 756.
Serpentariidæ, 758. Syndactyli, 712.

Tringa, 730, 753, 755.
Pseudoptynx, 763.
Rhabdornis, 763.
Serresius. 741.

Syrrhaptes, 723; 756, 770. Trochilidæ, 743, 745, 746,
Pseudoscops, 750.
Rhamphastidæ, 743, 746. Sitta, 730.

Talegalla, 712.

747, 743, 749, 750, 751. Psittaci, 737, 740, 741, Rhamphastos, 715, 721. Sittidæ, 748, 750.

Tanagridæ, 743, 745, 746, Trochilomorphæ, 700. 742, 760, 763. Rhamphocinclus, 749. Somateria, 735.

747, 748, 749, 750.

Trochilus, 716; 749
Troglodytidæ, 746, 713,

730, 751, 755, 756.
Trogon, 715.
Trogonidæ, 748, 749, 750.
Turdidæ, 738, 748, 749,

750, 755, 759, 760.
Turdinus, 761.
Turdus, 747, 767, 775.
Turnagra, 742.
Turnicidæ, 699, 713; 755.
Turnix, 716, 720.
Turtur, 767.
Tyrannidæ, 743, 745, 746,

748, 749, 750.
Uintornis, 730.
Upupa, 712, 714, 7:5,

719.
Upupidæ, 720; 755.
Uria, 730, 731.
Vanellus, 718.
Vidua, 759.
Vireonidæ, 745, 718, 749,

750.
Vulturidæ, 738, 755.
Xantholæma, 763.
Xenicus, 742
Xerophila, 741.
Yungidæ, 699.
Yungipicus, 738
Yunx, 716, 717.
Zeocephus, 763.
Zonotrichia, 753.
Zosterops, 739, 742

BIRDS OF PARADISE, a group of Passerine Birds with short thick-set feathers, resembling velvet pile, of a inhabiting New Guinea and the adjacent islands, so named bright straw colour above, and a brilliant emerald green by the Dutch voyagers in allusion to the brilliancy of their beneath. From under the shoulders on each side springs a plumage, and to the current belief that, possessing neither dense tuft of golden-orange plumes, about 2 feet in length, wings nor feet, they passed their lives in the air, sustained which the bird can raise at pleasure, so as to enclose the on their ample plumes, resting only at long intervals greater part of its body. The two centre tail feathers attain suspended from the branches of lofty trees by the wire- a length of 34 inches, and, being destitute of webs, have a like feathers of the tail, and drawing their food" from the thin wire-like appearance. This splendid plumage, how

ever, belongs only to the adult males, the females being exceedingly plain birds of a nearly uniform dusky brown colour, and possessing neither plumes nor lengthened tail feathers. The young males at first resemble the females, and it is only after the fourth moulting, according to A. R. Wallace, who recently studied those birds in their native haunts, that they assume the perfect plumage of their sex, which, however, they retain permanently afterwards, and not during the breeding season only as was formerly supposed. At that season the males assemble, in numbers varying from twelve to twenty, on certain trees, and there disport themselves so as to display their magnificent plumes in presence of the females. Wallace in his Malay Archipelago, vol. ii., thus describes the attitude of the male birds at one of those " sacaleli,” or dancing parties, as the natives call them ; "their wings,” he says, "are raised vertically over the back, the head is bent down and stretched out, and the long plumes are raised up and

expanded till they form two magnificent golden fans striped Standard Wing Bird of Paradise (Semioptera wallacei).

