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as Boetius calls them) on arithmetic, music, geometry, and sophy proceeds to show that this takes place only in appearance; that astronomy. The statement of Cassiodorus that he trans

vice is never unpunished nor virtue unrewarded. From this Philo

sophy passes into a discussion in regard to the nature of providence lated Nicomachus is rhetorical. Boetius himself tells us in

and fate, and shows that every fortune is good. The fifth and last his preface addressed to his father-in-law Symmachus that book takes up the question of man's free will and God's foreknow. he had taken liberties with the text of Nicomachus, that ledge, and, by an exposition of the nature of God, attempts to show he had abridged the work when necessary, and that he

that these doctrines are not subversive of each other; and the conhad introduced formulæ and diagrams of his own where he events, and the ever-present eternity of his vision agrees with the

clusion is drawn that God remains a foreknowing spectator of all thought them useful for bringing out the meaning. His future quality of our actions, dispensing rewards to the good and work on music also is not a translation from Pythagoras, punishments to the wicked. who left no writing behind him. But Boetius belonged to

Several theological works have been ascribed to Boetius, as has the school of musical writers who based their science on

been already mentioned. The Consolatio affords conclusive proof

that the author was not a practical believer in Christianity. The the method of Pythagoras. They thought that it was not book contains several expressions, such as daemones, angelica virtus, sufficient to trust to the ear alone, to determine the prin- and purgatoria clementia, which have been thought to be derived ciples of music, as did practical musicians like Aristoxenus,

from the Christian faith; but they are used in a heathen sense, and but that along with the ear, physical experiments should

are explained sufficiently by the circumstance that Boetius was on

intimate terms with Christians, and could not help being influenced be employed. The work of Boetius is in five books, and is

to some extent by their language. The writer nowhere finds cona very complete exposition of the subject. It remained solation in any Christian belief, and Christ is never named in the a text-book of music in the Universities of Oxford and work. It is not impossible, however, that Boetius may have been


have Cambridge till within comparatively recent times. It is brought up a Christian, and that in his early years he

written some Christian books. This is the conjecture to which the still very valuable as a help in ascertaining the principles latest editor of his Christian treatises has had recourse. Peiper of ancient music, and gives us the opinions of some of the thinks that the first three treatises are the productions of the early best ancient writers on the art. The manuscripts of the years of Boetius. The first, De Sancta Trinitate, is addressed to geometry of Boetius differ widely from each other. The discussion, which is of an abstract nature,

and deals partly with the

Symmachus (Domino Patri Symmacho), and the result of the short latest editor, Godofredus Friedlein, thinks that there are ten categories, is that unity is predicated absolutely, or, in regard to only two manuscripts which can at all lay claim to con the substance of the Deity, trinity is predicated relatively. The tain the work of Boetius. He has published the Ars

second treatise is addressed to John the deacon (“Ad Joannem Geometriæ, in two books, as given in these manuscripts ; Sanctus de divinitate substantialiter prædicentur.” The treatise is

Diaconum"), and its subject is “Utrum Pater et Filius et Spiritus but critics are generally inclined to doubt the genuineness shorter than the former, occupying only two or three pages, and even of these.

the conclusion of the argument is the same. The third treatise By far the most important and most famous of the works bears the title, Quomodo substantiæ in eo quod sint bonce sint of Boetius is his book' De Consolatione Philosophiæ. Gib- Christian, and it contains nothing of great value ; therefore its

cum non sint substantialia bona. It contains nothing distinctly bon justly describes it as “a golden volume, not unworthy authorship is a matter of little consequence. Peiper thinks that, of the leisure of Plato or Tully, but which claims incom as the best MSS. uniformly assign these treatises to Boetius, they parable merit from the barbarism of the times and the are to be regarded as his; that it is probable that Symmachus situation of the author.” It was a favourite book of the

and John (who afterwards became Pope) were the men of highest

distinction who took charge of him when he lost his father; and Middle Ages, and deserves to be a favourite still. The

that these treatises are the first-fruits of his studies, which he high reputation it had in mediæval times is attested by the dedicates to his guardians and benefactors. He thinks that the numerous translations, commentaries, and imitations of it variations in the inscriptions of the fifth treatise, which is not found which then appeared. Among others Asser, the instructor

in the best manuscript, are so great that the name of Boetius could of Alfred the Great, and Robert Grosseteste, bishop of found in the best manuscript, and two manuscripts have no

not have originally been in the title. The fourth book is also not Lincoln, commented on it. Alfred translated it into Anglo- | inscription. He infers, from these facts, that there is no sure Saxon. Versions of it appeared in German, French, evidence for the authorship of the fourth and fifth treatises. The

