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BISCAY, or Vizcaya, one of the three Basque provinces | a day. The Loire, Charente, Gironde, and Adour, besides of Spain, with the title of Seignory. It is bounded on the numerous smaller streams from the Spanish mountains, fall N. by the bay to which it gives its name, E. by Guipuzcoa, into the bay. S. by Alava, and W. by Santander. Its area is 845 square BISCEGLIA, perhaps the ancient Natiolum, a fortified miles, and its population in 1867 was 183,098. The coast- seaport of Italy, in the province of Terra di Bari, situated line, which extends from Ondarroa to a short distance to on a rocky promontory on the Adriatic, 21 miles W.N.W. of the east of Castro, is bold and rugged, and in some places Bari. It is the seat of a bishopric, and has a cathedral, is deeply indented. The only river of any size is the numerous churches and convents, and a theatre. Some Nervion or Ibaizabal, on which Bilbao is situated; the others, ruins still exist of a hospital, founded by Bohemund for which are numerous, are merely large mountain streams. pilgrims to the Holy Land. Its harbour is only accessible The surface of. the country is for the most part very to small vessels, and it has little trade. Being destitute of mountainous, but at the same time is diversified with springs, it has numerous reservoirs for the collection of numerous narrow valleys and small plains. Some of the rain-water. Population, 21,371. mountains are almost entirely composed of naked calcareous BISCHWEILER, a town of Alsace, 14 miles N. of rock, but most of them are covered to their summits with Strasburg, on the railway from Ilagenau. It has manuforests of oaks, chestnuts, or pine trees. Holly and arbutus factures of woollen and linen stuffs, oil, soap, earthenare also common, and furze and heath abound in the poorer ware, &c., and some trade in hops, hemp, leather, and parts. The province produces wheat, maize, barley, rye, flax, tobacco. Population in 1871, 9220, including that of grapes, peaches, apples, and other fruits.

The farms are Hanhoffen, which numbered 689. generally small, and are for the most part tilled by manual BISCUIT. See BAKINO, page 252. labour. The wild boar, lynx, fox, and other wild animals, BISHOP, the title of an ecclesiastical dignitary set over are found in the forests; and deer, rabbits, partridges, the presbyters and deacons at a very early period in the woodcocks, and other kinds of game are plentiful. Sheep Christian church. The word is derived from the Saxon and goats are the principal domestic animals. In minerals bisceop, which is a corruption of the Greek word Biscay is very rich. Iron of the finest quality is found in episcopos, which signifies an "overlooker” or “overseer,” and almost every part, and forms a main article of export. the churches in which the order of bishops is recognized as The best mines are those of Somorostro, near the coast. distinct from and superior to the order of presbyters are The amount obtained in 1866 was about 80,000 tons. styled “ Episcopal churches." The early history of the Lead, zinc, alum, and sulphur, are also present in smaller Episcopal order is obscure, but it would appear that the quantities; and marble, lime, and sandstone are abundant. first bishops were established in the chief cities of The manufacture of the iron ore is the chief branch of Christendom, and each bishop had a certain territorial industry; but porcelain, linens, copper and brass wares, district placed under his superintendence, whence the city ropes, and leather, are also produced. The fisheries are was termed the see (sedes) of the bishop, and the district actively prosecuted along the coast by a hardy race of his parish (Trapolkia), and subsequently his diocese fishers, who were the first of their craft in Europe to pursue (dioiknois). In course of time the districts assigned to the whale, formerly abundant in the Bay of Biscay. Cod, the first bishops became too populous, whereupon the clergy bream, tunny, and anchovy are the principal fish taken. of each diocese, as the case might be, appear to have Bilbao is the capital of the province, with a population assembled and to have subdivided the diocese, and to have of 17,649; the other towns, Portugalete, Miravalles, selected a second bishop, and so bishops and dioceses were Durango, and Orozco, are all very small. The principal ports, multiplied, according to the wants of the churches, until it besides Portugalete, are Plencia, Bermeo, and Hea. After was thought expedient to reserve the right of erecting new the fall of the Romans this Cantabrian province came bishoprics to provincial councils, and this reservation was successively into the hands of the Suevi, Franks, and Goths, made a rule of the church by a decree of tủe Council of and formed for some time an independent lordship. The Sardica. Meanwhile the bishops of the new sees had legislative authority was exercised by the lord and a junto grouped themselves round the bishops of the more ancient of popular representatives. The latter regularly assembled sees, who exercised over them a certain spiritual authority every two years, and on any emergency held an extra- as primates, and presided in their councils; and as some of ordinary meeting under an old tree at Guernica. Although the great cities in which the sees of the first bishops had incorporated with Spain, the Biscayans still maintain a been established were distinguished by the title of republican form of administration, nominating their own metropolis,” or mother-city, and were in fact the chief governors and magistrates, regulating the amount of the cities of civil provinces of the Roman empire, the bishops taxes, and exercising various other privileges. They are of those sees came to be distinguished by the title of a brave and active people, and their history is largely metropolitan bishops, and exercised a superior authority in composed of exploits in defence of their liberties. For the councils of the church in proportion to the greater imtheir linguistic and ethnographic affinities, see the article portance of their respective sees. This superior dignity of BASQUE PROVINCES. The name Biscay is not unfrequently the metropolitan bishops over the others was formally employed as geographically equivalent to Basque, in that recognized at the Council of Nicæa as being in accordance case including the three provinces of Biscay proper, with custom.

