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the Realm Act, though it embodied exceptional legislation, was far less stringent in its provisions than the Declaration of the State of Siege in continental countries and did not even approach thereto. "We have nothing," writes Professor Dicey, "equivalent to what is called in France the Declaration of the State of Siege,' under which the authority ordinarily vested in the civil power for the maintenance of order and police passes entirely to the army (autorité militaire), and this is an unmistakable proof of the permanent supremacy of the law under our Constitution."


THE circuits go out on Monday, the 1st March. The Common Law judges will be out of Dublin during three weeks. Mr. Justice Ross and Mr. Justice Wylie will attend to such matters as require prompt attention while the other judges are engaged in the provinces.

IN opening the County Dublin Commission at Green-street on the 3rd inst., Mr. Justice Madden said there were only two bills to go before the grand jury. Those figures spoke for themselves. His Lordship added: "It only remains for me to congratulate you upon the condition of the county, and I do so with special pleasure because I am an inhabitant of the county. From two points of view, that of a judge and that of an inhabitant, I am very pleased to find that the county of Dublin was almost absolutely free from crime." His Lordship subsequently opened the City of Dublin Commission, where the report as to the number of criminal cases was also very satisfactory.

LAST week counsel for the Attorney-General for Ireland applied in the King's Bench for a conditional order for a writ of attachment for contempt of court against a Sligo newspaper, the offending publication having been so far back as the 12th Dec. last. The accused had, it was alleged, published an article gravely prejudging the trial of two persons charged with murder. The offending article was not read in open court, but the judges looked at it on the Bench. The Lord Chief Justice thought that after such delay as had taken place it was unwise to revive the matter, and generally the members of the court expressed themselves as of the view that the proceedings now would do more harm than good. These complaints should be promptly brought to the notice of the court, and promptly disposed of. Eventually the court gave leave to serve notice of motion on the editor of the paper, but, before taking even this course, the Attorney-General was to be informed by counsel of the view which the court entertained upon the subject.

LORD WIMBORNE, the new Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, is to be sworn in at Dublin Castle on the 18th inst. The ceremony takes place before the Privy Council, but is not of a protracted character. Before 1868 the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, in addition to the oath of allegiance, took a long special oath of office by virtue of which he undertook to faithfully and truly serve the Sovereign "in the room and authority of LordLieutenant and Chief Governor of his realm of Ireland." He undertook to keep peace among the people, to put down rebels and enemies of the Crown, and a score of other important duties and obligations were contained in this form. A study of the famous statute passed in 1868 makes it difficult to understand by what authority this oath has been discontinued, but the fact remains that it has been dropped since that Act became lawPermissory Oaths Act 1868. Since then a Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland subscribes the oath of allegiance, and, in addition, subscribes an office oath in the following terms: "I do swear that I will truly serve His Majesty King George the Fifth in the office of Lord-Lieutenant and Chief Governor of Ireland." An examination of all the Oaths Acts fails to find where this form is to be found, or, indeed, the authority by which it is administered or came to be substituted for the special oath formerly administered.

It is much more interesting on this question to learn that the question as to whether a Roman Catholic can now lawfully be appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland actually exercised the minds of the leaders of the Bar recently both in England and in Ireland. This, no doubt, was because of the original intention to appoint Lord Granard, who is a Catholic peer, to the office. Sect. 31 (1) of the Government of Ireland Act says: "Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in any Act, no subject of His

Majesty shall be disqualified to hold the office of Lord-Lieutena at of Ireland on account of his religious belief." Then sect. 49 declares in effect that "the Act shall come into operation on the first Tuesday in the eighth month after the month in which this Act is passed, or such other day not more than seven months earlier or later as may be fixed by Order in Council." If the matter had rested here, undoubtedly sect. 37 of the Interpretation Act 1889 would apply, and enable the power given by sect. 31 to be exercised at any time after the passing of the Act. But then comes the Suspensory Act, which was passed on the same day and which provides that "no steps shall be taken" to bring the Act into operation for one year, or during the present war, and this provision undoubtedly prevents the operation of the provision in the Interpretation Act. Lawyers always considered the phrasing of the Suspensory Act very peculiar, "no steps shall be taken." Was it intended to keep out of operation only such parts as required something to be done? The only section in the entire statute which alludes to "steps" that shall be taken is twenty-nine, and clearly it has no application whatever to any question of this kind.