Both Eutyches Italian, Spanish, and Greek before the end of the 15th fifth treatise is Contra Eutychen et Nestorium.

and Nestorius are spoken of as living. A council is mentioned, century. *Chaucer translated it into English prose before in which a letter was read, expounding the opinion of the the year 1382; and this translation was published by Eutychians for the first time. The novelty of the opinion is Caxton at Westminster, 1480. Lydgate followed in the also alluded to. All these circumstances point to the Council wake of Chaucer. It is said that, after the invention of

of Chalcedon (451). The treatise was therefore written before

the birth of Boetius, if it be not a forgery ; but there is no printing, amongst others Queen Elizabeth translated it, and

reason to suppose that the treatise was not a genuine production that the work was well known to Shakespeare.

of the time to which it professes to belong. The fourth treatise,

De Fide Catholica, does not contain any distinct chronological This famous work consists of five books. Its form is peculiar, data; but the tone and opinions of the treatise produce the impresand is an imitation of a similar work by Marcianus Capella, De sion that it probably belonged to the same period as the treatise Nuptiis Philologiæ et Mercurii. It is alternately in prose and verse. against Eutyches and Nestorius. Several inscriptions ascribe both The verse shows great facility of metrical composition, but a con these treatises to Boetius. It will be seen from this statement that siderable portion of it is transferred from the tragedies of Seneca. Peiper bases his conclusions on grounds far too narrow; and on the The first book opens with a few verses, in which Boetius describes whole it is far more probable that Boetius wrote none of the four how his sorrows had turned his hair grey, and had brought him to a Christian treatises, particularly as they are not ascribed to him by premature old age. As he is thus lamenting, a woman appears to any of his contemporaries. Three of them express in the strongest him of dignified mien, whom for a time he cannot distinguish in con language the orthodox faith of the church in opposition to the sequence of his tears, but at last he recognizes her as his guardian, Arian heresy, and these three put in unmistakable language the Philosophy. She, resolving to apply the remedy for his grief, puts procession of the Holy Spirit from both Father and Šon. The some questions to him for that purpose. She finds that he believes fourth argues for the orthodox belief of the two natures and one that God rules the world, but does not know what he himself is ; person of Christ. When the desire arose that it should be believed and this absence of self-knowledge is the cause of his weakness. In that Boetius perished from his opposition to the heresy of Theodoric, the second book Philosophy presents to Boetius Fortune, who is it was natural to ascribe to him works which were in harmony with made to state to him the blessings he has enjoyed, and after that this supposed fact. The works may really have been written by proceeds to discuss with him the kind of blessings that fortune can one Boethus, a bishop of Africa, as Jordan supposes, or by some bestow, which are shown to be unsatisfactory and uncertain. In the Saint Severinus, as Nitzsch conjectures, and the similarity of name third book Philosophy promises to lead him to true happiness, which may have aided the transference of them to the heathen or neutral is to be found in God alone, for since God is the highest good, and the Boetius. highest good is true happiness, God is true happiness. Nor can real The best editions of the entire works of Boetius are the Basel evil exist, for since God is all-powerful, and since he does not wish edition of 1570, and Migne's in his Patrologio Cursus Completus, evil, evil must be non-existent. In the fourth book Boetius raises Series Latina, vols. lxiii., lxiv. There are many editions of the De the question, Why, if the governor of the universe is good, do evils Consolatione. The most recent are -(1.) In Valpy's Delphin Classics, exist, and why is virtue often punished and vice rewarded ? Philo. Nos. 54 and 55. This contains the lives of Boetius by Bertius and

III. 108


by Rota, and a list of the various editions of Boetius. It has also , led away a section of the angels from their allegiance, and numerous notes. (2.) An edition by Theodorus Obbarius, Jenæ, 1843. with their aid formed out of chaos a new world—the earth, This contains prolegomena on the life and writings of Boetius, on

and a new race-man. his religion and philosophy, and on the manuscripts and editions, a

But he was unable to give to man critical apparatus, and notes. (3.) An edition by Rudolfus Peiper, a portion of his own living spirit, and therefore besought Lipsiæ, 1871. This edition has the fullest collation of manu God to bestow life on this new creation, promising that the scripts, though a considerable number of manuscripts still remain

vacant places of the seceded angels should be filled up by to be collated. In addition to an account of the MSS. used, it gives the Book of Lupus “ De Metris Boetii,” the "Vita Boetii” con

the spirits of men. Repenting of this promise, however, tained in some MSS., “Elogia Boetii,” and a short list of the com he resolved to bring forth an evil race which should overmentators, translators, and imitators of the Consolation. It con whelm the good among mankind. He accordingly seduced tains also an account of the metres used by Boetius in the Con.