with custom. Upon the establishment of Christianity as Guipuzcoa, and Alava.

the religion of the Roman empire a coercive jurisdiction BISCAY, BAY oF, in French the Golfe de Gascogne, and was engrafted on the spiritual superiority of the metropolithe Roman Sinus Aquitanicus, an extensive gulf or bay tan, and the district over which the metropolitan exercised of the Atlantic, enclosed by the northern coast of Spain this jurisdiction was termed his province, the earliest and the western coast of France. It extends from the ecclesiastical provinces being for the most part conterminous island of Ushant, on the coast of Finistère, to Cape Ortegal with the civil provinces of the empire. From the circumon the north of Galicia. In the Spanish portion of the stance that there was no metropolitan city in Western bay the water is about 200 fathoms deep, while in the Africa, the term metropolitan was never adopted in the French portion it is only 20 fathoms. Navigation is Carthaginian Church, the senior bishop of that church impeded by strong westerly winds, and by Rennel's being termed the primate, and having procedence and Current, which sets in from the west and sweeps along the authority as such over the other bishops. southern and eastern shores sometimes at a rate of 27 miles In the Church of Rome the Pope claims of right the appointment of all the bishops; but the exercise of this with the proclamation of banns before marriage. These right is inodified by concordats with the sovereigns of the dispensations are termed marriage licences, and their legal respective states. In France, since the concordat between validity is recognized by the Marriage Act, 4 Geo. IV. c. 76. Pope Leo X. and King Francis I., the sovereign has had The bishops had formerly jurisdiction over all questions the exclusive right of nominating the bishops, but the touching the validity of marriages and the status of nomination is subject to the Pope's confirmation. In married persons, but this jurisdiction has been transferred Austria (with the exception of four bishoprics), in Bavaria, from the consistorial courts of the bishops to a court of the in Spain, and in Portugal, the bishops are also nominated | Crown by 20 and 21 Vict. c. 85. They have in a similar by the sovereign. In some countries the bishops are manner been relieved of their jurisdiction in testamentary elected by the chapter of the cathedral church, as in matters, and in matters of defamation and of brawling in Würtemberg, or by the bishops of the province, as in churches; and the only jurisdiction which they continue Ireland. In England, in the United States of America, to exercise over the general laity is with regard to their use and in Belgium, the Pope selects one out of a list of of the churches and churchyards. The churchwardens, who candidates submitted to him by the chapter. In all cases are representative officers of the parishes, are also executive the bishop-nominate or the bishop-elect, as the case may officers of the bishops in all matters touching the decency be, has to obtain from the Holy See certain letters, entitled and order of the churches and of the churchyards, and they provisions, to authorize his consecration, and to recommend are responsible to the bishops for the due discharge of their him to the protection of the sovereign and to the good duties ; but the abolition of church-rates has relieved the offices of his metropolitan

churchwardens of the most onerous part of their duties, In the Church of Russia, after its separation from that which was connected with the stewardship of the church of Constantinople, the right to elect a bishop was for some funds of their parishes. centuries vested in a synod of bishops, but by a regulation The bishops are still authorized by law to dedicate and of the Emperor Peter the Great, the Holy Synod was set apart buildings for the solemnization of divine service, restricted to recommend two persons to the sovereign for and grounds for the performance of burials, according to the him to select one of them to be bishop. This regulation, rites and ceremonies of the Church of England; and such however, is not always observed, and the sovereign, if he buildings and grounds, after they have been duly conthinks fit, sets aside the list submitted to him by the Synod!, secrated according to law, cannot be diverted to any secular and nominates of his own choice a person whom the Synod purpose except under the authority of an Act of parliais obliged to elect. In Russia a diocese sorietimes ment. contains two capital cities, and the bishop has his title The bishops of England have also jurisdiction to from both.

