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delivered in the university or academy of Berlin, or on a literary friend. He died, after receiving the rites of the public occasions. The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth contain church, grudgingly administered by the authorities, on Sunhis contributions to the Transactions of the Berlin Academy, day, 17th November. Clerical ill-will followed him to the and the seventh contains his critiques. The first two are grave, and the malice of the vulgar defaced his monument. valuable among other excellences from an educational point Boehme always professed that a direct inward opening of view, and contain an exposition of many sound educa- or illumination was the only source of his speculative tional principles. In them Boeckh shows himself a man power, He pretended to no other revelation. Ecstatic of wide heart, interested in the most diverse forms of raptures we should not expect, for he was essentially a investigation, an ardent patriot, and a lover of justice and Protestant mystic. No “ thus saith the Lord "was claimed truth.
(J. D.) as his warrant, after the manner of Antoinette Bourignon, BOEHME, JAKOB (1575-1624), a mystical writer, or Ludowick Muggleton; no spirits or angels held conwhose surname (of which Fechner gives eight German verse with him as with Swedenborg. It is needless to varieties) appears in English literature as Beem, Behmont, dwell, in the way either of acceptance or rejection, on the &c., and notably in the form BEHMEN, was born at Alt- very few occasions in which his outward life seemed to him Seidenberg, in Upper Lusatia, a straggling hamlet among to come into contact with the invisible world. The apparithe hills, some ten miles S.E. of Görlitz. He came of a tion of the pail of gold to the herd boy on the Landskrone, well-to-do family, but his first employment was that of the visit of the mysterious stranger to the young apprentice, herd boy on the Landskrone, a hill in the neighbour- the fascination of the luminous sheen, reflected from a hood of Görlitz, and the only education he received was common pewter dish, which first, in 1600, gave an intuitive at the town-school of Seidenberg, a mile from his home. turn to his meditations, the heavenly music which filled Seidenberg, to this day, is filled with shoemakers, and his ears as he lay dying- none of these matters are conto a shoemaker Jakob was apprenticed in his fourteenth nected organically with the secret of his special power. year (1589), being judged not robust enough for hus- The mysteries of which he discoursed were not reported to bandry. Ten years later (1599) we find him settled at him : he “beheld" them. He saw the root of all mysteries, Görlitz as master-shoemaker, and married to Katharina, the Ungrund or Urgrund, whence issue all contrasts and daughter of Hans Kuntzschmann, a thriving butcher in the discordant principles, hardness and softness, severity and town. After industriously pursuing his vocation for ten mildness, sweet and bitter, love and sorrow, heaven and years, he bought (1610) the substantial house, which still hell. These he “saw” in their origin; these he attempted preserves his name, close by the bridge, in the Neiss-to describe in their issue, and to reconcile in their eternal Vorstadt. Two or three years later he gave up business, result. He saw into the being of God; whence the birth and did not resume it as a shoemaker ; but for some years or going forth of the divine manifestation. Nature lay before his death he made and sold woollen gloves, regularly | unveiled to him, he was at home in the heart of things. visiting Prague fair for this purpose.
“ His own book, which he himself was,” the microcosm of Boehme's authorship began in his 37th year (1612) with man, with his threefold life, was patent to his vision. Such a treatise, Morgen Röthe im Auffgang, which though un- was his own account of his qualification. If he failed it finished was surreptitiously copied, and eagerly circulated was in expression ; he confessed himself a poor mouthpiece, in MS. by Karl von Ender, This raised him at once out though he saw with a sure spiritual eye. of his homely sphere, and made him the centre of a local It must not be supposed that the form in which circle of liberal thinkers, considerably above him in station Boehme's pneumatic realism worked itself out in detail was and culture. The charge of heresy was, however, soon shaped entirely from within.