THE word "intern," so well known in matters dealing with international law and international morality, has in recent discussions in Parliament and the Press come to receive a wider meaning than that originally bestowed on it. The words "intern" and "internment" were formerly used in reference to the position of belligerent soldiers in neutral territory. Belligerent troops are disarmed as soon as they cross a neutral frontier and detained in honourable confinement until the end

of the war. While thus detained they are said to be "interned." The word "intern," however, has recently been applied not merely to belligerent troops in neutral territory, but to alien enemies detained in a country at war with their own State, to prisoners of war, and even to merchant ships of a belligerent who are afraid to leave neutral waters lest they should be captured by the public ships of the country with which their nation is at



THE German manifesto proclaiming the blockade of Great Britain, to begin on the 18th inst., will recall irresistibly the Berlin and Milan decrees of Napoleon unwarrantably reviving the restrictions of blockade in all their ancient severity. By these decrees France declared the British Isles to be in a state of blockade, despite the fact that she dared not send a single squadron to sea for fear of capture by the British navy, and Great Britain placed in the position of blockaded ports all places from which her commercial flag was excluded. The assault made upon paper blockades by the First Armed Neutrality of 1780 was embodied in the provision that blockades to be effective must be maintained by vessels stationary and sufficiently near to produce evident danger in entering; and in the Second Armed Neutrality in 1800 that definition was repeated, with the additional statement that no lawful capture could be made unless the peccant vessel attempted to enter after notice from the commander of the blockading squadron. These inadmissible principles were replaced by the provisions of the Declaration of Paris of 1856, by which "blockades, in order to be binding, must be effective that is to say, maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent access to the coast of the enemy." Lord John Russell, writing on the 1st Feb. 1863, as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to Mr. Mason, the American Minister, as to the meaning of that Declaration, said it was in truth directed against what were once termed " paper blockades "-that is, "blockades not sustained by any actual force, or sustained by a notoriously inadequate naval force such as an occasional appearance of a man-of-war in the offing, or the like. . . . The interpretation, therefore, placed by His Majesty's Government on the Declaration was that a blockade, in order to be respected by neutrals, must be practically effective." The most satisfactory explanation of the difficult term "practically effective " is to be found in the case of

The Francisca (10 Moore Privy Council Cases, p. 58; Spinks' Prize Cases, p. 115), where it was said that, in order to maintain a proper blockade, a place must be "watched by a force sufficient to render the egress or ingress dangerous, or, in other words, save under peculiar circumstances, as fogs, violent winds, and even necessary absences, sufficient to render the capture of vessels attempting to go in or come out most probable." While English and American judges and text-writers incline to this view of what constitutes an effective blockade, a majority of the modern continental publicists so construe the principle embodied in the Declaration of Paris as to revive that contained in the First Annual Neutrality of 1780. The substance of their contention is that the immediate entrance to a port must be so guarded by stationary vessels as to render ingress practically impossible, or at least to expose any ship attempting to pass to a cross-fire from the guns of two of them.


A FORCIBLE protest has been made by the Société de Législation Comparée against the methods of the Germans in the conduct of the war. Founded in 1869, the society includes among its members some of the most eminent international lawyers of the day, not only in Europe, but America. From the Bulletin Mensuel for 1913, which we have before us, we select a few of the names of distinction appearing in the list of members. In the British section are Sir Frederick Pollock, Professor Oppenheim of Cambridge, and the late Professor John Westlake; while among the French representatives are M. Ribot and M. Louis Renault, both members of the Académie, and the First President of the Court of Cassation, and, en passant, it may be recalled that the concise exposition of the laws of war in the twentieth century gven before the Académie by M. Renault, the Professor of International Law in the University of Paris, appeared in the LAW TIMES of the 21st Nov. last, p. 65 et seq.