examine clerks who may be presented to benefices within In the Church of the Levant, properly called the Greek their respective dioceses, and they are bound in each case Church, which is governed by the four patriarchs of by the 95th canon of 1604 to inquire and inform themselves Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria, each of the sufficiency of each clerk within twenty-eight days, patriarch has the right of confirming the election of the after which time, if they have not rejected him as insuffibishops within his patriarchate; but the firman or barat of ciently qualified, they are bound to institute him, or to the sultan is likewise necessary to give full authority to license him, as the case may be, to the benefice, and the bishops after their confirmation.

the on to send their mandate to the archdeacon to The bishops of the Church of England are twenty-eight induct him into the temporalities of the benefice. Where in number, two of them being metropolitans, namely, the bishop himself is patron of a benefice within his own Canterbury and York, who enjoy the more dignified title diocese he is empowered to collate a clerk to it,-in other of archbishop, and have a special precedence assigned to words, to confer it on the clerk without the latter being them by law (see ARCHBISHOP). The twenty-six diocesan presented to him. Where the clerk himself is patron of bishops, with the exception of the bishop of the Isle of the living, the bishop may institute him on his own Man, who is designated the bishop of Sodor and Man, are petition. See BENEFICE. lords of parliament, and take precedence of the barons in The qualifications of a bishop of the Church of England the House of Lords ; but the junior bishop for the time are, that he should be a learned presbyter of at least thirty being is, by statute, disentitled from being summoned to years of age, born in lawful matrimony, and of good life parliament. From this disqualification the bishops of and behaviour. The mode of his appointment is regulated London, Durham, and Winchester are exempt. These by 24 Henry VIII. c. 20. Upon the avoidance of a three bishops have precedence over one another in the bishopric the Crown is authorized to issue to the dean and order in which their names are above mentioned, and they chapter of the cathedral church of the see a licence for precede all the other bishops, the latter taking precedence them to proceed to the election of a bishop, accompanied of one another according to the date of their appointment. by a letter missive containing the name of the person whom The junior bishop who has a seat in parliament acts as they are to elect. The dean and chapter are thereupon chaplain to the House of Lords.

required, within twelve days, to elect the person so named In the Church of England the bishops exercise certain by the Crown to be the bishop of the vacant see, failing spiritual functions which are held not to be within the which election the Crown is impowered to name, by letters competence of the presbyters. They alone can administer patent under the Great Seal addressed to the archbishop and the rite of confirmation to baptized persons, and they alone metropolitan of the province, such person to be bishop as can ordain candidates for the sacred ministry. These the Crown shall think able and convenient, Upon the functions the bishops exercise in virtue of their order, but election being reported to the Crown, a mandate issues from they are also empowered by law to exercise a certain the Crown to the archbishop and metropolitan, requesting jurisdiction over all consecrated places and over all ordained him and commanding him to confirm the election, and to persons. This jurisdiction they exercise for the most part invest and consecrate the bishop-elect. Thereupon the through their consistorial courts, or through commissioners archbishop issues a commission to his vicar-general to appointed under 3 and 4 Vict. c. 86, called the Church examine formally the process of the election of the bishop, Discipline Act. The bishops also exercise a certain and to supply by his authority all defects in matters of jurisdiction over marriages, inasmuch as they have by the form, and to administer to the bishop-elect the oaths of canons of the Church of England a power of dispensing | allegiance, of supremacy, and of canonical obedience.

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After this formal confirmation of the bishop's election has dent legislature, the bishop is not entitled to exercise such jurisdic. taken place, the archbishop, with the assistance of at least

tion unless it has been coufirmed to him by an imperial or colonial

statute. The report of the judicial committee of the Privy Council two bishops, proceeds to consecrate the bishop-elect. The

in the case of the bishop of Natal (Moore's Priry Council Remost important part of the religious ceremony on this ports, N.S., iii

. p. 115) is an exposition of the law on this subject. occasion consists in the imposition of hands, in other words, On the other hand, where bishopries have been constituted by in the archbishop and the bishops placing their hands letters patent of the Crown,

letters patent of the Crown, in pursuance of imperial statutes, as was simultaneously upon the head of the bishop-elect kneeling tuted by letters patent have subsequently been confirmed or recog

the case of the East Indian bishoprics, or where bishopries constibefore them, and in the name of the Holy Trinity com- nized by colonial statutes, the bishop's jurisdiction is complete; mitting to him his office of bishop; after which the arch- otherwise his authority is only pastoral or spiritual. The practice bishop delivers to him the Holy Bible and addresses to him adopted by the Crown, since the decision of the judicial committee

in the case of the bishop of Natal has revealed the invalidity of the a short admonition to preach faithfully the Word of God.