with deep red at the base, and fading off into the pale brown

tint of the finely-divided and softly-waving points ; the dews of heaven and the nectar of flowers.” Such stories whole bird is then overshadowed by them, the crouching obtained credence from the fact that so late as the year body, yellow head, and emerald green throat, forming but 1760, when Linnæus named the principal species apoda, or the foundation and setting to the golden glory which “footless," no perfect specimen had been seen in Europe, waves above.” It is at this season that those birds are the natives who sold the skins to coast traders invariably chiefly captured. The bird-catcher having found a tree depriving them of feet and wings. The birds now usually thus selected for a “ dancing party,” builds a hut among included under this name belong to two distinct families, the lower branches in which to conceal himself. As soon the Paradiseidæ and the Epimachidæ, the former or as the male birds have begun their graceful antics, he shoots true Birds of Paradise being closely allied to the Crows, the them, one after the other, with blunt arrows, for the latter or Long-billed Paradise Birds being usually classed, purpose of stunning and bringing them to the ground from the form and size of their bills, with the Hoopoes. without drawing blood, which would injure their plumage; Both families occupy the same geographical area, and are and so eager are those birds in their courtship that almost alike distingushed by the enormous development of certain all the males are thus brought down before the danger is parts of their plumage. Of the true birds of paradise, the perceived. The natives in preparing the skins remove both largest is the Great Emerald Bird (Paradisea apoda), about feet and wings, so as give more prominence to the comthe size of the common jay. Its head and neck are covered mercially valuable tuft of plumes. They also remove the skull, and the skin is then dried in a smoky hut. The Birkenhead began to develop itself as a market-town in Great Emerald Bird, so far as yet known, is only found in the the year 1833, when an Act was obtained for paving, lightAru Íslands. The Lesser Bird of Paradise (Paradisea minor), ing, watching, cleansing, and improving the town, and

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for though smaller in size and somewhat less brilliant in regulating the police and establishing a market. By this plumage, in other respects closely resembles the preceding Act the Improvement Commissioners were originally conspecies. It is also more common, and much more widely stituted, and at that time included the mayor, bailiffs, distributed, being found throughout New Guinea and the and four aldermen of Liverpool. Immediately after the neighbouring islands. Its plumes are those most generally passing of this Act the town made rapid progress. The used as ornaments for ladies' head-dresses. It has been principal streets were laid out on a regular plan, intersectbrought alive to Europe, and has been known to live for ing each other at right angles. A line of tramway, the two years in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London. first laid in England, affords every facility of street comBoth species are omnivorous, feeding voraciously on fruits munication. Hamilton Square, which occupies the summit and insects. They are strong, active birds, and are believed of the rising ground near the river, forms the basis or to be polygamous. The King Bird of Paradise (Cicinnurus starting point for all the parallel and rectangular lines of regius) is one of the smallest and most brilliant of the streets. The houses of the square are four stories in group, and is specially distinguished by its two middle height, with stone fronts, the centres and ends of each tail feathers, the ends of which alone are webbed, and coiled terrace being relieved or ornamented with columns and into a beautiful spiral disc of a lovely emerald green. In the porticos in the Tuscan order of architecture. Red Bird of Paradise (Puradisea rubra) the same feathers Birkenhead has (exclusive of the out townships) nine are greatly elongated and destitute of webs, but differ from churches belonging to the Established Church. St Mary's, those in the other species, in being flattened out like ribbons. built in 1821 by Mr. F. R. Price, late lord of the manor, is They are only found in the small island of Waigiou off the in the Decorated Gothic style of architecture, with a wellcoast of New Guinea. Of the Long-billed Paradise Birds

Of the Long-billed Paradise Birds proportioned tower and spire. The churchyard includes (Epimachido) the most remarkable is that known as the the burial ground and ruins of the ancient priory and "Twelve-wired” (Seleucides alba), its delicate yellow plumes, chapel of St Mary. In addition to the Established twelve of which are transformed into wire-like bristles churches there are twenty-four places of worship belonging nearly a foot long, affording a striking contrast to the dark to various Nonconforming denominations, viz., five Presbymetallic tints of the rest of its plumage. Like the Para- terian, three Independeut or Congregational, 2 Baptist, diseido they feed on insects and fruits.