At the general meeting of the council of the society the members present adopted the following protest with unanimity :

The Société de Législation Comparée seeing:

(1) That arts. 7 and 25 of the Treaty of London of the 15th Dec. 1831 and art. 7 of the Treaty of London of the 19th April 1839, which have stipulated that Belgium should form an independent and perpetually neutral State, and that this neutrality should be guaranteed by the Governments of Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia;

(2) That art. 2 of the Treaty of London of the 11th May 1867, in the terms of which the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg shall form a State perpetually neutral, this neutrality being placed under the collective guarantee of the signatory Powers (Austria-Hungary, France, Great Britain, Italy, Prussia, and Russia);

(3) That arts. 1, 2, and 3 of the Fourth Convention, concerning the laws and customs of war upon land, signed at The Hague on the 18th Oct. 1907 by Germany and forty-three other Powers, and that arts. 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 46, 47, 50, and 56 of the regulations annexed to the said Convention;

(4) That arts. 1, 2, and 10 of the Convention No. 5 of the same day, concerning the rights and duties of neutral Powers and persons in case of war upon land;

(5) That arts. 1 and 6 of the Ninth Convention, likewise signed at The Hague on the 18th Oct. 1907, interdicting the bombardment by naval forces of ports, towns, &c., which are not defended;

Considering that the German Government has designedly, deliberately, and with a premeditation incontestable, violated the territories of Belgium and Luxemburg, the neutrality of which she had engaged herself to respect, in terms of the treaties aforesaid of 1831, 1839, and 1867;

That, not content with invading these two countries, she has co nmitted or allowed to be committed, as well as in France, a number of crimes and atrocities unworthy of a civil sed nation, and, moreover, formally interdicted by the articles cited above of the Couventions of The Hague, Nos. 4, 5, and 9; That notably she has rendered herself guilty:

(1) Of the employment of arms and projectiles likely to cause unnecessary injuries (Convention 4, regulations annexed, art. 23);

(2) Of systematic destruction by the bombardment or burning of buildings consecrated to worship or to the arts, or historic monuments (arts. 27 and 56 of the same regulations);

(3) Of assassination of non-combatants of all ages, of confiscation of private property, of pillage, &c. (arts. 46 and 47 ibid); (4) Of the imposition of collective punishments, pecuniary and otherwise, enacted against the inhabitants of territories occupied by her, and this on account of individual acts for which the inhabitants could not be considered as responsible (art 50 ibid.);

(5) of the violation of the territory of neutral Powers (Belgium and Luxemburg) contrary to the provisions of arts. 1, 2, and 10 of the Fifth Convention of The Hague ;

(6) Of bombardment by warships without previous notice of ports, towns, or villages not fortified and not containing any military or naval establishment (Convention 9, arts. 1, 2, and 6);

Considering, further, on the one part, that it was at the demand of the German delegation that art. 3 of the Fourth Convention of The Hague, stipulating that the belligerent who should violate the regulation adopted should be liable to an indemnity, and that he should be responsible for all acts committed by persons forming part of the armed force;

And, moreover, on the other part, Germany has disregarded the general principle contained in the preface of the Convention of The Hague (Convention concerning the laws and customs of war on land), according to which "for all cases, even those not comprised in the provisions of the regulations adopted by the high contracting parties, the inhabitants and the belligerents shall remain under the safeguard and under the protection of the principles of the law of nations such as resuit from the established usages among civilised nations of the laws of humanity and the demands of the public conscience";

Is of opinion that the German Government, in contravening so gravely the laws which govern war to day, and in violating the treaties and Conventions signed by her, she has placed herself outside (en dehors) the law of nations;

And denounces to the jurists of all countries, especially those who are inscribed on the list of its members, this general and systematic disregard of the usages that the progress of civilisation had established, and of the rules adopted in solemn



HEIRS-AT-LAW AND NEXT OF KIN. BARWISE (John Perrott), or, if he died after Oct. 26, 1880, his legal personal representative, to come in, by June 1, and prove his claim at chambers of the Judge, Room 288, and enter his name at Room 287, Royal Courts of Justice. Hearing June 8, at 12, at said chambers. Room 288.