shaped entirely from within. In his writings we trace the directed against him by Gregorius Richter, then pastor influence of Theophr. Bombast von Hohenheim, known as primarius of Görlitz. Feeling ran so high after Richter's Paracelsus (1493–1541), of Kaspar Schwenkfeld (1490pulpit denunciations, that, in July 1613, the municipal 1561), the first Protestant mystic, and of Valentin Weigel council, fearing a disturbance of the peace, made a show of (1533–1588). From the school of Paracelsus came much examining Boehme, took possession of his fragmentary of his puzzling phraseology,-his Turba and Tinctur and quarto, and dismissed the writer with an .admonition to so forth, - a phraseology embarrassing to himself as well as meddle no more with such matters. For five years he to his readers. His friends plied him with foreign terms, obeyed this injunction. But in 1618 began a second period which he was delighted to receive, interpreting them by an of authorship; he poured forth, but did not publish, treatise instinct, and using them often in a corrupted form and after treatise, expository and polemical, in the next and the always in a sense of his own. Thus the word Idea called two following years. In 1622 he composed nothing but a up before him the image of "a very fair, heavenly, and few short pieces on true repentance, resignation, &c., which, chaste virgin." The title Aurora, by which his earliest however, devotionally speaking, are the most precious of treatise is best known, was furnished by Dr Balthasar all his writings. They were the only pieces offered to the Walther. These, however, were false helps, which only public in his lifetime and with his permission, a fact which serve to obscure a difficult study, like the Flagrat and is evidence of the essentially religious and practical char-Lubet, with which his English translator veiled Boehme's acter of his mind. Their publication at Görlitz, on New own honest Schreck and Lust. There is danger lest his Year's Day 1624, under the title of Der Weg zu Christo, crude science and his crude philosophical vocabulary conwas the signal for renewed clerical hostility. Boehme had ceal the fertility of Boehme's ideas and the transcendent by this time entered on the third and most prolific though greatness of his religious insight. Few will take the pains the shortest period (1623-4) of his speculation. His to follow him through the interminable account of his labours at the desk were interrupted in May 1624 by a seven Quellgeister, which remind us of Gnosticism; or even summons Dresden, where his famous "colloquy” with of his three first properties of eternal nature, in which his the Upper Consistorial Court was made the occasion of a disciples find Newton's formulæ anticipated, and which flattering but transient ovation on the part of a new circle certainly bear a marvellous resemblance to the three åpxai of admirers. Richter died in August 1624, and Boehme of Schelling's Theogonische Natur. Boehme is always did not long survive his pertinacious foe. Seized with a greatest when he breaks away from his fancies and his fever when away from home, he was with difficulty con- trammels, and allows speech to the voice of his heart. veyed to Görlitz. His wife was at Dresden on business; Then he is artless, clear, and strong; and no man can and during the first week of his malady he was nursed by help listening to him, whether he dive deep down with the conviction "ohne Gift und Grimm kein Leben,” or rise | instances, or as pictorial illustrations, or as a mere memoria with the belief that “the being of all beings is a wrestling technica) we find that Boehme conceives of the correlation power," or soar with the persuasion that Love “in its of two triads of forces. Each triad consists of a thesis, height is as high as God.” The mystical poet of Silesia, an antithesis, and a synthesis ; and the two are connected Joh. Angelus, discerned where Boehme's truest power lay by an important link In the hidden life of the Godhead, when he sang
which is at once Nichts and Alles, exists the original triad, “Im Wasser lebt der Fisch, die Pflanze in der Erden,
viz., Attraction, Diffusion, and their resultant, the Agony Der Vogel in der Luft, die Sonn' am Firmament,
of the unmanifested Godhead. The transition is made; by Der Salamander muss im Feu'r erhalten werden,
an act of will the divine Spirit comes to Light; and immeUnd Gottes Herz ist Jakob Böhme's Element.”
