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brothers followed, from which, however, Bohemond was | Reggio, prefixed to the poem, is dated the kalends of June speedily diverted by the Crusades, which opened up a 1495. A second edition, also without date, but which wider field for his ambition. Accompanied by his cousin must have been printed before the year 1500, appeared at Tancred, he led an army of 10,000 cavalry and 20,000 Venice; and the poem was twice reprinted there during infantry, with which he would have besieged Constantinople the first twenty years of the 16th century. These editions had he been able to persuade Godfrey of Bouillon to join are the more curious and valuable, that they contain him. He took a leading part in the battle of Dorylæum nothing but the text of the author, which is comprised in (1097), and the other engagements of the campaign in three books, divided into cantos, the third book being Asia Minor. A year later he besieged and captured incomplete. But Niccolo degli Agostini, an indifferent poet, Antioch, of which he assumed the principality. In 1101 had the courage to continue the work commenced by he was defeated and taken prisoner by the Turks. Released, Boiardo, adding to it three books, which were printed at after a captivity of two years, on the payment of a very Venice in 1526–1531, in 4to; and since that time no heavy ransom, he returned to Europe to collect troops. In edition of the Orlando has been printed without the con1106 he visited France, and married Constance, a daughter tinuation of Agostini, wretched as it unquestionably is. of Philip I. With an army levied in France, in right of Boiardo's poem suffers from the incurable defect of a his marriage, he renewed war with Alexius, but being laboured and heavy style. His story is skilfully conunsuccessful in the siege of Durazzo he was obliged to con- structed, the characters are well drawn and sustained clude a peace in 1108. He died at Canossa in Apulia in throughout; many of the incidents show a power and 1111. (See Gibbon's Decline and Fall, c. lviii., lx.; and fertility of imaginatiôn not inferior to that of Ariosto, but Michaud's Histoire de Croisades.)

the perfect workmanship indispensable for a great work of BOIARDO, CounT MATTEO MARIA, of a noble and art is wanting. The poem in its original shape was not illustrious house established at Ferrara, but originally from popular, and has been completely superseded by the Reggio, was born at Scandiano, one of the seignoral estates Rifacimento of Francesco Berni. See BERNI. of his family, near Reggio di Modena, about the year 1434, The other works of Boiardo are- -1. Il Timone, a comedy, according to Tiraboschi, or 1420 according to Mazzuchelli

. Scandiano, 1500, 4t0; 2. Sonnetti e Canzoni, Reggio, 1499, At an early age he entered the University of Ferrara, where 4to; 3. Carmen Bucolicon, Reggio, 1500, 4to; 4. Cinque he acquired a good knowledge of Greek and Latin, and Capitoli in terza rima, Venice, 1523 or 1533; 5. A pulejo even of the Oriental languages, and was in due time admitted dell'Asino d'Oro, Venice, 1516, 1518 ; 6. Asino d'Oro de doctor in philosophy and in law. At the court of Ferrara, Luciano tradotto in volgare, Venice, 1523, 8vo; 7. Erodoto where he enjoyed the favour of Duke Borso d'Este and his Alicarnasseo istorico, tradotto di Greco in Lingua Italiana, successor Hercules, he was entrusted with several honourable Venice, 1533 and 1538, 8vo ; 8. Rerum Italicarum employments, and in particular was named governor of Reg- Scriptores. (See Panizzi's Boiardo, 1830-31.) gio, an appointment which he held in the year 1478. Three BOIELDIEU, FRANÇOIS-ADRIEN, is the chief representayears afterwards he was elected captain of Modena, and tive of the national school of comic opera in France, a branch reappointed governor of the town and citadel of Reggio, of art in which everything that is most lovable and at the where he died in the year 1494, though in what month is same time most national in the French character has found uncertain. Almost all his works, and especially his great its full expression. He was born at Rouen in 1775, and poem of the Orlando Inamorato, were composed for the received his first musical education from M. Broche, the amusement of Duke Hercules and his court, though not organist of the cathedral of that city. It is said that, when written within its precincts. His practice, it is said, was quite a youth, in order to escape the punishment of a to retire to Scandiano or some other of his estates, and severe master for a slight offence, he went off to Paris on there to devote himself to composition; and Castelvetro, foot, but was discovered and brought back by his parents. Vallisnieri, Mazzuchelli, and Tiraboschi, all unite in stating He began composing songs and chamber music at a very that he took care to insert in the descriptions of his poem early age,-his first opera, La Famille Suisse, being produced those of the agreeable environs of his chateau, and that the on the stage of Rouen in 1795, where it met with an enthugreater part of the names of his heroes, as Mandricardo, siastic reception. Not satisfied with his local success he Gradasse, Sacripant, Agramant, and others, were merely the turned his eyes to that loadstar of youthful ambition, names of some of his peasants, which, from their uncouth- Paris. He went to the capital in 1795, full of hope and ness, appeared to him proper to be given to Saracen expectation. The score of his opera was submitted to the warriors. Be this as it may, the Orlando Inamorato leading musicians of the day, such as Cherubini, Méhul, deserves to be considered as one of the most important and others, but met with little approbation. Altogether poems in Italian literature, since it forms the first example the time was not favourable for the comic muse. The of the romantic epic worthy to serve as a model, and, as heroic passions roused by the revolutionary events of the such, undoubtedly produced the Orlando Furioso. Gravina preceding years required commensurate efforts of musical and Mazzuchelli have said, and succeeding writers have art; the grand opera was the order of the day. Boieldieu repeated on their authority, that Boiardo proposed to had to fall back on his talent as a pianoforte-player for a himself as his model the Iliad of Homer; that Paris is livelihood, and to wait for a chance of higher success in the besieged like the city of Troy; that Angelica holds the place meantime. This success came at last from a source whence of Helen; and that, in short, the one poem is a sort of it was little expected, and, perhaps, less desired. Garat, a reflex image of the other. In point of fact, however, the fashionable singer of the period, admired Boieldieu's touch subject-matter of the poem is derived from the Fabulous on the piano, and made him his accompanyist. He also Chronicle of the pseudo-Turpin; though, with the exception sung in the drawing-rooms of the Directoire the charming of the names of Charlemagne, Roland, Oliver, and some songs and ballads with which the young composer supplied other principal warriors, who necessarily figure as important him but too willingly. In this manner Boieldieu's reputacharacters in the various scenes, there is little resemblance tion gradually extended to wider circles. In 1797 his abovebetween the detailed plot of the one and that of the other. mentioned opera appeared for the first time on a Paris The