DILLON (Elizabeth), who at the time of her death was an inmate of Peckham House, Peckham. Persons claiming under an inquiry made in the matter of the trusts of an indenture of settlement, dated Nov. 16, 1877, made between Elizabeth Dillon and others, to come in, by March 9, and enter their names at chambers of the Judge, Room 699, Royal Courts of Justice, also prove their claims by March 19, at said chambers. Hearing March 19, at 11.30, at said chambers, Room 700.



NOTICES OF APPEARANCE AT HEARING MUST REACH THE SOLICITORS BY 6 P.M. ON THE DATE GIVEN, UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED. "A1" Co-OPERATIVE SHIPPING AND TOURIST SOCIETY LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by Feb. 23, to A. Barnett, 3, New Oxford-st, W.C. ALEC HALL LIMITED (53, Boar-la, Leeds).-Creditors to send in, by March 20, to G. H. C. Davies-Higgins, 39, Albion-st, Leeds. Ison and Hollings, Leeds, sols. for liquidator.

ALLUWE OIL SYNDICATE LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by March 1, to G.
Thomson, 65, London-wall, E.C.
BRIDGWATER RINK AND CLUB LIMITED.-Creditors to cend in, by Feb. 24,
to E. W. Helps, Bank-chmbrs, Bridgwater. F. W. Bishop and
Tyler, sols. to liquidator.
CLEVERLYS LIMITED.-Petition for winding-up to be heard Feb. 16, at
Royal Courts of Justice. Firth and Co., 5, Chancery-la, sols. for
pet. Notices of appearance by Feb. 15.
in, by Feb. 19, to A. L. Swindells, 20, Mount-st, Manchester.
Feb. 20, to O. Sunderland, Commercial-chmbrs, 53, Corporation-st,
Manchester. Hurst and Hewitt, Manchester, sols. for liquidator.
be heard Feb. 16, at Royal Courts of Justice. Thorowgood, Tabor,
and Hardcastle, 11, Copthall-ct, E.C., agents for Bond, Barwick,
and Peake, Leeds, sols, for pet. Notices of appearance by Feb. 15,
to Thorowgood, Tabor, and Hardcastle.

March 20, to G. E. Sendell, 36, Walbrook, E.C.
H. TRULOCK HARRISS LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by March 12, to
G. R. Cole, 71 and 72, Jermyn-st, W.
LINDEN COURT LIMITED.-Petition for winding-up to be heard Feb. 16, at
Royal Courts of Justice. Roger Sadd and Stollard, 56, Gresham-st,
E.C., sols. for pets. Notices of appearance by Feb. 15.
March 19, to S. F. Cornish, 5, Fenchurch-st, E.C.
for winding-up to be heard Feb. 16, at Royal Courts of Justice.
Dunderdale, Dehn, and Co., 85, London-wall, E.C., sols. for pet.
Notices of appearance by Feb. 15.

NILAMBUR RUBBER ESTATES LIMITED.Creditors to send in, by April 16, to R. N. Dawson, 356-9, Winchester House, Old Broad-st. E.C. Romer and Skan, 4, Copthall-chmbrs, E.C., sols, for liquidator.

March 2, to W. R. Sharp, 30, Brown-st, Manchester.
RICHARDS AND CO. (BRIDGWATER) LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by
Feb. 24, to E. W. Helps, Bank-chmbrs, Bridgwater. Hagon and
Teek, Bridgwater, sols. to liquidator.