diately the manifested life appears in the triad of Love, The three periods of Boehme's authorship constitute three Expression, and their resultant, Visible Variety. As the distinct stages in the development of his philosophy. He action of contraries and their resultant are explained the himself marks a threefold division of his subject matter :-1. relations of soul, body, and spirit; of good, evil, and free Philosophia, i.e., the pursuit of the divine Sophia, a study will; of the spheres of the angels, of Lucifer, and of this of God in himself ; this was attempted in the Aurora. 2. world. It is a more difficult problem to account on this ASTROLOGIA, i.e., in the largest sense, cosmology, the philosophy for the introduction of evil. Boehme does not manifestation of the divine in the structure of the world resort to dualism, nor has he the smallest sympathy with aud of man; hereto belong, with others, Die drei Prin- a pantheistic repudiation of the fact of sin. That the cipien göttlichen Wesens, Vom dreifuchen Leben der difficulty presses him is clear from the progressive changes Menschen ; Von der Menschwerdung Christi ; Von der in his attempted solution of the problem. In the Aurora Geburt und Bezeichnung aller Wesen (known as Signatura nothing save good proceeds from the Ungrund, though Rerum). 3. THEOLOGIA, i.e., in Scougall's phrase," the there is good that abides and good that falls-Christ and life of God in the soul of man.” Of the speculative | Lucifer. In the second stage of his writing the antithesis writings under this head the most important are Von der is directly generated as such; good and its contrary are Gnadenwahl ; Mysterium Magnum (a spiritual commentary coincidently given from the one creative source, as factors on Genesis); Von Christi Testamenten (the Sacraments). of life and movement; while in the third period evil is a
Although Boehme's philosophy is essentially theological, direct outcome of the primary principle of divine manifesand his theology essentially philosophical, one would hardly tation-it is the wrath side of God. Corresponding to this describe him as a philosophical theologian; and, indeed, his change we trace a significant variation in the moral end position is not one in which either the philosopher or the contemplated by Boehme as the object of this world's life theologian finds it easy to make himself completely at and history. In the first stage the world is created in home. The philosopher finds no trace in Boehme of a remedy of a decline; in the second, for the adjustment of conception of God which rests its own validity on an accord a balance of forces; in the third, to exhibit the eternal with the highest canons of reason or of morals; it is in victory of good over evil, of love over wrath. the actual not in the ideal that Boehme seeks God, whom
Boehme's influence has lain chiefly with the learned. Transhe discovers as the spring of natural powers and forces, lations of sundry treatises have been made into Latin (by J. A. rather than as the goal of advancing thought. The theo- Werdenhagen, 1632), Dutch (complete, by W. v. Bayerland, 1634– logian is staggered by a language which breaks the fixed 41), and French (by Jean Macle, circ. 1640, and L. C. de Saintassociation of theological phrases, and strangely reversing Martin, 1800–9). For the nearest approach to popularity which his
writings have enjoyed we must search the annals of the English the usual point of view, characteristically pictures God as
Commonwealth. Between 1644 and 1662, all Boehme's works were underneath rather than above. Nature rises out of Him ; | translated by John Ellistone (d. 1652) and John Sparrow, assisted we sink into Him. The Ungrund of the unmanifested by Durand Hotham and Humphrey Blunden, who paid for the Godhead is boldly represented in the English translations undertaking. At that time regular societies of Behmenists, em
bracing not only the cultivated but the vulgar, existed in England of Boehme by the word Abyss, in a sense altogether un
and in Holland. They merged into the Quaker movement, holding explained by its Biblical use. In the Theologia Germanica already in common with Friends that salvation is nothing short of this tendency to regard God as the substantia, the underly- the very presence and life of Christ in the believer, and only kept ing ground of all things, is accepted as a foundation for apart by an
foundation for a part by an objective doctrine of the sacraments which exposed
them to the polemic of Quakers (e.g., J. Anderdon), Muggleton piety; the same view, when offered in the colder logic of
led an anthropomorphic reaction against them, and between the Spinoza, is sometimes set aside as atheistical.