Eve, who gave birth to Cain, the first of the descendants solatio, and a list of the passages which he has borrowed from the tragedies of Seneca. The work also includes the five treatises, four

of the evil principle. His power also enabled him to of them Christian, of which mention has been made above. In

deceive the greater part of mankind, particularly the Jews, 1867 appeared a very satisfactory edition of Boetins's works, De to whom he represented himself as Jehovah. At last God Institutione Arithmetica Libri Duo, De Institutione Musica Libri sent out from himself the Logos, or angel Michael, who Quinque, Accedit Geometria que fertur Boetii : e libris manu scriptis edidit Godofredus Friedlein, Lipsiæ.

came upon earth in an ethereal form which was in appear(J. D.)

ance only an earthly body. Christ overcame Satanael, and BOGHAZ-KEUY, or Boghas-Koei (i.e., the Village of deprived him of his creative power, El, from which time the Gorge), a small hamlet in Asia Minor, remarkable for he is called Satan. Christ then ascended and took his its ruins, which are identified with the ancient Pterium or place beside the Father, who again sent forth an emanation, Pteria. It stands 3515 feet above the sea-level, about the Holy Ghost, for the comfort and edification of believers. half-way between Angora and Amassia, almost in the 40th In church observances the Bogomili were equally heterodox. parallel of N. lat., on the banks of a small tributary of the They rejected baptism by water only, and made the cere Kizil Irmak. The present village contains about 150 mony consist of prayer, and of laying on the head of the houses, but the remains give evidence of its former import-convert the gospel (probably apocryphal) of St John, and

Almost all the heights they occupy bear traces of the hands of the congregation. As they rejected the fortification ; extensive chambers have been excavated in symbol of water in baptism so they refused to admit such the rocks; many portions of escarpment are elaborately symbolic rites as the Lord's supper, which they looked sculptured ; and the massive foundations of a vast temple upon as an offering to evil spirits. They were averse to or palace can still be traced. The date and origin of these all images, even to the cross. The Bogomili suffered ruins have given rise to much discussion. Dr Barth thinks persecution from Alexius Comnenus, who put to death the city was probably founded by Cyaxares, the Mede, and their leader Basilius, and they were condemned by a synod explains the groups of sculpture as commemorating the of Constantinople in 1140. They lingered on, however, peace between Cyaxares and Alyattes, which is described by in and about Philippopolis, and opinions nearly identical Herodotus in the 74th chapter of his 1st book. M. Texier's with theirs are to be met with among the later Catharists. hypothesis, on the other hand, is that the carvings represent (See the Church Histories of Neander and Gieseler.) the introduction of the worship of Astarte into Phrygia ; BOGOTA, or SANTA FÉ DE BOGOTA, the capital of the and this interpretation has been provisionally accepted by United States of Colombia, in South America, is situated Van Lennep, in whose Travels in Asia Minor, 1870, in the state of Cundinamarca, in 4° 6' N. lat. and 78° 30' carefully-drawn copies of the sculptures will be found. (See W. long. It occupies a fine position at the base of the also Barth, Reise von Trapezunt nach Scutari, 1860, and in mountains La Guadalupe and Montserrato, on a table-land Monatsbericht der Berl. Akad. der Wissensch., Febr., 1859.) that forms part of the eastern ridge of the Andes, between

BOGODUKHOFF, a town of Russia, in the government the extensive valley of the Magdalena and the plains that of Kharkoff, about 43 miles N.W. of that city, in 50° 10' are watered by part of the Orinoco system. The surroundN. lat. and 36° 32 E. long., on the sandstone heights ing country is exceedingly fertile, and produces abundant along the River Merl. There seems to have been a settle-crops of wheat and barley and the leguminous plants ment on this site as early as 1571, and in 1681 it is spoken cultivated in Europe. The city of Bogota is the finest in of as a town. In 1709, at the time of the Swedish war, the republic; its streets are well built, and run at right Bogodukhoff was taken by Menschikoff and the Emperor angles to each other ; and within recent years most of Alexis Petrovitch. There are still remains of the ramparts them have been supplied with side pavements. The and ditches with which it was formerly surrounded. The private houses are built of sun-dried bricks, and whitetown contains four churches and a cathedral (of the washed ; and owing to the prevalence of earthquakes they Assumption, built in 1793), a hospital, and an almshouse. are mostly of one story in height. Of the streets the The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agriculture and largest and finest is the Calle-Real or Calle de la Republica, gardening, and in the manufacture of boots, caps, and which ends in a large square or plaza containing some of furred gowns. Tanning also is carried on to some extent. the chief buildings in the city. The cathedral, rebuilt in The trade is principally in grain, cattle, and fish. There 1814, possesses very little external beauty; but its interior are two weekly markets and six annual fairs. Population is fitted up with considerable elegance, its ornaments are in 1860, 10,522.