four Wesleyan, one Primitive Methodist, one Society of BIRKBECK, GEORGE, an English physician and Friends, two Plymouth Brethren, three Roman Catholic, philanthropist, born at Settle in Yorkshire in 1776. He one Catholic and Apostolic, two Unitarian. Many of early evinced a strong predilection for scientific pursuits; these buildings are fair examples of Gothic and classic and in 1799, after graduating as doctor of medicine, he architecture. St Aidan's Theological College, in connecwas appointed to the chair of natural philosophy at the tion with the Established Church, occupies a fine and Andersonian Institution of Glasgow. In the following elevated site adjoining the western boundary of Claughton. year he delivered, for the benefit of the working-classes, à It is a handsome building in the Tudor style of architecgratuitous course of scientific lectures, which were continued ture. There are seven public elementary schools in conduring the two following years and proved eminently nection with the Established churches, and seven in consuccessful. He removed to London in 1804, and there he nection with other religious bodies. There is also a firstendeavoured to prosecute his philanthropic schemes, at class proprietary school, conducted on the model of the first without much encouragement, but ultimately with great public schools, besides several private academies. marked success. In 1827 he contributed to found the There are several public buildings in Birkenhead worthy Mechanics’ Institute, his coadjutors being Bentham, Wilkie, of notice. The market-hall is a large and commodious Cobbett, and others. He was appointed director of the building, 430 feet long and 130 feet wide, with substantial institute, which he had originally endowed with the sum of and lofty vaults extending under its entire area. £3700, and held the office till his death in December 1841. opened in 1845, and built at a cost of £35,000. The

BIRKENHEAD, a seaport, market-town, extra-parochial public slaughter-houses in Jackson Street, belonging to the district, township, and parliamentary borough, in the hun- Birkenhead Commissioners, form an extensive pile of builddred of Wirral and west division of Cheshire, England. It ings; they were erected in 1846 at a cost, exclusive of is situated on the western bank of the Mersey, directly the site, of about £11,000, and were the first public opposite Liverpool. It is of considerable antiquity, its slaughter-houses of any extent erected in England. The history dating from 1150, when a priory was founded in town water-works also belong to the Birkenhead Commishonour of St Mary and St James by the third baron of sioners, and consist of two pumping stations, the wells of Dunham Massey, and had considerable endowments. The which yield an aggregate supply of about 2 million gallons priors sat in the parliaments of the earls of Chester, and in twenty-four hours. The town-hall in Hamilton Street enjoyed all the dignities and privileges of palatinate barons. is a one-story building, and formed when first erected the A fine crypt and some interesting ruins of the priory still front of the old market-hall; it contains a police court, exist. From a comparatively obscure fishing village Birken-fire-engine station, and chief bridewell; there are, besides, head has become a large and important town, with a rapidity two branch bridewells. Among other buildings are the truly marvellous. The inhabitants numbered only 200 in post-office in Conway Street, the borough hospital, and the 1821; in 1831 they were 2569; the following table shows School of Art, also in Conway Street, both erected by the the increase since 1811:

late Mr John Laird, M.P., and a free library in Hamilton

Street. The large and commodious industrial schools in Population.

Corporation Road were built at the cost of Sir Wm.

Jackson, Bart., as a memorial to the late Prince Consort. 1841 8227 1466 £44,000

The Music Hall and the Queen's Hall are situated in 25,000

114,301

Claughton Road. There is also a neat and commodious 37,796 5239 150,827

theatre and opera-house in Argyle Street. 1871

45,418 7511 219,011 1875 (estim.) 52,000 8000

Birkenhead Park, opened in 1847, occupies 1904 acres 228,909

of ground, and was laid out at a cost (including the land) of

It was

Year.

Dwelling
Houses.

Rateable Value.

4148

1851
1861

manor.

£140,000 Birkenhead Cemetery, on Flaybrick Hill, The block of warehouses known by the name of the corn occupies 20 acres of ground, and cost about £10,000. warehouses are immense piles of buildings, with a canal

Woodside Ferry may be regarded as the principal between to give access to the separate blocks of buildings, entrance to Birkenhead and Wirral from Liverpool ; and and with machinery for carrying the grain, &c., from floor its exclusive right of ferryage dates back to 1332. In 1842 to floor, and for despatching it by railway. the Birkenhead Commissioners purchased this ferry, under In 1847 the Birkenhead Dock Warehousing Company an Act of Parliament, from Mr F. R. Price, the lord of the opened their first warehouses, capable of storing 80,000