two currents they were swept away. The Philadelphian Society at sion of spiritual forces and natural phenomena out of the the beginning of the 18th century consisted of cultured mystics, Ungrund is described by Boehme in terms of a threefold Jane Lead, Pordage, Francis Lee, Bromley, &c., who fed upon
Boehme. William Law (1686-1761) somewhat later recurred to the manifestation, commended no doubt by the constitution of
same spring, with the result, however, in those dry times of bringthe Christian Trinity, but exhibited in a form derived ing his own good sense into question rather than of reviving the from the school of Paracelsus. From Weigel he learned a credit of his author. After Law's death the old English translation purely idealistic explanation of the universe, according to
was in great part re-edited (4 vols. 1762–84) as a tribute to his which it is not the resultant of material forces, but the memory, by George Ward and Thomas Langcake, with plates from
the designs of D. A. Freher (Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 5767–94). expression of spiritual principles. These two explanations This forms what is commonly called Law's translation ; to comwere fused in his mind till they issued forth as equivalent plete it a 5th vol. (12mo, Dublin, 1820) is needed. Germany has forms of one and the same thought. Further, Schwenkfeld also in this century turned to Bochme with eyes directly philosophisupplied him with the germs of a transcendental exegesis, and in reality through him for the first time did philosophy in
cal. “He is known,” says Hegel, “as the Philosophus ?'cutonicus; whereby the Christian Scriptures and the dogmata of Germany come forward with a characteristic stamp. The kernel of Lutheran orthodoxy were opened up in harmony with his his philosophizing is purely German ” (Gesch. Ph., iii. 1836, p. new-found views. Thus equipped, Boehme's own genius 300): Franz Baader is the most remarkable of his recent philodid the rest. A primary effort of Boehme's philosophy Philosophen J. Boehmes, 1844 ; Alb. Peip, J. Boehme der deutsche
sophical exponents. See also Hamberger, Die Lehre des deutschen is to show how material powers are substantially one with Philosoph, 1860 ; von Harless, J. Boehme und die Alchymisten, 1870. moral forces. This is the object with which he draws For Boehme’s life, consult the Memoirs, by Abm. von Frankenberg out the dogmatic scheme which dictates the arrangement of
and others, trans. by Fras. Okely, 1870 ; La Motte Fouque's J. his seven Quellgeister. Translating Boehme's thought out Boehm, ein biographischer Denkstein, 1831' ; and, above all
, H. A.
Fechner's J. Böhme, sein Leben und seine Schriften, 1857. A comof the uncouth dialect of material symbols (as to which prehensive study of Boehme in English is a desideratum. See one doubts sometimes whether he means them as concrete Memorial of W. Law (by Chr. Walton, 1856); Sat. Rev., xxxvi.
(1873) p. 52; Unitar. Rev. (Amer.), ii. (1874) pp. 243, 447, art. at Coronea, and there a religious festival was held. by Prof. R. E. Thomson. Boehme's MSS. went to Holland. His The political history of the country is inseparable from Hen. Beets and others, were first uniformly edited by J. G. Gichtel
, that of ORCHOMENOS, THEBES, PLATÆÆ, and THESPIÆ, to Amst. 1682—3, in 24 pts. 8vo, bound in 6, 7, or 9 vols. ; reprinted which the reader must be referred for details. The conAmst. 1715, 2 vols. 4to; again, Amst. 1730-1, in 21 pts. 8vo, federacy continued its nominal existence even under the bound in 6 vols
. They were re-edited by K. W. Schiebler, Leips. Roman emperors, although the country was so reduced that, 1831-47, in 7 vols. 8vo; reprinted 1861, f.
about the time of Augustus, Tanagra and Thespiæ alone BEOTIA (Bowria) a country of Central Greece, bounded could be considered towns, the other cities having either on the S. by the Gulf of Corinth, Megaris, and Attica; on been entirely destroyed, or existing only as villages. The the E. by Attica and the Euripus, which separates it from more important of the towns which had formerly existed, beEuboea; on the N. by the territory of the Locri Opuntii; sides those already mentioned, were Tegyra, Arne, Haliartus, and on the W. by Phocis. Its surface is estimated at 1119 Alalcomenæ, and Lebadea in the Copaic valley; Anthedon, English square miles. Surrounded nearly on all sides by Mycalessus, and Oropus along the Euripus; Thisbe and mountains, it divides itself naturally into three parts, the Creusis on the Corinthian Gulf; Ascra and Leuctra further low country about Lake Copais, or, as it is now called, the inland ; and Sidæ, Tanagra, and Pheræ in the valley of the Lake of T'opolias, the valley of the River Asopus (now Asopus. During the Middle Ages and under the Turkish Oropo), and the coast district between Mount Helicon and domination, Livadia, the ancient Lebadea, was the capital the Corinthian Gulf. The country about the lake is a of the country, which indeed was frequently called after large valley, so completely surrounded by hills that it is con- that city.