rich and valuable, and the image of the Virgin, the patron BOGOMILI, a heretical sect of the Greek Church, who saint, is covered with a profusion of precious stones. came into notice during the 12th century. In origin they There are about thirty other churches in the city, but many are probably Bulgarian, and their name appears to be a of them are in a state of decay, while several of the compound of the Slavonic words Bog, God, and milui, monastic buildings are appropriated to secular uses,—the

In doctrine they are closely assimilated to religious communities having been dissolved by Mosquera, the Euchites of the preceding century, and they may be and their revenues devoted in great measure to educational looked on as an offshoot of that older sect. The peculiarity purposes. The convent of San Francisco is of great extent, of their system of belief is the place assigned to Satan, who, and contains some of the productions of Vasquez, a native under his original name Satanael, is held by them to be the artist of merit. A large and elegant building-a capitol, first-born son of God. But Satanael, though seated at the for the reception of Congress and for the various offices of right hand of his father and endowed with universal sway, state—is now (1875) in course of erection. Besides the was discontented and desired to become independent. He | university there are three endowed colleges, a school of

have mercy.

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chemistry and mineralogy, a national academy, a public Dhupcháchiá, &c. A silk factory has been established at library, a botanic garden, and a military school, which Naodápárá, and is conducted with European capital, with an is supported out of the public funds, and has produced annual outlay of about £4500. The revenue and expendisome good engineers. The mint, one of the three in the ture of the district have steadily increased of late years. republic, is a large and handsome building, and is well In 1853 the total revenue of the district amounted to supplied with the necessary machinery. There are manu- £48,431, and the civil expenditure to £7282; in 1860, factures of soap, cloth, leather, and the precious metals; revenue £57,744, and civil expenditure £11,013; in 1870an active trade is carried on; and the neighbourhood is 71 the revenue had risen to £59,979. In 1870–71 the rich in minerals of various kinds. The population in 1800 district contained 1064 separate estates held by 2497 proamounted to 21,464, exclusive of strangers and temporary prietors, paying a total Government land revenue of £44,347. residents; in 1821 it was estimated at 30,000, and in 1870 The machinery for protecting person and property consists at about 52,000. Santa Fé de Bogota was founded in of six magisterial and six civil courts, with (1) a regular 1538 by Gonzalez Ximenes de Quesada, and received its police force, numbering 54 officers and 252 men, and costname from his birthplace Santa Fé, with the addition of ing Government £5975; (2), a rural constabulary or Bogota, in honour, it is said, of a native prince of that time. village watch, numbering 2552 men, and costing £6635, It soon increased in size and importance, and became the paid by the landholders and villagers; and (3), municipal capital of the Spanish vice-royalty of New Granada. In police, numbering 36 men, and costing £251. In 1871-72 1811 the citizens threw off the Spanish yoke and a republic there were 41 Government and aided schools in the district, was proclaimed ; the city, however, in 1816, fell into the attended by 1492 pupils, and maintained at a total cost of hands of Murillo the Spanish general. Delivered by £1398, of which £692 was contributed by the state. The Bolivar in 1819 it was made capital of the republic of total number of aided and unaided schools in the district is Colombia; on the separation of the three states it remained returned in the census of 1872 at 169, attended by 1685 the chief city of New Granada, and it is now the capital pupils. The only town containing upwards of 5000 of the United States of Colombia, forming itself an inde- inhabitants in the district is Bográ, the administrative pendent federal territory. It is the seat of the supreme headquarters, situated on the Karatoyá River; population court and the other offices of the Federal Government, and in 1872, 5872; municipal income, £282; expenditure, the residence of the foreign diplomatic representatives. £208 ; rate of taxation per head, 11d. There is one