letters patent granted to many colonial bishops, has been to grant The bishop is required afterwards, by statute, to do homage licences to the archbishop of Canterbury to consecrate bishops for to the Crown, upon which he is put into possession of the the colonies without any definite diocese, and without any authority temporalities of his see. In the case of the avoidance of to exercise coercive jurisdiction. The Crown has also revoked the the archbishopric of either province, the Crown sends a

letters patent erecting Gibraltar into a bishop's see, and the last

appointed bishop has been consecrated under a licence from the inandate to the archbishop of the other province to confirm Crown, and is a titular bishop, having only consensual authority in and consecrate the archbishop-elect, and the practice is, for that colony.

(T. T.) the most part, for the archbishop of the other province to BISHOP, SIR HENRY ROWLEY, musical composer, was send a commission to four or more bishops of the province born in London on the 18th November 1786. He received of the archbishop-elect to confirm his election and to invest his artistic training from Francisco Bianchi, at whose instance, and consecrate him,

probably, he was employed to write his first work, the Doubts having been raised whether a bishop of the ballet of Tamerlan et Bajazet, produced at Covent Garden Church of England, being a lord of parliament, could in 1806. This proved successful, and was followed within resign his seat in the Upper House of parliament, although two years by several others, of which Caractacus, a several precedents to that effect are on record, a statute of pantomimic ballet, written for Drury Lane, may be named. the realm (19 and 20 Vict. c. 115), which is confined to In 1809 his first opera, The Circassian's Bride, was prothe case of the bishops of London and Durham, was passed duced at Drury Lane; but by a singular misfortune the in 1856, declaring that on the resignation of their sees theatre was burned down after one performance, and the being accepted by their respective metropolitans, those score of the work perished in the flames. His next work bishops should cease to sit as lords of parliament, and their of importance, the opera of The Maniac, written for the sees should be filled up in the manner provided by law in Lyceum in 1810, established his reputation, and probably the case of the avoidance of a bishopric. By a subsequent secured for him the appointment of composer for Covent statute (32 and 33 Vict. c. 111), provision has been made Garden theatre. The numerous works-operas, burlettas, for the case of an archbishop or bishop being permanently cantatas, incidental music to Shakespeare's plays,&c. -- which incapacitated by age or mental infirmity. If the archbishop he composed while in this position, are now in great part or bishop is capable of executing an act of resignation, a forgotten. The most successful wereThe Virgin of the representation may be made to the Crown, which is im- Sun (1812), The Miller and his Men (1813), Guy Manpowered to declare the see to be vacant, but if the arch-nering and The Slave (1816), Maid Marian and Clari, bishop or bishop should be incapacitated from intimating introducing the air of "Home, Sweet Home” (1822). His his desire to resign his bishopric, the Crown may grant a English adaptations, or rather mangled versions, of Mozart's licence to the dean and chapter of the cathedral church of Don Giovanni and Figaro, and Rossini's Il Barbiere the diocese to appoint a bishop-coadjutor. This Act was to and Guillaume Tell, were certainly no true service to be in force for two years; it has been continued for three art. It seems almost incredible that a man of Bishop's years more by 35 and 36 Vict. c. 40.

undoubted genius should have been so misguided as to A peculiar institution of the Church of England, suppress the incomparable Figaro overture of Mozart in established by 26 Henry VIII. c. 14, having been long favour of one of his own. In 1824 Bishop was induced allowed to remain dormant, has been recently revived, by Elliston to transfer his services from Covent Garden to under which every archbishop and bishop, being disposed to the rival house in Drury Lane, for which he wrote with have a suffragan to assist him, may name two honest and unusual care the opera of Aladdin, intended to compete discreet spiritual persons for the Crown to give to one of with Weber's Oberon, commissioned by the other house. them the title, name, style, and dignity of a bishop of any As was to be expected the result was a failure, and with one of twenty-six sees enumerated in the statute, as the Aladdin Bishop's career as an operatic composer may Crown may think convenient. The Crown, having made be said to close. On the formation of the Philharmonic choice of one of such persons, is impowered to present him Society (1813) Bishop was appointed one of the directors, by letters patent under the great seal to the metropolitan, and he took his turn as conductor of its concerts during requiring him to consecrate him to the same name, title, the period when that office was held by different musicians style, and dignity of a bishop; and the person so conse- in rotation. In 1841 he was appointed to the “Reid” crated is thereupon entitled to exercise, under a commission chair of music in the University of Edinburgh, but he from the bishop who has nominated him, such authority resigned the office in 1843. He was knighted by the and jurisdiction, within the diocese of such bishop, as shall queen in 1842, being the first musician who ever received be given to him by the commission, and no other.