that city. The district is now united in one Nomos with nected with the Euboean Sea by subterranean passages only. Attica (Attikoviotia), and is divided into two eparchies that The natural passages, or katavothra, not being sufficient take their names from Thebes and Livadia. The population to carry off the great masses of water accumulating in the in the eastern part is largely Albanian, and is engaged in valley, which is traversed by the Cephisus, the principal the growing of grain and culture of the vine. See the river in the country, the early inhabitants often suffered Travels of Clarke, Wheler, Dodwell, Sir W. Gell, Hobhouse, severely from inundations; and at a very remote period Holland, Leake, and Mure; Thiersch, Etat actuel de la large artificial drains were constructed, probably by the Grèce, 1833; Forchhammer, Hellenika, 1837; Kruse, Minyans of Orchomenos, to supplement the natural outlets. Hellas, 1825--28; Klütz, De fædere Bæotico, 1821 ; Ten Remains of these works, as stupendous as any that were Breujel, De fædere Boeotico, 1834 ; Francke, Der Böotische executed in antiquity, still excite the admiration of the Bund, 1843; and Bursian's Geographie von Griechenland, traveller. They formerly rendered that part of Bæotia one 1863. of the most fertile districts of Greece, but being neglected BOERHAAVE, HERMANN, one of the most celebrated for centuries, the shores of the lake became an exten- physicians of modern times, was born at Voorhout near sive marsh. A large stretch of country is still often under Leyden, December 31, 1668. Destined for the clerical water during the winter, but it begins to dry up in spring, profession, to which his father belonged, he received a and in summer forms fine wheat-fields and meadows. liberal education, and early displayed unusual abilities. Between this valley of the Copais and the basin of the At the age of sixteen he entered the University of Leyden, Asopus is situated the Theban plain, which is still distin- where he studied under Gronovius, Ryckius, Trigland, and guished for its fertility, especially in grain. The lowlands other distinguished men, and obtained the highest academical and valleys of Baotia were notorious in antiquity for their honours. In 1690 he took his degree in philosophy; op moist and thick atmosphere, which was believed to render which occasion he delivered an inaugural dissertation De the inhabitants dull and stupid. For these characteristics distinctione mentis a corpore, wherein he attacked the the Boeotians are frequently satirized by the Attic writers; doctrines of Epicurus, Hobbes, and Spinoza. Being left, and it is certain that comparatively few names were added on the death of his father, without any provision, he was to the long roll of Greek literature from this portion of compelled to support himself by teaching mathematics
. the Greek soil. One writer alone, perhaps, the poet Pindar, By the advice of Vandenberg, the burgomaster of Leyden, stands out in striking contrast to the national character; Boerhaave now applied himself with ardour to the study the two others who alone of his fellow-countrymen can of medicine, to which indeed he had early manifested a claim to be also his intellectual kinsmen, Hesiod and decided inclination. The works of Hippocrates among the Plutarch, bear no small trace of a Baotian origin. The ancients, and those of Sydenham among the moderns, were dialect spoken by the Baotians was a broad Æolic. In the especial objects of his study; but his reading was by the earliest times of history Bæotia was inhabited by no means confined to these authors. In 1693 he took his various tribes, such as the Aonians, Temmicians, Thracians, degree of M.D. at Harderwyck in Guelderland, and immeLeleges, Phlegyans, and the Minyans of Orchomenos. of diately entered on the studies of his profession. His these we know almost nothing, but the last-mentioned merits were soon recognized, and in 1701 he was appointappear to have formed a great centre of civilization at a ed by the University of Leyden to supply the place of very remote period. All these tribes were gradually Drelincourt as lecturer on the institutes of medicine. His expelled