BOGRA, correctly BAGURĀ, a district in the Rájsháhí other municipality, Sherpur, formerly a place of importance division, within the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, when the East India Company had silk filatures in its situated between 25° 20' and 24° 20' 28" N. lat., and 88° neighbourhood. A great part of this town is now over55' 30" and 89° 49' 25" E. long. It is bounded on the grown with jungle; the municipal income in 1869 was N. by the districts of Dinajpur and Rangpur, on the £246, the expenditure £174. The climate of Bográ is E. by the districts of Rangpur and Maimansinh, on the mild during the winter, but sultry and oppressive at other S. by the district of Pabñá, and on the W. by the districts of

The average annual rainfall for the five years Rajshahi and Dinajpur. The revenue area of the district in ending 1869 was 82 inches, and the average annual tem1870 was 2000 square miles, of which 1750 were returned perature 77° Fahr. as under cultivation, 125 as cultivable but not actually BOHADDIN, or, more properly, BOHA-EDDYN, an emicultivated, and 125 as uncultivable waste.

The census

nent Arabian writer and statesman, better known in the of 1872 returned the police area of the district at 1500 East under the appellation of IBN-SJEDDAD. He was born square miles, and disclosed a population of 689,467 souls, at Mosul 1145 A.D. (539 A. H.), and early became eminent of whom 556,620, or 80 per cent., were Mahometans; in the study of the Koran, as well as in jurisprudence. 130,644, or 19 per cent., Hindus ; 22 Christians; and At the age of twenty-seven he obtained the place of lecturer 2181 were classified as “others.” Density of population at Baghdad, and, soon after, a professor's chair at Mosul. in the census area, 59 per square mile. The district In 1187 he made the pilgrimage to Mecca, and then stretches out in a level plain, intersected by numerous proceeded to visit Jerusalem and Hebron. In passing streams and dotted with patches of jungle. The Karatoyá through Damascus he was sent for by Saladin, who was River flows from north to south, dividing the district into | then employed in the siege of Kancab. Bohaddin observed, two portions, possessing very distinct characteristics. The as he himself mentions (Vita Saladini, c. v.), that the whole eastern tract consists of rich alluvial soil, well watered, and soul of the monarch was engrossed by the war which he subject to fertilizing inundations, yielding heavy crops of was then waging against the enemies of the faith, and saw coarse rice, oilseeds, and jute. The western portion of the that the only mode of acquiring his favour was by urging district is high-lying and produces the finer qualities of him to its vigorous prosecution. With this view he comrice. The principal rivers are formed by the different posed a treatise on the Laws and Discipline of Sacred War ; channels of the Brahmaputra, which river here bears the and this work, on his return, he presented to Saladin, who local names of the Konải, the Dáokobá, and the Jamuna, received it with peculiar favour. Bohaddin, from this time, the last forming a portion of the eastern boundary of the remained constantly attached to the person of the sultan, district. Its bed is studded with alluvial islands. The and was employed in various important embassies and Brahmaputra and its channels, together with three minor departments of civil government. He was also appointed streams, the Bángálí, Karatoyá, and Alai, afford admirable judge of the army, and judge of Jerusalem. After Saladin's facilities for commerce, and render every part of the death Bohaddin was active in securing the throne to his district accessible to native cargo boats of large burden. son, Melik-al-Dhaker, and was by that prince created cadi The rivers swarm with fish,—the value of the fisheries of Aleppo. He then founded a college in that city of which being estimated at £45,000 a year. The principal pro- he himself was the principal professor. When Melik-alducts of the district are rice, pease, pulses, oilseeds, jute, Dhaker died, his son Melik-al-Aziz was a minor, and sugar-cane, mulberry, red pepper, and hemp for smoking Bohaddin obtained the principal sway in the regency. (Cannabis indica). These products, together with clarified This gave him an opportunity of introducing learned men butter and a little silk, form the chief articles of export. at court, and loading them with honours. As the prince, The imports consist of salt, cloth, tobacco, areca-nuts, copper however, approached to manhood, Bohaddin, though he still and brass utensils, spices, iron and piece goods. The retained his offices, found it expedient to retire from court. chief trading markets are Bográ, Lakhmiganj, Buriganj, | Even after he was unable to go to college, le continued to