that honour. In 1848 he succeeded Dr Crotch in the

chair of music at Oxford. The music for the ode on the The first colonial bishopric of the Church of England was that of occasion of the installation of Lord Derby as chancellor Nova Scotia, founded in 1787, since which time various colonial of the university (1853) proved to be his last work. bishoprics have been established, some of which were constituted by letters patent of the Crown only, whilst others have been confirmed He died on the 30th April 1855 in impoverished cirby acts of the imperial or colonial legislatures. With regard to cumstances, though few composers ever made more by those bishopries which have been constituted by letters patent of their labours. Bishop's name will live in connection the Crown only, where the bishopric has been established in a Crown

with his numerous glees, songs, and smaller composicolony, the bishop is legally entitled to exercise the jurisdiction conferred upon him by the letters patent; but where the bishoprictions, rather than with his larger works, which are now has been established in a colony possessing at the time an indepen. seldom or never performed in their entirety. His Shakespeare songs and glees are familiar favourites with all | ated minerals by liquation. Mathesius in his Bergpostilla, vocalists, and genius is discernible in not a few of them. written between 1553–1562, describes it as white like His melodies are clear, flowing, appropriate, and often pyrites, and occasionally cubical like marcasite, easily overcharming; and his harmony is always pure, simple, and come by the fire when melted, and running together with sweet. He was a prominent example of both the strength and the tin, which thereby is rendered brittle and unsound, the weakness of the native English school, in which the name the last remark referring to its occurrence with tin ores in of Purcell alone stands unquestionably higher than his. Saxony. It was considered by the miners as a bopeful

BISHOP-AUCKLAND, a market-town of England, in indication of silver, and even in certain cases is said to the county of Durham, 11 miles south-west of the city of have been transformed gradually into that metal, as porDurham. It is beautifully situated on an eminence near the tions of the ore which had lain for some time exposed confluence of the Wear and the Gaunless; its streets are were found afterwards to be partly or wholly changed into well paved and lighted, and there is a good supply of silver. This remark is interesting, as the same belief water. The parish church is 1 mile distant, at Auckland seems to have come up again in our own time. The name St Andrews, but there are several churches and chapels in Wismuth is a miner's term, whose origin is completely the town. The town-house, which dates from 1863, is a lost; but Mathesius assigns it a fanciful derivation from handsome building, with a tower 100 feet in height; and Trisse = Wiese, a meadow, because in the mine it is found the palace of the bishop of Durham, which stands at the covered with flowers or incrustations of various colours, north-east end of the town, is a spacious and splendid resembling a meadow covered with brilliantly coloured though irregular pile. The site of the palace was first flowers, an obvious confusion with the minerals known as chosen by Bishop Anthony Beck, in the time of Edward I. nickel and cobalt bloom, derived from the oxidation of The present building covers about 5 acres, and is sur- arsenides of nickel and cobalt, with which native bismuth rounded by a park of 800 acres. The principal industrial is commonly associated in Saxony. It is to this associaestablishments are cotton-factories and engineering works; tion with cobalt and arsenic that must be ascribed the and in the neighbourhood of the town are several coal- statements that its principal use was to produce a blue mines. Population of local board district in 1871, 8736. colour, and that it gave off a very poisonous furnace smoke.