or absorbed by the Baotian Æolians, who immi- inaugural discourse on this occasion was entitled De comgrated from Thessaly about sixty years after the destruction mendando Hippocratis studio, in which he recommended to of Troy, according to the ordinary chronology. The his pupils that great physician as their model. In 1709, country, which had previously possessed no common name, the university appointed him successor to Hotton in the henceforth is always spoken of as Baotia, and the several chair of botany and medicine, in which capacity he did cities and towns, with Thebes at their head, formed a sort good service, not only to his own university, but also to of confederation, in which, however, the Thebans and the botanical science, by his improvements and additions to the other Boeotians frequently came into hostile collision, botanic garden of Leyden, and by the publication of Thebes claiming the supremacy of the whole country, and numerous works descriptive of new species of plants. He the other cities insisting on their independence. The was appointed in 1714 rector of the university. In the confederation was administered by a number of officers same year he succeeded Bidloo in the chair of practical called Bæotarchs, of whom two were chosen by Thebes medicine, and in this capacity he had the merit of and one by each of the remaining confederate communi- introducing into modern practice the system of clinical ties. The federal temple was that of Athene Itonica instruction. Four years later he was appointed to the
chair of chemistry, and delivered an inaugural discourse, historians of the day give us but imperfect records or make
death in 455 A.D., by order of Valentinian III., was the
He possessed The date of his birth is unknown; but it is conjectured remarkable powers of memory, and was an accomplished on good grounds that he was born at Rome somewhere linguist. A declared foe to all excess, he considered about the year 475 A.D. He was, therefore, too young decent mirth as the salt of life. He was fond of music, to see the last of the Roman emperors (476), and his with which he had a scientific acquaintance; and during boyhood was spent in Rome while Odoacer, king of the winter he had a weekly concert in his house. It was his Heruli, was monarch of that city. We know nothing of daily practice throughout life, as soon as he rose in the his early years. A passage in a treatise falsely ascribed to morning, which was generally very early, to retire for an him (De Disciplina Scholarium) and a misinterpretation hour to private prayer and meditation on some part of the of a passage in Cassiodorus, led early scholars to suppose Scriptures. He often told his friends, when they asked that he spent a long time in Athens pursuing his studies him how it was possible for him to go through so much there; but later biographers have seen that there is no fatigue, that it was this practice which gave him spirit and foundation for this opinion. His father, Flavius Manlius vigour in the business of the day.
Boetius was consul in the year 487. It is probable that Of his sagacity, and the wonderful penetration with he died soon after ; for Boetius states that, when he was which he often discovered and described, at first sight, such bereaved of his parent, men of the highest rank took distempers as betray themselves by no symptoms to common him under their charge (De Con., lib. ii. c. 3). He soon eyes, very surprising accounts have been transmitted to us. became well known for his energy and ability, and his high Yet so far was he from having presumptuous confidence in rank gave him access to the noblest families. He married his own abilities, or from being puffed up by prosperity, Rusticiana, the daughter of the senator Symmachus. By that he was condescending to all, and remarkably diligent her he had two sons, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boetius and in his profession. His great skill and celebrity as a Q. Aurelius Memmius Symmachus. When Theodoric, the physician brought him a large fortune. He left his only king of the Ostrogoths, displaced Odoacer no change of forsurviving daughter two millions of florins.