poem, which Boiardo did not live to finish, was printed stage, and was well received. Several others followed in at Scandiano the year after his death, under the superintend rapid succession, of which only the last, Le Calife de Bagdad ence of his son Count Camillo. The title of the book is (1799), has escaped oblivion. It tends to show Boieldieu's without date; but a Latin letter from Antonia Caraffa di true artistic vocation, that, after the enormous success of

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this work, he felt the want of a thorough musical train- | district of country which is still called in consequence ing, and voluntarily descended from the position of a Bohemia ; but before many centuries they were expelled successful maestro to that of a humble pupil

. He took by other hostile tribes and their separate existence as a lessons from Cherubini, and the influence of that great people was lost. master is distinctly discernible in the higher artistic finish BOILEAU-DESPREAUX, NICOLAS, was born at Paris of Boieldieu's later compositions. In 1802 Boieldieu, for on the 1st November 1636. Crône, not far from the the second time in his life, took to sudden flight, on this capital, has been frequently stated to be his birthplace, occasion in order to escape the domestic troubles caused by but the matter seems to be pretty nearly settled by the his marriage with a celebrated ballet-dancer of the Paris researches of M. Labat (Recherches historiques sur l'Hôtel Opera. The frightened husband went to Russia, where he de la Préfecture de Police), who has discovered the very was received with open arms by the Emperor Alexander. house in the Rue de Jérusalem where the poet was born. During his prolonged stay at St Petersburg he composed a He was educated at the College of Beauvais, and was at number of operas which it is unnecessary to name. He first destined for the legal profession. From this, however, also set to music the choruses of Racine's Athalie, one of after a short trial, he recoiled in disgust, complaining his few attempts at the tragic style of dramatic writing. In bitterly of the amount of chicanery which passed under 1811 he returned to his own country, where the following the name of law and justice. To escape such a course of life year witnessed the production of one of his finest works, he began to study for the church, and actually received a Jean de Paris. The charming coquetry of the queen priory of a small annual value, but his wishes soon turned of Navarre, the chivalrous verve of the king, the officious in another direction. He gave up his clerical profession, pedantry of the seneschal, and the amorous tenderness of and, his father having left him a small provision suffi- . the page—all this rendered in the finest touches that cient for his wants, thenceforward devoted himself to music, and only French music, is capable of, will not soon letters. Such of his early poems as have been prebe forgotten. We pass over a number of other operas of served hardly contain the promise of what he ultimately lesser value, partly written in collaboration with other com- became. The first piece in which his peculiar powers posers, and turn at once to the second and greatest master- were displayed was a satirical poem, Adieus of a Poet piece of Boieldieu's genius, his Dame Blanche (1825). The to the City of Paris, published in 1660.