BISHOP-STORTFORD, a market-town of England, on The chief use of the metal at that time seems to have the eastern border of Herts, 11 miles E.N.E. of Hertford, been by pewterers, who added it to their alloy in small and 32 miles by railway from London. It is situated on proportions for the purpose of rendering their wares hard both sides of the River Stort, a tributary of the Lea, and and sonorous when struck. lias thus direct water communication with the metropolis. The principal minerals containing bismuth are:-- 1. Ores The parish church of St Michael's, a fine building with a Native bismuth, essentially the pure metal, having all the spire, dates from the reign of Henry VI., but was partly properties described below. This, the most important ore, rebuilt in 1820. A town-house, a corn exchange, a union occurs in connection with nickel and cobalt ores at Schneeworkhouse, a high school, a collegiate school, and a diocesan berg, Saxony, at Wheal Sparnon in Cornwall, similarly training school, are among the chief buildings; and there associated, and with tin ores in the mines of the St Just are also public baths, libraries, and banks. The industrial district. It is also found in some quantity in Bolivia. 2. establishments comprise a brewery, malt-houses, coach- Tetradymite, or telluric bismuth, a compound in variable works, lime-kilns, and a foundry; and the trade consists proportions with the isomorphous element tellurium. This chiefly in grain and malt. Stortford was in existence contains from 60 to 80 per cent. of bismuth, 15 to 35 per before the Norman conquest; and its castle, known as cent. of tellurium, and from 3 to 5 per cent. of sulphur. Waytemore Castle, was presented by William the Con- It occurs usually in association with gold ores; the principal queror to Maurice, bishop of London, and his successors. localities are Schemnitz and Retzbanya in Hungary, the The building was, however, demolished by King John, and gold mining district of Virginia and North Carolina, only a few ruins remain. Sir H. Chauncey, the historian California, and other western states of America. It was of Hertfordshire, and Hoole, the translator of Tasso, were also found at the Merionethshire gold mines as a rarity. both natives of Stortford. Population of the parish in 3. Bismuth silver, found at Schapbach in Baden, and near 1871, 6250.

Copiapo in Chili. The mineral from the former locality BISHOP-WEARMOUTH, a township of Durham in contains 27 of bismuth to 15 of silver, with some lead and England, now incorporated in the parliamentary borough sulphur, and a little iron; and that from the latter 60 of of Sunderland. See SUNDERLAND.

silver to 10 of bismuth, the remainder being copper and BISKARA, or BISKRA, a town of Algeria, in the pro-arsenic. 4. Bismuthine, or bismuth glance, a sulphide of vince of Constantine, and the most important military post bismuth, of the composition Bi,Sz, containing 81:6 per of the Sahara. It lies on the south side of the Aures cent. bismuth and 18.4 per cent. sulphur, crystallizing in Mountains, in a fertile district, watered by the Wadi acicular rhombic prisms isomorphous with antimony glance. Biskra. The streets of the town are broad, and its houses It occurs with tin ore at Botallack and other mines near are for the most part built of brick, one story high, and St Just in Cornwall, and in the Saxon localities given with terraced roofs. Among the principal buildings are above. 5. Bismuth ochre, an earthy oxide of bismuth, the fort of St Germain, the caravanserai, the hospital, and containing 90 per cent. bismuth and 10 per cent. oxygen, the barracks. A large caravan trade between the Sahara which is derived from the oxidation both of the native and the Tell passes through the town; iron, limestone, metal and of the sulphide. 6. Bismutite, a hydrated carand saltpetre are obtained in the neighbourhood, and the bonate of bismuth, containing 90 per cent. bismuth oxide, surrounding country yields abundance of valuable dates. 6:56 per cent. carbonic acid, and 3:44 per cent. water, anThe chief articles of manufacture are burnous and carpets. other product of atmospheric action upon native bismuth. An acclimatization garden has been established at Beni- It is found principally in Saxony and South Carolina. Morra by the French, who first made themselves masters Besides the above there is also a silicate described, but of Biskara in 1844. Population in 1872, 7367.

this is an exceedingly rare mineral, as is also Hypochlorite, BISMUTH. This metal appears to have been unknown a hydrated silicate mixed with phosphate of alumina. Practito the older metallurgical writers, it having been first cally the only ore is the native metal, and of late years, noticed by Agricola, who speaks of it as a form of lead, from the supply not keeping pace with the demand, the and describes the method of separating it from its associ- | price has risen very considerably. The bismuth of com

Historical notices,

merce usually contains both gold and silver, often in con- more acid salt than the first precipitate is obtained. Under the
siderable quantity
, which circumstance bas probably given it has the disadvantage of being readily blackened by sulphuretted

name of pearl-white the sub-nitrate is used as a cosmetic, but
rise to the story current about its transmutation into
these metals.

hydrogen.