At the present time the annual receipts for tons of goods. Each block is detached, and the whole passengers alone amount to £36,000, and the number of premises are surrounded by a wall 12 feet high. A railpersons conveyed in the twelve months is upwards of nine way branch, called the Dock Extension Railway, is carried millions, the single fare being one penny. A large landing- round the property. The company also built blocks of stage, 800 feet in length and 80 feet in width, is moored houses for their workmen, known as the Dock Cottages. at this ferry, the passenger traffic being conducted to and This property is now in the hands of the Mersey Docks from the stage by means of a double gangway bridge, and Harbour Board. covered by two circular glass and iron roofs. The goods The commerce of Birkenhead is in all respects a branch traffic is conveyed to and from the stage by a well-con- of that of Liverpool, and chiefly devoted to coal, guano, and structed floating bridge, 670 feet in length and 30 feet in grain,—the quantity of coal alone exported being over one width, which enables the traffic to be carried on at any million tons per annum. Many manufactories have sprung state of the tide. Handsome and commodious saloon up within the last few years on the margin of the Great steamers, built and designed upon an improved principle, Float and other parts of the town, such as iron foundries, and capable of carrying above 1700 passengers each, are boiler-works, oilcake and seed mills, &c., some of the now used upon this ferry. The late Mr William Laird, engineering works, shipbuilding yards, and forges being whose name is so well known in connection with iron on a large scale. The Birkenhead Iron-works of Messrs shipbuilding, first conceived the idea of turning to Laird Brothers employ from 3000 to 4000 men; these works, advantage the capabilities of Wallasey Pool for the forma in connection with their shipbuilding yards, have turned tion of a dock. After a lapse of many years, the Com- out some of the largest iron-clad ships; the engine-works, missioners of Birkenhead, alive to the advantages which also belonging to the same firm, are on a very extensive this project would confer upon the town, employed the scale. The Canada Works, belonging to Messrs Thomas late Mr Rendel as their engineer, and applied to Parlia- Brassey and Co., carry on an extensive business in marine ment for powers to construct the necessary works. The engines, iron-bridge building, pontoon and general railway foundation-stone of the new docks was laid in October work. There are also the Britannia Works (Messrs James 1844, and the first dock was opened by the late Lord Taylor and Co.) for portable engines, marine engines, Morpeth on 5th April 1847. Subsequently, the dock traction engines, steam cranes, &c.; Messrs Clay and powers of the Commissioners were entrusted to a corporate Inman's Forge, for heavy shafting, &c.; the Wirral Foundry, body of trustees who afterwards transferred the property to for large engine castings, &c.; and the Starbuck Car and the corporation of Liverpool ; and ultimately it was vested Waggon Co.'s Works, for building tramway cars, &c.; in the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, a corporation and Messrs Clover and Clayton's shipbuilding premises created by the Act of 1857 for the management of the docks as well as other manufactories of less extent. on both sides of the Mersey. At that time the area of the The affairs of the township of Birkenhead and Claughtondock space open and in use in Birkenhead was about 7 acres. cum-Grange are managed by twenty-one Commissioners,

The docks bound the town on the north and north-east chosen by the ratepayers. The town contains a head postand partly on the east, extending from the landing-stage at office, county court, police court, petty sessional court Woodside Ferry to the Wallasey Bridge, a distance of for the hundred of Wirral, and two banks. Two news over two miles. The Great Float has been constructed on papers are published weekly. The principal market-day is the site of the Wallasey Pool, forming an immense dock of Saturday, but a large hay, straw, and vegetable market is 150 acres, with a quay space of about five miles. The held on Tuesdays in the hay market, a large open space of Great Float separates Birkenhead from Poulton-cum-Sea- ground, having an area of about 1} acres. The total area combe, in the parish of Wallasey, and communicates on of the Commissioners' district is 1684 acres, including 365 the east with a low water basin of about 14 acres (now acres of water space, viz., Birkenhead, 1248 acres, and being converted into a dock) and the Alfred Dock (about Claughton-cum-Grange, 436. The parliamentary borough 8 acres, and quay space 460 lineal yards), and on the of Birkenhead was constituted in 1861, and returns one south-east with the Egerton, Morpeth, and Morpèth Branch member to parliament. Its parliamentary limits include Docks. The Morpeth Dock (about 11 acres, quay space the extra-parochial chapelry of Birkenhead, the several 1299 lineal yards) is connected with the Morpeth Branch “townships of Claughton, Tranmere, and Oxton, and so Dock (about 3 acres, quay space 600 lineal yards), both much of the township of Higher Bebington as lies to the set apart for steamers. The total water area of these docks eastward of the road leading from Higher Tranmere is about 170 acres, and the lineal quay space about 10 miles. to Lower Bebington." The population of this district