ROLL MUSIC COMPANY LIMITED.-Petition for winding-up to be heard
Feb. 16, at Royal Courts of Justice. Yarde and Co., 1, Raymond-
bldge, Gray's-inn, sols, for pets. Notices of appearance by Feb. 15.
March 3, to J. H. Freeman, 35, Coleman-st, E.C.,
SHUTTLEWORTHS LIMITED.--Creditors to send in, by March 8, to F. G.
Schofield, 16, Clegg-st. Oldham. E. Rowbotham, Oldham, sol. for
F. G. Schofield and F. S. Abbott, liquidators.
SIR H. W. TRICKETT LIMITED.-Creditors whose claims have not been
admitted to send in, by March 1, to J. H. Lord, Bank-bldgs, Bacup.
winding-up to be heard Feb. 16, at Royal Courts of Justice.
Simmons and Simmons, 74, Cheapside, E.C., sols. for pets. Notices
of appearance by Feb. 15.


BEAL (Samuel), Tulse-hill. March 9; H. Gover, of H. Gover and Son,
sols., 5, Monument-st. E.C. March 16; Eve, J., at 12.
BROWN (Samuel), New Malden. March 9,
and Carter, sols., 39, Bedford-row, W.C.
DALTON (Eli), Headingley. March 10; W.
Farr, and Lomas-Walker, sols., Leeds.
Sargant, JJ., at 12.

H. A. Carter, of Hallowes
March 16; Eve, J., at 12.
E. Farr, of Booth, Wade,
March 17; Warrington and

MILLER (William), Chelsea. March 1; S. R. Stringer, of Peacock and Goddard, sols. 3, South-sq. Gray's-inn, W.C. March 9; the Master, at chambers of Joyce and Eve, JJ., at 12.

Spink, sol., Bishop's

SHUKER (Mary), Horderdley. March 1; A. H.
Castle. March 9; Neville, J., at 11.30.
THOMPSON (Edward), Hollinwood. March 5; J. Nicholson, of Megson
and Nicholson, sols., Oldham. March 16; Registrar of Manchester
District of Chancery of Lancaster, at 11.

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BEAUMONT (Julia), Redworth-st.

23, Bedford-row.

March 13; G. D. Freeman and Son,

BEECH (Edwin), Lamberhurst. March 5; R. V. Gower, Tunbridge Wells.
BELL (Louisa), Scarborough, March 31; Cook, Fowler, and Outhet,

BERNER (Joachim Mogens), Putney, Gracechurch-st, E.C., and Paris.
March 20; Druces and Attlee, 10, Billiter-sq, E.C.
BIDDLE (Ann), Gravelly Hill. March 19; Lane, Clutterbuck, and Co.,

BONAR (Margaret), Bradford. March 1; Heap and Heap, Bradford.
BRIERLEY (Henry Walford Vicary), Liverpool. March 25; Cleaver,
Holden, and Co., Liverpool, W.
March 1; Steel, Maitland, and

BROWNE (John Laing), Sunderland.

Byers, Sunderland.

BRYAN (Margaret Davis), Boscombe. March 6; Preston and Francis,


CARTER (Rebecca
CASSIDY (Caroline), Huddersfield. March 4; Learoyd and Co., Hudders-
CHADWICK (John), Kent's Bank. March 25; L. M. Chadwick and J. E.
Hamer, at the offices of W. Eaton, Manchester.
CHISLETT (George), Wimborne Minster. March 1; Luff and Raymond,
Wimborne Minster.

Elizabeth), Darlington. March 4; W. H. Mills,

CLARK-KENNEDY (Charlotte Isabella), West Eaton-pl. April 1; Collyer-
Bristow, Curtis, Booth, Birks, and Langley, 4, Bedford-row.
COLLINS (Florence), Exeter. March 30; A. Burrow, Cullompton.
CONANT (Henry John), Thurloe ct. Pelham-cres. March 5; Warren,
Murton, and Miller, 45, Bloomsbury-sq, W.C.

CONGLETON (Right Hon. Henry Bligh Fortescue Baron), of the Grenadier
Guards. March 15; Crawley, Arnold, and Co., 3, Arlington-st, St.
James's. S.W.

CRITCHLEY (William), Aintree and Liverpool. March 1; J. Evans Thomas and Co., Liverpool.