Bismuth unites readily with other metals, the alloys being remark. Alloys. : Physical Bismuth may be readily obtained in crystals by pouring it when

able for their ready fusibility, and by their property of expanding on properties. melted into a heated iron ladle, and cooling it until a crust is formed solidification. An alloy with potassium is obtained by calcining 20

on the surface, which must then be pierced by a red-hot iron rod, and parts of bismuth with 16 parts of cream of tartar in a crucible, and
the liquid metal poured off. The solidified portion adhering to the heating the mixture to a very strong red heat. On cooling, a button
ladle is found to be covered with hopper-shaped crystals, which are

of metal is found, of a silvery white colour and lamellar fracture,
usually beautifully irised, owing to the formation of a thin film of which fusus easily, and remains for a long time in a pasty condition
oxide on the surface, showing the colours of thin plates. This

before solidification ; it is brittle, can be easily powdered, and is colouring is only obtained when the metal is quite free from arsenic.

readily decomposed by water. The alloy with sodium is obtained in It may be puritied by melting with about 10 per cent. of nitre, and a similar manner, with a sodic tartrate. With silver, gold, and keeping it constantly stirred at a temperature not much above its metals of the platinum group, bismuth forms brittle alloys. With melting point, whereby the more oxidizable metals are removed, mercury it forms a liquid amalgam; but when equal weights of the and form a slag at the surface. Another method of purifying it

two metals are heated together, there is a separation on cooling of from arsenic is by fusing it with from 3 to 5 per cent. of zinc,

octahedral crystals, which may be a solid amalgam. The copper covering the surface with charcoal to prevent oxidation of the alloy is brittle, and of a pale red colour. The ternary alloys of leal, zine, which takes off the whole of the arsenic, and is subsequently tin, and bismuth, are the most interesting of these compounds, from removed by treatment with hydrochloric acid, the purified bismuth their low fusibility, which is much below that of any of the comremaining insoluble. When prepared by any of these processes,

ponents taken separately. This property was known to Sir Isaac Bismuth is a hard, brittle metal, and the fracture is highly crystal. Newton ; the alloy named after him, Newton's fusible metal, melts line and white, with a perceptible red tinge by reflected light. The at 949:5 C. (202° Fahr.); it contains 8 parts of bismuth, 5 of lead, crystalline form is rhombohedral, the angle of the primary rhom

and 3 of tin. Darcet's fusible metal, containing 2 of bismuth, 1 of bohedron being 87° 40', or very close to a cube. The specific gravity lead, and 1 of tin, melts at 93° (199°:4 Fahr.) Another, with is 9.83, but when subjected to great pressure the density is reduced

5 of bismuth, 2 of tin, and 3 of lead, melts at 91°:6 (197° Fahr.) to 9.6. The melting point is 264° C. (507° Fahr.) (Rudberg), or Rose's fusible metal, containing 420 parts of bismuth, 236 of lead, 268°:3 (515°) (Riemsdijk). Like water it may be cooled 6° or 7° C. and 207 of tin, a composition corresponding to the formula below its freezing point; but when solidification sets in the tempera- Bi,Sn, Pb, fuses below 100° (212°), and remains pasty for a conture rises to 480° Fahr., and continues until the mass is completely siderable range of temperature below that point. The expansion of solidified. Like ice it expands about sa of its volume in solidifi- this alloy by heat proceeds regularly from 0 to 35° C., but by further cation, a property which is communicated to its alloys, rendering heating it contracts up to 55°, from which point up to 80° the rate them valuable for taking casts of incised or relief surfaces for of expansion is more rapid than at the lower temperatures. Above reproduction, as printing blocks by electrotype or other processes. 80° the normal rate is resumed. The fusibility of these alloys is It may be distilled by heating to a higher temperature in hydrogen. increased by an addition of cadmium. Thus Wood's fusible metal, Despretz volatilized it by subjecting it to the current from 600 containing 1 to 2 parts of cadmium, 2 of tin, 2 of lead, and 7 to Bunsen elements. The spectrum of the vapour in the voltaic arc 8 of bismuth, melts between 60° and 71°C. Another, described liy shows numerous brilliant green lines, one strong and one fainter Lipowitz, containing 8 parts of lead, 15 of bismuth, 4 of tin, and line on the red, and a faint line on the orange field (Masson). 3 of cadmium, is silvery white, and has a specific gravity of 9.4. The coefficient of expansion by heat is .001341, calorific conducti- It softens at about 55°, and is completely liquid at a little above 60'. bility 61, silver being 1000 (Calvert and Johnson), and specific Fusible alloys containing bismuth are used to some extent as heat 0.0305 (Korp). The electric conductivity is 1:19 at 14° C., safety plugs for steam boilers, as an accessory to the safety-valve, — a silver being 100 at 0° (Matthiesen). According to Matteuci the hole in the boiler being plugged by a disc of the metal, which in conductivity varies in the crystals according to the direction of the the event of the temperature of the water rising throughi excessive

cleavages. It is the most strongly diamagnetic of all metals. pressure is melted, and the steam passes through the aperture in Chemical The atomic weight is 208 (Schneider) or 210 (Dumas). Like the same manner as through an opened safety valve. It is found, properties. phosphorus and arsenic it is both triatomic and pentatonic, the however, that this method is not trustworthy, owing to the liqua