This was libretto, written by Scribe, was partly suggested by Walter quickly followed by eight others, and the number was Scott's Monastery, and several original Scotch tunes cleverly at a later period increased to twelve. À twofold inintroduced by the composer add not a little to the melodious terest attaches to the satires. In the first place the charm and local colour of the work. La Dame Blanche author skilfully parodies and attacks writers who at the marks the highest development of the French school of time were placed in the very first rank, such as Chapelain, comic opera. Grétry stood at the head of this school ; | Cotin, Quinault, and Scudéri; he openly raised the standCherubini with his Deux Journées followed in his wake; ard of revolt against the older poets. But in the second Boieldieu, greater than both in this particular branch place he showed, both by precept and practice, what were of art), reached a perfection which was to some extent the poetical capabilities of the French language. Prose, sustained by the works of Auber. Boieldieu's pupil, Adam, in the hands of such writers as Descartes and Pascal, had has in his Derniers Souvenirs d'un Musicien left a charming proved itself a flexible and powerful instrument of expressketch of the genesis of Boieldieu's masterpiece. The sion, with a distinct mechanism and form. chief characteristics of his style are an easy flow of graceful with Malherbe, there had been no attempt to fashion melodies, a refined though occasionally somewhat meagre French versification according to rule or method. In instrumentation, admirable phrasing, and a most distinct Boileau for the first time appeared terseness and vigour of enunciation of the words. The outer events of Boieldieu's expression, with perfect regularity of verse structure. His career may be summed up in few words. For a long time fame was quickly established; he received a pension, and he occupied the position of professor of composition and was made historiographer along with his friend Racine. pianoforte at the Conservatoire; in 1817 he was made In 1664 he composed his prose Dialogue des heros de roman, a member of the Institute. The Dame Blanche was which is a refined satire on the elaborate romances of his last opera but one. Soon after its production he was the time. It may be said to have once for all abolished seized with a violent attack of pulmonary disease. To them. From 1669 onwards appeared the Epistles, graver stop the rapid progress of the illness he travelled in Italy in tone than the satires, maturer in thought, more exquisite and the South of France, but fell a victim to it on October and polished in style. In 1674 his two master-pieces, 8, 1834.

L'Art Poetique and Le Lutrin, were published. The first, BOII, a Celtic people, who at an early date crossed in imitation of the Ars Poetica of Horace, lays down the the Alps and established themselves between the Po and code for all future French verse, and may be said to fill in the Apennines to the south of the Insubres and Cenomani. French literature a parallel place to that held by its protoOn the defeat of their neighbours the Senones by the type in Latin. On our own literature the maxims of Romans they joined the Etruscans against the conquerors, Boileau, through the translation revised by Dryden, and and were involved in the disastrous results of the battle at through the magnificent imitation of them in Pope's Art of the Vadimonian Lake in 283 B.C. Equally unsuccessful Criticism, have exercised no slight influence. Boileau does in the following year, they formed a treaty of peace with not merely lay down rules for the language of poetry, but the Romans, which they kept for a considerable time, till analyses carefully the various kinds of verse composition, the encroachments of their conquerors led them to engage and enunciates the principles peculiar to each. Of the in the Great Gallic war of 225 B.C. From that period | four books of the Art Poetique, the first and last consist of they continued to indulge their hostility on all occasions, general precepts, inculcating mainly the great rule of bon and on the outbreak of the Punic wars gave valuable aid sens; the second treats of the pastoral, the elegy, the ode, to the Carthaginians from time to time. At length their the epigram, and satire; and the third of tragic and epic strength was broken by Scipio Nasica in 191 B.C. ; a large poetry. Though the rules laid down are of value, their proportion of their territory was appropriated and secured tendency is rather to hamper and render too mechanical the by the colonies of Bononia, Parma, and Mutina; and efforts of poetry. Boileau himself, though a great critic before long the whole race seems to have been constrained in verse, cannot be considered a great poet. The Lutrin, to recross the Alps. They betook themselves to that a mock heroic poem, of which four cantos appeared in 1674,

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is by French critics considered the best of Boileau's works. BOISSARD, JEAN JACQUES, a classical antiquary and
It has furnished the model for the Rape of the Lock, but the Latin poet, was born at Besançon in 1528. He studied at
English poem is superior in richness of imagination and Louvain ; but, disgusted by the severity of his master, he
subtilty of invention. The fifth and sixth cantos, after- secretly left that seminary, and after traversing a great part
wards added by Boileau, rather detract from the beauty of of Germany reached Italy, where he remained several years,
the poem ; the last canto in particular is quite unworthy and was often reduced to great straits. His residence in
of his genius. In the same year which saw the Art Poetique Italy developed in his mind a taste for antiquities, and he
and the Lutrin was published his translation of Longinus soon formed a collection of the most curious monuments of
On the Sublime, to which were afterwards added certain Rome and its vicinity. He then visited the islands of the
critical reflections. His later publications were chiefly Archipelago, with the intention of travelling through Greece,
occasional poems, in which his better powers did not shine. but a severe illness obliged him to return to Rome. Here
He died 13th March 1711. Boileau was extremely delicate he resumed his favourite pursuits with great ardour, and
in youth, and his constitution seems never to have been having completed his collection, returned to his native
very strong. He was a man of warm and kindly feelings, country; but not being permitted to profess publicly the
honest, outspoken, and benevolent. Many anecdotes are Protestant religion, which he had embraced some time
told of his frankness of speech at court, and of his generous before, he withdrew to Metz, where he died, October 30,
actions. He holds a well-defined place in French literature, 1602. His works are-
as the first who reduced its versification to rule and who