The entrances to the Birkenhead Docks are capable of in 1861 was 51,649, and in 1871 it had increased to docking the largest class of steamers afloat. The massive 64,671. iron bridges across the dock entrances are opened and BIRMINGHAM, the fourth town in size and population closed by hydraulic power, which is likewise applied in England, and the fifth in the United Kingdom, is situated to the cranes, coal hoists, warehouse lifts, and other at the extreme north-west of the county of Warwick, in 52° appliances about the docks. At the extreme western end 59' N. lat. and 1° 18' W. long. It is 102 miles in a of the West Float are three large graving docks, two straight line N.W. of London, from which it is distant about 750 feet in length, and 130 feet and 80 feet in width 112 miles by the North-Western Railway. The Roman respectively, and the largest, now in course of construction, Road, known as the Ikenield Street, runs through the measuring about 900 feet in length and 130 feet in width. town. On the north Birmingham touches Staffordshire,

Substantial and commodious sheds and warehouses have and on the south and west Worcestershire, the suburbs of been erected at various places along the dock quays for the the town extending largely into both these counties—Harfull development of the traffic.

borne and Handsworth being in the former and Balsall,

Moseley, and Yardley in the latter. The borough itself, raised to three. A grant of incorporation was made to the however—both parliamentary and municipal, the bound town in 1838, when the first municipal council was elected. aries being identical— is wholly in the county of Warwick. In 1870 a School Board of fifteen members was elected, It covers an area of 8420 acres (of which 5900 are built under the Elementary Education Act passed in that year. upon), and includes the whole of the parishes of Birming- The town is built upon the New Red Sandstone, on a ham and Edgbaston, and about one-third of the parish of boldly undulated site, varying from 200 to 600 feet above Aston. It is nearly 6 miles long, has an average breadth the sea-level, steadily rising towards the north and west, of 3 miles, is 21 miles in circumference, and has 190 miles so that when looked at from the heights on the south-east of streets and roads. The population, at the census of side it presents the appearance of a vast semicircle, pic1871, was 343,000; and in June 1875 it was estimated turesquely disposed, the masses of houses being broken by by the registrar-general at 360,000. Birmingham was spires and lofty chimneys, and the south and west sides enfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832, when two repre- being thickly wooded on the slopes. The plan of the sentatives were assigned to it—and Mr Thomas Attwood town is irregular, and the streets are mostly winding, and and Mr Joshua Scholefield (leaders of the Political Union) many of them somewhat narrow. In the centre, however, were elected; by the Reform Act of 1867 this number was is a large open space, known as the Bull Ring and High

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Street, at the foot of which stands the mother church of and the place has altogether put on a livelier and wealthier St Martin, and in which is situated the Market-Hall, one look. Excepting in some of the older and poorer districts, of the largest buildings of its kind in the kingdom. From the private houses have undergone a corresponding imthis centre access is obtained to the principal streets, New provement. The richer classes live chiefly in the parish Street and High Street; the former, about a quarter of a of Edgbaston, which belongs almost entirely to Lord mile in length, derives a most picturesque appearance from Calthorpe, and in which strict rules as to the description, its slightly curved form, and from the effective manner in position, and area of the houses are enforced. The streets which the sky-line is broken by lofty buildings alternating inhabited by the working-classes are, of course, more with others of lower altitude. This street contains the crowded, and many of the houses are built in enclosed Exchange, the Grammar School, the Theatre Royal, the rooms courts, access to which is gained from the street, either by of the Royal Society of Artists, which have a fine Corin- openings between the houses, or by narrow entries, too thian portico stretching across the pavement. At the commonly built over, and thus impeding the free passage upper end of the street is the Town-Hall, and close to this of air. Many of the courts, however, are wide enough to are the corporate buildings and the Post-Office. The last allow of small gardens in front of the houses, while in the quarter of a century has seen a great advancement in the suburbs almost every house is provided with a garden of style and accommodation of the public and commercial some kind; and in a considerable number of cases the edifices, streets have been widened and new roads opened, houses, through means of building societies, have become

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