The new

give lectures in his own house; and he persevered in these 632,404 ; and the total population was 5,106,069, of whom learned labours till the age of ninety, when he died 1235 2,433,629 were males, and 2,672,440 females. The census A.D. (633 A.H.) Bohaddin wrote on jurisprudence and of 1869 took no count of nationality, but according to Muslim divinity ; but his principal work is his Life of Ficker in his Die Völkerstämme der OesterreichischSaladin, which, with several other pieces connected with Ungarischen Monarchie, there are 20 of German race for the same subject, was published by Schultens, at Leyden, 32 of Slavonic. By far the greater part of the populain 1732, accompanied by a Latin translation, with notes tion (4,940,898) belongs to the Roman Catholic Church; and a geographical index. This work affords a favourable while only 3438 are members of the Greek Church, specimen of the historical compositions of the Arabs. It is 106,115 Protestants, and 89,933 Jews. The country conwritten with some spirit, and yet is free from that inflation stitutes an archbishopric, and is divided into three which so frequently disfigures Oriental composition. What- bishoprics. In 1870 there were 140 ecclesiastical foundaever relates to Saladin breathes the highest tone of tions, with endowments amounting to £65,726. At the panegyric; yet the enthusiasm with which everything head of the educational establishments is the University of concerning him is narrated, and the anecdotes which the Prague, with four faculties, and attended in 1871 by 1516 author, from his personal knowledge, is able to communicate students. There are upwards of 4000 ordinary schools in respecting that extraordinary character, give his work a rather more than the half of which Czech is spoken, 26 great degree of interest.

gymnasiums, 4 theological seminaries, and several instituBOHEMIA (German BöHMEN or Böheim), a king- tions for special departments of the arts and sciences. dom of the Austrian empire, situated between 48° 33' Bohemia derives its name from the Boii, a Celtic race History. and 51° 4' N. lat., and 12° 5' and 16° 25' W. long., and expelled from the country by the Marcomanni, who, after bounded on the N. by Saxony and Prussian Silesia, E. establishing a considerable kingdom under Marbod and by Moravia, S. by Upper and Lower Austria, and W. by being converted to Christianity, were in their turn supplanted Bavaria. Its area is estimated at 19,983 square miles. It by the Slavonic race, which is still predominant. belongs almost entirely to the basin of the Elbe, which rises comers were in danger of expulsion or conquest by the within the territory, and is joined by the Adler, the Iser, Avars, but were defended and established, according to the Moldau, and the Eger before it passes the frontier. The their own possibly mythical account, by the heroic Samo; boundaries are pretty clearly marked by mountain ranges and somewhat later, as the story goes, his place was filled on all sides,—the Böhmerwald dividing the country from by the good knight Krok, whose daughter Libussa, marryBavaria, the Erzgebirge and Riesengebirge from Saxony and ing Premysl, became the founder of a regular dynasty. Silesia, and the Moravian Hills from