tune for the worse seems to have befallen Boetius. On the The genius of Boerhaave raised the fame of the University contrary he became a favourite with that monarch, and was of Leyden, especially as a school of medicine, so as to make one of his intimate friends. Boetius attained to the consulit a resort of strangers from every part of Europe. All the ship in 510, and his sons, while still young, held the same princes of Europe sent him disciples, who found in this honour together (522). Boetius regarded it as the height skilful professor not only an indefatigable teacher, but an of his good fortune when he witnessed his two sons, consuls affectionate guardian. When Peter the Great went to at the same time, convoyed from their home to the senateHolland in 1715, to instruct himself in maritime affairs, he house by a crowd of senators amidst the enthusiasm of the also took lessons from Boerhaave. The reputation of this
On that day, he tells us, while his sons occupied llainent J.-933 wy: not confined to Europe ; a Chinese the curule chairs in the senate-house, he himself had the *Vas in molim a letter directed "To the illustrious honour of pronouncing a panegyric on the monarch, and I'.. ...c0ya, ran in Europe," and it reached him in placed between his two sons he distributed largesses among
"the city of Leyden raised a splendid monu- the people in the circus. But his good fortune did not last, waunt' to his memory in the church of St Peter, inscribed and he attributes the calamities that came upon him to the “To the health-giving genius of Boerhaave," SALUTIFERO ill-will which his bold maintenance of justice had caused, and BOERHAAVII GENIO SACRUM,
to his opposition to every oppressive measure. “How often," The principal works of Boerhaave are-(1.) Institutiones he says, “ have I opposed the attacks of Conigastus on the Medicæ, Leyden, 1708; (2.) Aphorismi de cognoscendis et property of the weak? how often have I kept Trigguilla, the curandis Morbis, Leyden, 1709,-on this work, which was chamberlain of the palace, from perpetrating acts of injustice? the text-book of Boerhaave's lectures, Van Swieten pub- how often have I protected, by influence exercised at my lished a commentary in 5 vols. 4to; (3.) Libellus de own peril, the miserable whom the licensed avarice of the Materia Medica et Remediorum Formulis, Leyden, 1719; barbarians always harassed with endless insults ?” And (4.) Institutiones et Experimenta Chemiæ, Paris, 1724. then he mentions several particular cases. A famine had
BOETIUS, ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS, is described begun to rage. The prefect of the praetorium was deterby Gibbon " as the last of the Romans whom Cato or Tully mined to satisfy the soldiers, regardless altogether of the could have acknowledged for their countryman.” The feelings of the provincials. He accordingly issued an edict events of his life are involved in uncertainty. The for a coemptio, that is, an order compelling the provincials
to sell their corn to the Government, whether they would | It should be mentioned also that some have given him a or not. This edict would have utterly ruined Campania. decidedly Christian wife, of the name of Elpis, who wrote Boetius interfered. The case was brought before the king, hymns, two of which are still extant (Daniel, Thes. Hymn., and Boetius succeeded in averting the coemptio from the i. p. 156). This is a pure supposition inconsistent with Campanians. He also rescued Paulinus, a man of consular chronology, unauthenticated by authority, and based only rank, from the jaws of those whom he calls palatinæ canes on a misinterpretation of a passage in the De Consolatione. (dogs of the palace), and who, he says, had almost devoured The contemporaries of Boetius regarded him as a man of his riches. And he gives as a third and crowning instance profound learning. Priscian the grammarian speaks of in that he exposed himself to the hatred of the informer him as having attained the summit of honesty and of all Cyprianus by preventing the punishment of Albinus, a man sciences. Cassiodorus, the chancellor of Theodoric and the of consular rank, He mentions in another place that when intimate acquaintance of the philosopher, employs language at Verona the king was anxious to transfer the accusation equally strong. And Ennodius, the bishop of Pavia, knows of treason brought against Albinus to the whole senate, no bounds for his admiration. “You surpass,” he says to he defended the senate at great risk. In consequence of Boetius, "the eloquence of the ancients in imitating it." the ill-will that Boetius had thus roused, he was ac- The king Theodoric had a profound idea of his great cused of treason towards the end of the reign of Theo- scientific abilities. He employed him in setting right the doric. Three accusers appeared against him. The first, coinage. When he visited Rome with Gunibald king of Bas us, had been expelled from the monarch's service, and the Burgundians, he took him to Boetius, who showed in consequence of debt he had become an informer and now them, amongst other mechanical contrivances, a sun-dial appeared against Boetius. The other two were Opilio and and a water-clock. The foreign monarch was astonished, Gaudentius, on whom sentence of banishment had been and, at the request of Theodoric, Boetius had