Întter state being represented only by a very unstable acid ; there tion of the more fusible components of the mass, when subjected to
are also several diatomic compounds, including Bi Bra, Bici, and continued heating near but below the melting point, leaving a more
Bilz. The triatomic compounds are the most numerous and stable. refractory alloy behind. The alloy known as Britannia metal, con-
Unlike the elements chemically similar,-phosphorus, tellurium, sisting chietly of tin, antimony, and copper, often contains a little
arsenic, antimony, &c.,--it does not form a gaseous compound with bismuth.
hy«trogen. Bismuth does not change in dry air, but in moist air it In analysis bismuth is usually separated from solution as car. Analysis
oxidizes superficially, and by long exposure may be converted into bonate by precipitation with carbonate of ammonia, which is then and separa-
carbonate. When melted at a red heat it oxidizes, and the oxide converted into oxide by calcination at a gentle heat, in which form tion,
(whose formula is Bi,O3), by a higher temperature, melts to a glassy | it is weighed and estimated. The oxide Bigo, contains 89.74 per
substance, in which property it resembles lead, the oxide, like cent. of bismuth. It is readily precipitated as sulphide by passing
litharge, exerting a very corrosive action upon earthern crucibles, sulphuretted hydrogen through an acid solution, but the precipitate
or substances containing silica, at a red heat. At a red-white heat cannot be weighed, as it usually contains an excess of sulphur, and
it slowly decomposes water with the production of oxide. The cannot be completely freed from water below 200°, so that it must
higher oxide Bi,o, corresponds to arsenic acid ; it is a very unstable be redissolved in nitric acid and precipitated as carbonate as above
compound, and of no practical value. An intermediate oxide is described. It may be precipitated in the metallic state by zinc,
known which is generally regarded as a compound of the other two, cadmium, copper, iron, or tin. A plate of copper introduced into a
Bi.Oy, Bi,Os. Bismuth unites directly with chlorine, bromine, boiling solution of a bismuth salt, even when very weak, is readily
and iodine, and when fused with sulphur forms a sulphide of the covered with a coating of the reduced metal of a steel-gray colour.
form Bi,S3, corresponding to bismuth glance, and isomorphous with Bismuth may be employed instead of lead for the assay of gold
the corresponding sulphide of antimony. The same sulphide is and silver by cupellation, as the melted oxide is absorbed by bone
produced when sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through a solution ash in exactly the same manner as litharge.
containing bismuth.

The separation of bismuth from solutions in which it is associated
Salts. Bismuth is but slightly acted upon by hydrochloric or stil. with silver, copper, mercury, cadmium, and lead, may be effected

phuric acids in the cold; but the latter dissolves it more readily by cyanide of potassium ; by digesting the solution with an excess
when heated. The best solvent is nitric acid, which attacks it of this reagent the cyanides of bismuth and lead remain in the in-
readily, producing a nitrate which crystallizes from the concentrated soluble portion, while those of the other metals are contained in
solution in colourless transparent crystals belonging to the triatomic the filtrate. On redissolving, the lead may be precipitated as sul-
system, whose composition is Bi. 3N03.5H20. These crystals are phate, or by hydrochloric acid and alcohol, which renders the chloride
soluble in nitric acid, but, like all neutral salts of the metal, are of lead insoluble. The bismuth is finally precipitated from the filtrato
decomposed by water, with the formation of an insoluble basic by sulphuretted hydrogen. From copper it is readily separated by
nitrate and an acid liquor. These basic salts are very numerous carbonate of ammonia, bismuth being precipitated, and copper re-
and complex in constitution, the most important one being that maining in solution. Another method is by heating in a current
represented by the formula Bi. NO3. H,0, which is known as pearl. of chlorine, when chloride of bismuth is volatilized.
white, blanc de fard. This, which is largely used as a medicine, is The metallurgical processes for the extraction of bismuth are very Metallurgy.
prepared by adding to a concentrated solution of bismuth dissolved simple, being mainly comprised in liquation out of contact with
in nitric acid from 40 to 50 times its weight of water, which precipi- the air, and subsequent fusion of the liquated product of the first
tates a considerable proportion in the form of a white powder; the operation. At Schneeberg, in Saxony, the liquation is effected in
remainder, which is retained by the acid liquor, may be separated cast-iron tubes placed transversely over a fire-grate which runs the
by neutralizing the excess of acid with ammonia, when a rather | whole length of the furnace. The tubes aro inclined, the higher

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