CROFTS (Daniel Jacob), Sherborne, March 1; Watts, Watts, and Henley, Yeovil.

DANIELS (William Frederic), Sale. March 13; Duncan, Oakshott, and Co., Liverpool.

DAVID (Engineer-Commr. Thomas Morgan), H.M.S. Hawke. March 1;
Prance and Prance, Plymouth.

DAVIES (Annie), Llandrindod Wells. Feb. 20; H. Oliver, Llandrindod
DE JOTEMPS (Dolores Mary Countess), formerly Dolores Mary Laing,
Westminster. March 9; Harston and Bennett, 4, Bishopsgate, E.C.
DENTON (Isabell), Higher Broughton. March 23; Sale and Co., Man

DOLBEY (Elizabeth), Leicester. March 9; Toller, Burgess, and Pochin,

DONBAVAND (Edgar John), Plymstock. April 1; J. L. Wolferstan, Plymouth.

DUNCAN (Jane), Fulham. Feb. 28; Nicholson and Crouch, 17, Surrey-st. Strand.

ELLISON (Amelia Lady), Queen's-gate. March 1; Tweed, Stephen, and Co., Saltergate, Lincoln.

EMERY (Arthur John), Walham Green. March 5; O. Hanson and Smith, 44. Hammersmith-rd, W.

EYRE (Lewis Joseph), Wimbledon. March 5; A. Donaldson, 4, Bloomsbury-pl. Bloomsbury-sq, W.C.

FOSTER (Edna), Halifax. Feb. 16; Moore and Shepherd, Halifax.

GIBBS (John), Wootton Wawen. March 25; R. Lunn and Gibbs, Strat-
GILLUM (Leonora Georgiana), Bayswater. Feb. 28; Beaumont and Son,
66, Gresham House, Old Broad-st, E.C.
GREEN (Elizabeth), Oxford March 25; Hazel and Baines, Oxford.
GRIFFITHS (John), Sheffield. March 1; Howe and Co., Sheffield.
GRIFFITHS (John), Swansea. March 8; Andrew and Thompson, Swansea.
GROSVENOR (William), Codsall. March 9; E. L. Feibusch, Wolver-


HAGUE (Rachael), Islington. March 10; T. W. Saint, Finsbury Parkchmbrs, Finsbury Park, N.

HARRIS (Henrietta), Bethnal Green. March 6; H. P. Russell, Bexley Heath.

HEWENS (Emily Elizabeth), Wellingborough. March 2; J. T. Parker and Son, Wellingborough.

HILLMAN (Arthur Edward Elers), Hyde Park-mans. March 19; Verrall and Sons, Worthing.

HOBBS (Frederick John), Beltinge. March 5; P. de V. Annesley, Herne Bay.

HOLLELY (John), Worksop. Feb. 28; Clay and Robinson, Worksop. HOUGHTON (Annie Maria), Torquay March 25; Pinsent and Co., Birmingham

HOWLETT (Katherine), Aylsham. March 10; Purdy and Holley, Aylsham. HUCKS (Kate Elizabeth). Regent's Park. Feb. 28; W. Hucks, 22, Ovalrd, Regent's Park. Sols., Vizard, Oldham, Crowder, and Co, 51, Lincoln's-inn-fids, W.C.

HUGHES (James Ford), Chelsea. March 17; Robins, Hay, Waters, and Hay, 9. Lincoln's-inn-flds, W.C.

HULL (Elizabeth Maria), Great Yarmouth. March 1; Preston and Son, Norwich.

HUNTER (Edward), Emneth. March 17; Fraser and Woodgate, Wisbech JONES (Thomas), Meole Brace, Shrewsbury. March 6; Waddy and Kelsey, 45, Finsbury-pave, E.C.

JURD (William), Southampton. March 12; Moberly and Wharton, Southampton.

KELLY (Louisa), Tunbridge Wells. March 26; Cheale and Son, Tunbridge Wells.