to prepare pronounced on account of innumerable frauds. They first others of a similar nature, which were sent as presents to took refuge in a church, but when this fact became known, Gunibald. It was Boetius also whom Theodoric consulted a decree was issued that if they did not leave Ravenna when Clovis, king of the Franks, wished a musician who before a prescribed day, they were to be driven out with a could sing to the accompaniment of the lyre, and Boetius brand upon their forehead. On the very last day allowed was charged with the duty of selecting him. them they gave information against Boetius, and their The fame of Boetius increased after his death, and his information was received. The accusation which these influence during the Middle Ages was exceedingly powerful. villains brought against him was that he had conspired His circumstances peculiarly favoured this intluence. He against the king, that he was anxious to maintain the appeared at a time when contempt for intellectual pursuits integrity of the senate, and to restore Rome to liberty, and had begun to pervade society. In his early years he was that for this purpose he had written to the Emperor Justin. seized with a passionate enthusiasm for Greek literature, Justin had, no doubt, special reasons for wishing to see an and this continued through life. Even amidst the cares end to the reign of Theodoric. Justin was orthodox. of the cousulship he found time for commenting on the Theodoric was
The orthodox subjects of Categories of Aristotle. The idea laid hold of him of Theodoric were suspicious of their ruler; and many would reviving the spirit of his countrymen by imbuing them gladly have joined in a plot to displace him. The knows with the thoughts of the great Greek writers. He formed ledge of this fact may have rendered Theodoric suspicious. the resolution to translate all the works of Aristotle and But Boetius denied the accusation in unequivocal terms. all the dialogues of Plato, and to reconcile the philosophy He did indeed wish the integrity of the senate. He would of Plato with that of the Stagirite. He did not succeed fain have desired liberty, but all hope of it was gone. in all that he designed; but he did a great part of his The letters addressed by him to Justin were forgeries, and work. “Through your translations,” says Cassiodorus to he had not been guilty of any conspiracy. Notwithstand him, “the music of Pythagoras and the astronomy of ing his innocence he was condemned and sent to Ticinum Ptolemæus are read by the Italians; the arithmetic of (Pavia) where he was thrown into prison. It was during Nicomachus and the geometry of Euclid are heard by the his confinement in this prison that he wrote his famous Westerns; the theology of Plato and the logic of Aristotle work De Consolatione Philosophiæ. His goods were con- dispute in the language of Quirinus; the mechanical fiscated, and after an imprisonment of considerable dura- Archimedes also you have restored in a Latin dress to the tion he was put to death in 525. Procopius relates that Sicilians; and whatever discipline or arts fertile Greece has Theodoric soon repented of his cruel deed, and that his produced through the efforts of individual men, Rome has death, which took place soon after, was hastened by re- received in her own language through your single instrumorse for the crime he had committed against his great mentality.” Boetius translated into Latin Aristotle's Anacounsellor.
lytica Priora et Posteriora, the Topica, and Elencha Two or three centuries after the death of Boetius writers Sophistica; and he wrote commentaries on Aristotle's began to view his death as a martyrdom. Several Christian Categories, on his book Tepi &punvelas, also a commentary books were in circulation which were ascribed to him, and on the Isagoge of Porphyrius. These works formed to there was one especially on the Trinity which they regarded large extent the source from which the Middle Ages derived as proof that he had taken an active part against the heresy their knowledge of Aristotle. (See Stahr, Aristoteles bei den of Theodoric
. It was therefore for his orthodoxy that Römern, pp. 196-234.) Boetius was put to death. And these writers delight to But Boetius did not confine himself to Aristotle.
He paint with minuteness the horrible tortures to which he wrote a commentary on the Topica of Cicero ; and he was exposed and the marvellous actions which the saint was also the author of independent works on logic : performed at his death. He was canonized as Saint Introductio ad Categoricos Syllogismos, in one book; Severinus. The brick tower in Pavia in which he was De Syllogismo Categorico, in two books; De Syllogismis confined was a hallowed building. And finally, in the Hypotheticis
, in two books ; De Divisione, in one book; year 996, Otho III. ordered the bones of Boetius to be De Definitione, in one book; De Differentiis Topicis, in taken out of the place in which they had lain hid, and to four books. be placed in the church of St Augustine within a splendid We have also seen from the statement of Cassiodorus marble tomb, for which Gerbert, who afterwards became that he furnished manuals for the quadrivium of the schools Pope under the name of Silvester II., wrote an inscription. of the Middle Ages (the “quattuor matheseos discipline,"