the basin of the Danube. Bohemia was for a time absorbed in the great Carlovingian The climate is healthy, but varies considerably in different monarchy, but soon reasserted its independence. In the districts; the soil in many parts is highly fertile, and grain course of the 9th century Christianity was introduced. of various kinds, potatoes, hops, flax, hemp, vines, and fruits Under Boleslas I. the bounds of Bohemia were extended are extensively cultivated. In 1870 there were 6,205,161 and its unity secured ; but after a vigorous defence he had acres of ploughed land, 2656 in vineyards, 1,560,321 in to recognize the overlordship of Otto I. of Germany. Under gardens and meadows, 995,340 in pasture, and 3,749,411 his grandchildren his kingdom fell to pieces; a Polish in woodland. At the same date the number of horses in the conquest followed, and the restoration of the native country was 189,337, cattle 1,602,015, sheep 1,106,290, dynasty was only effected by the help of Henry II. of goats 194,273, swine 228,180, and bee-hives 140,892. Germany. In 1086 Wratislas II. received the title of king The mineral productions comprise gold, silver, lead, tin, from the emperor for himself ; and Premysl Ottocar I. copper, iron, cobalt, bismuth, arsenic, sulphur, coal, alum, (1197–1230) became the founder of a hereditary series of vitriol, and different sorts of stone. In 1870 there were kings. He was a bold defender of his independence, and obtained 156 cwt. of gold-ore, 1245 of silver-ore, 225,536 at the same time gave great encouragement to German tons of iron, 999 tons of lead, 2274 of tin, 61 tons of anti-immigration. By the introduction of the right of primogenimony, and 111 of arsenic-ore. The quantity of coal and ture in the succession to the throne, he put an end to the lignite amounted to 4,099,909 tons. The mineral springs disputes and contests which so often followed the death of of Bohemia—Carlsbad, Teplitz, Marienbad, and Franzens a king. In 1241 his son and successor was the successful brunn, &c.--are justly famous. The industry of the defender of Europe against a Mongolian invasion ; but he kingdom is highly developed in various directions. Most was eclipsed by Ottocar II. (1253-1278), who added greatly important of all is the manufacture of woollen goods, prin- by conquest to the extent of his dominions, and made cipally carried on at Reichenberg and in the neighbour- himself a formidable rival to the emperor himself. The hood. The cotton manufacture is also extensively pro- Premysl dynasty was at last extinguished in 1306; and secuted in the same district; and at Rumburg and other after a few years of uncertainty and dissatisfaction the Boplaces linen stuffs are largely produced. Bohemian glass hemian crown was bestowed on John of Luxembourg (son has been celebrated for centuries, and is still exported to of the Emperor Henry VII.), who thus became the founder all parts of Europe. Porcelain and earthenware of different of a dynasty which lasted till 1437. This warlike and sorts, iron and steel wares, copper, tin, and pewter articles, prosperous monarch was succeeded by his son Charles I., wooden wares, chemical stuffs, and paper are all the objects who obtained the imperial dignity as Charles IV., and left of a considerable industry. Beetroot sugar is pretty largely Bohemia in a flourishing and influential position at his manufactured, the refineries numbering 126 in 1870. At death in 1378. Under his successors, who fell far below the same date there were 968 breweries in the country, and the character of their ancestor, the country was thrown into 324 brandy distilleries. The chief commercial city is the confusion by the Hussite reformation, which resulted in a capital, Prague; but Reichenberg, Pilsen, Haida, Rumburg, protracted war (1419-1434). The success of the reforming Leitmeritz, and Budweis are all important centres. Bohemia party led to an elective monarchy, and after various is divided into twelve circles, Prague, Budweis, Pisek, vicissitudes, George of Podiebrad mounted the throne in Pilsen, Eger, Saaz, Leitmeritz, Bunzlau, Jiczin, Königgrätz, 1458; and in spite of Papal bull and Hungarian arms Chrudim, Czaslau, and Tabor, and these are subdivided into maintained his position till his death in 1471. His 91 departments. In 1869 there were 372 towns, 226 successor, the Polish prince Ladislas, ultimately obtained smaller market-towns, and 12,551 villages. The number also the crown of Hungary ; but under him and his son of inhabited houses in the whole country amounted to Louis (1517-1526) the nobility made themselves more and

A large

more independent of the king, and the common people were deserve to be mentioned as original writers. The next crushed deeper into serfdom. On the death of Louis, in a generation saw the attempts at once at religious and at battle against the Turks at Mohacz, Bohemia passed into linguistic reform that came to so sad an end in the burnthe hands of Ferdinand of Austria, who treated the kingdom ing of John Huss and the persecutions that followed. in the most despotic manner, and in 1547 declared it a The Bohemian language was, indeed, brought into general hereditary possession. He was followed in succession by use and served the disputants of both sides ; but little his son Maximilian II. and his grandson Rudolph II., who was consigned to its keeping except the ephemeral proleft the country as distracted as they found it.