1. Poemata, Epigrammatum libri tres, Elegice libri tres, Epistolataught the value of workmanship for its own sake. His rum libri tres, Basel, 1574; 2. Emblemata, Metz, 1584; 3. Icones influence on English literature, through Pope and his

Virorum Illustrium, 1597, 899.; 4. Vitae et Icones Sultanorum Tur

cicorum, &c., Frankfort, 1596 ; 5. Theatrum Vitæ Humance, Metz, contemporaries, was not less strong, though less durable.

1596 ; 6. Romanæ Urbis Topographiæ et Antiquitatun, quibus sucEditions of Boileau's works are very numerous. Perhaps cincte et breviter describuntur omnia quæ tum publice quum privatim the best is that published by Garnier in 1860, Euvres videntur animadversione digna, partes VI., Frankfort, 1597–1602, complètes, with copious notes, an essay by Sainte-Beuve, folio, six volumes in three, with plates, and now very rare ; 7. and Bolæuna.

Icones et Vitæ Virorum Illustrium, Frankfort, 1592 to 1599; 8.

Parnassus Biceps, Frankfort, 1601 ; 9. De Divinatione et Magicis BOILER. See STEAM ENGINE.

Præstigiis, Oppenheim and Hanau, rare and curious ; 10. Habitus BOIS-LE-DUC, 's HERTOGENBOSCH, or 's Bosch, a city Variarum Gentium, Metz, 1581, ornamented with seventy illumof Holland, capital of the province of North Brabant, 28

inated figures. miles S.S. E. of Utrecht. It stands at the confluence of BOISSONADE, JEAN FRANÇOIS, French classical the Dommel and the Aa, and is strongly fortified, being scholar, was born at Paris, 12th August 1774. In 1792 defended by a citadel and two forts. The city is handsome he entered the public service during the administration of and well built, and is intersected by several canals. It General Dumouriez. Driven from it in 1795, he was contains seven churches, among which is that of St John, restored by Lucien Bonaparte, during whose time of office founded in the beginning of the 14th century, and one of he served as secretary to the prefecture of the Upper Marne. the finest ecclesiastical edifices in Holland. It has also a Hethen definitively resigned public employment and devoted handsome town-hall, surmounted by a tower containing a himself to the study of Greek, for which he had always a fine set of chimes, a court-house, Government buildings strong inclination. In 1809 he was named professor of Greek (formerly a Jesuit monastery), an episcopal palace, an orphan at the faculty of letters at Paris, though he did not assume asylum, a grammar school (once attended by Erasmus), a the title till the death of Larcher, who held the chair, in prison, two hospitals, an arsenal, and barracks. The trade 1812. In 1828 he succeeded Gail in the chair of Greek at of Bois-le-Duc is very considerable; it has several dis- the Collége de France. He also held the offices of librarian tilleries, breweries, and glass-works, and manufactures of the Bibliothèque du Roi, and perpetual secretary of the linen, needles, cutlery, &c. It is the seat of a vicar-general, Academy of Inscriptions. He died 12th September 1857. and has tribunals of primary instance and commerce. Boissonade's works consist mainly of editions of several less Originally a hunting-lodge of the Brabant dukes, 's Her- known classical writers, such as Philostratus, Marinus, togenbosch, or “Duke's Wood," gradually increased, and in Eunapius, Aristænetus. Perhaps his most widely known 1184 was raised to the rank of a town and surrounded with editions are those of Babrius (1844), and of Tzetzes (1851). walls. In 1453 it was greatly enlarged. Successive The Anecdota Græca, 5 vols. (1829-33), and Anecdota attempts made by the Netherlands in 1585, 1594, 1601, Nova (1844) contain many interesting and comparatively and 1603 to get possession of the town were futile; but unknown writings. Boissonade was a contributor to the at length, in 1629, it was captured after a five months' Journal des Débats and other critical journals, and a siege. In 1794 it was taken by the French, and in 1814 selection of bis papers has been published by M. Colincamp, by the Prussians. Population in 1869, 24,395.

Critique littéraire sous le premier Empire, 2 vols., 1863.

1

END OF VOLUME THIRD.

NEILL AND COMPANY, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH.

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