The son

ductions of ecclesiastical and political strife. of Matthias, the next king, was rejected by the Protestant collection of these works, suved from destruction by the party, which chose in his stead Frederick V. of the invading Swedes, is still preserved in the library of Palatinate; but the victory at the White Mountain in Stockholm. Of more permanent interest may be mentioned 1620 left Bohemia at the mercy of the emperor, who Paul Zidek's History of the World, written for George of inflicted a terrible vengeance on his enemies, and in 1627 Podiebrad; the interesting travels of Leo of Rosmital and declared the country a purely Catholic and hereditary his companions through various countries of Europe ; and kingdom of the empire. Owing to this no fewer than those of Kabatnik in Egypt and Asia Minor, and of John 30,000 families are said to have gone into exile and the of Lobkowitz in Palestine. The 16th century saw a population of the country was reduced to 800,000. On the remarkable development of Bohemian prose in various death of Charles VI. Charles Albert of Bavaria laid claim departments of literature. Weleslawin, Paprocky, and to the crown, which continued to be an object of dispute Hayck of Liboczun wrote popular histories; Wratislas of though the Silesian campaigns and the Seven Years' War, Mitrovic and Prefat of Wlkanow gave accounts of their but was successfully defended by Maria Theresa and her travels; and Nicolas Konec, Dobrensky, and Lomnicky son Joseph II. The country was greatly benefited in produced didactic works of different kinds. A valuable many ways by the government of that monarch ; but he translation of the Bible was published at Kralitz in destroyed the independence of the royal towns, and treated Moravia by eight learned Bohemian Brethren at the the whole land as a mere province of the empire. Its instigation of John of Zerotin; and various versions of religious condition was considerably improved, however, the classics appeared from time to time. A long period by an edict of toleration published in 1781. Under the of literary decadence followed the battle of the White succeeding reigns the circumstances of Bohemia underwent Mountain in 1620. The best blood of the nation went but little alteration, and it was hardly affected by the first into exile, and what Bohemian literature was produced French Revolution. In 1848, however, a determined appeared for the most part in foreign cities. In 1774 a “national” movement agitated the country. The demands severe blow was struck at the native language by Maria of the Liberal party gradually increased, and nothing short Theresa's imperial decree which enforced the use of German of a full share in the constitutional government of their in the higher and middle schools of the country. Before country would suffice. The movement was not confined to long, however, the defence of the mother tongue was taken Bohemia, but spread through the whole Austrian empire, up by Count Kinsky, Hanka of Hankenstein, the historian to the article on which (p. 137 of the present volume) the Pelzel, and the Jesuit Balbin, -by the last mentioned in a reader is referred. (See Freher, Rerum Bohemicarum Dissertatio apologetica pro lingua Bohemica. The language Antiqui Scriptores, 1602; Dobner, Monumenta Historica, became the object of the scientific investigations of Do1764-68; Pelzel, Geschichte der Böhmen, 1817; Palacky, browsky, and the remains of the early periods were edited Geschichte von Böhmen, 1839; Jordan, Geschichte des by Dobner, Prochazka, and other philologists. A chair of böhm. Volks und Landes, 1845-47.)

the Bohemian language was founded in the University of Literature. The Bohemians or Czechs speak a Slavonic language, Prague, and in 1818 a Bohemian museum was established

which has been subjected to literary culture from about in connection with a society that devoted itself to the study
(if not before) the 9th century. A few fragments of a of national antiquities, and published a valuable journal.
pre-Christian literature have been preserved in a manu- Puchmayer (1795-1820) gave an impulse to national
script discovered by Hanka in 1817 in the church-steeple poetry, and has been succeeded by Langer, Roko, Wocel,
of Königinhof; but the first productions of any extent are Schneider, Czelakowsky, and Kollar, and a great number of
due to the activity of the early German Christians, and other writers. In the department of science Presl, Sadek.
are composed for the most part in the Latin language. Amerling, Smetana, Petcina, Sloboda, and Opiz have
Against this powerful exotic speech the vernacular had a attained distinction. Grammars of the Czech language
long and dubious struggle, especially in the ecclesiasti- have been produced by Burian, Hanka, Maly, Sembera,
cal domain, and it was still striving against its encroach and Tomicek; Sumawsky published a great German-
ments when the political circumstances of the nation Bohemian dictionary ; Spatny, a Bohemian-German and
exposed it to the more dangerous, because more popular German-Bohemian technological dictionary; and Jungmann
and less artificial, rivalry of German. From the court and a large Bohemian-German lexicon. The names of even
the capital outward over the nobility and the country there the prominent writers in philosophy, theology, and politics
spread a Germanizing energy that at first seemed likely to are too numerous to be mentioned. (See Schafarik's
destroy everything that was distinctively Bohemian ; Slavisch Alterthümer, 1842, and Geschichte der Slav.
but here and there the national language and customs Sprache, 1826; Jungmann's Geschichte der Böhm. Sprache
were fostered and preserved by a few patriotic spirits, und Literatur, 1825.)
among whom the monks of the Slavonic monastery of BOHEMOND, MARC, one of the leaders of the Crusades,
Sazawa were especially conspicuous. At length the native born about 1056, was the eldest son of Robert Guiscard, a
language obtained the imperial patronage (under Charles IV.) Norman, who had obtained by conquest the dukedom of
Dalimil wrote his Rhyming Chronicle of Bohemia (1314); Apulia and Calabria. From 1081 to 1085 he served under
and translations began to be made from Latin and other his father in a war against the Byzantine emperor Alex-
languages. Among these were Mandeville's Travels, and ander Comnenus, whom he twice defeated, though he had
about the end of the 14th century a complete version of to return to Italy without reaping any substantial fruits of
the Scriptures, the manuscript of which is preserved at his success. In 1085 his father died, leaving Apulia and
Nikolsburg in Moravia. Thomas Stitny the domestic Calabria to a younger son, while Bohemond obtained only
moralist, Duba the jurist, and Flaska the didactic poet, | the small principality of Tarentum. A war between the

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