KING (Arthur Edmund), Ipswich. Feb. 17; Turner, Turner, and Martin,
LEEMING (Lilian Adelaide), Hyde Park. March 13; Hughes and Sons,
34, John-st, Bedford-row, W.C.

LEHR (George), Teignmouth. March 31; Bank of Liverpool Limited, 7, Water-st, Liverpool. Sols., Alsop, Stevens, Crooks, and Co., Liverpool.

LINDHE (Johan Alfred), Bournemouth. March 6; Preston and Francis, Bournemouth.

LONG-SUTTON (Alma), Dunstan, March 1; Preston and Son, Norwich. LUSH (Martha), Southampton. March 25; Bassett, Stanton, and Bassett, Southampton.

MCKENZIE (Frances), Harbledown, Canterbury. March 6; O. S. Hickson, 6, Moorgate-st, E.C.

MADOC (Margaret Jane), Reading. March 15; Johnson and Co., Birmingham.

MALLETT (William), Truro. Feb. 27; J. M. Bennetts, Truro. MARTINEAU (Hugh), Islington. March 19; Druces and Attlee, 10, Billitersq, E.C.

MASTERMAN (George Hughes), Boxmoor. March 16; Masterman and Everington, 11, Pancras-la, Queen-st, E.C.

MATHWIN (George), Newcastle-upon-Tyne. March 15; Ingledew and Fenwick, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

MAULE (Ellen Emma Augusta), Dover. March 20; Lewis and Pain, Dover.

PEARSE (Sarah Ann), Southampton.


April 2; Paris, Smith, and Randall,

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RICE (Hon. Mrs. Elizabeth Lucy), Stow-on-the-Wold. Gray and Son, 5, New-ct, Lincoln's-inn, W.C.

March 25; J.

ROE (Emmeline Russell), Brighton. March 6; Cridland and Nell, 27, Bedford-row, W.C.

RYLEY (Thomas), Blackheath. March 10; R. C. McC. Poulter, 71A, Queen Victoria-st, E.C.

SALTHOUSE (Thomas Brockbank), Bradford. March 1; T. Coombs and Son, Oxford-chmbrs, Leeds. Sol., A. V. Hammond, Bradford. SARJEANT (Joseph Frederic), Nanpantan. March 19; C. W. and F. H. Toone, Loughborough.

SEWELL (Edward Harry), St. Leonards-on-Sea. March 22; Rowe and Wilkie, Wool Exchange, Basinghall-st, E.C.

SHEPHERD (Thomas), Huddersfield. March 6; F. Leonard, Huddersfield. SHINGLETON (Mary Jane), Ilford. March 22: J. Bransbury, 3, Pancrasla, E.C.

SMITH (Louis Kraeutler), Brighton, March 25; P. F. Tanner, Bourne,mouth.

SPANTON (George), Hoveton St. John. Feb. 28; Stevens, Miller, and Jones, Norwich.

STARKIE (Ann), Burnley. March 20; Procter and Baldwin, Burnley. STEPHENSON (Daniel), Gildersome. Feb. 16; W. and E. H. Middlebrook, Leeds.

TAPLIN (George Edward), Preston Park, Brighton. March 10: H. P. Russell, Bexley Heath.

TAYLOR (Rev. John William Whiteley), Reading. March 10; Laycock, Dyson, and Laycock, Huddersfield.

THOMSON (William), Southampton. March 15, Waller and Thornback, Southampton.

THOMPSON (Elizabeth), Newcastle-upon-Tyne. March 10; H. E. Richardson and Elder, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

TROTMAN (Charles Samuel). Kensal Rise. March 25; Leggatt and Leggatt. 27, Great James-st, Bedford-row, W.C.

TUCKER (William), Morriston, March 1; D. Ó. Thomas, Swansea. UNWIN (Annie), Croydon. March 17; F. W. Morris, 31 and 32, King William-st, E.C.

VERNON (Dorothy Harriet), Westminster. March 12; Fearon and Co., 11, Victoria-st, Westminster.

WAKEFIELD (George), Hanham, March 17; G. T. Watkins, Bristol.
WARD (Ellen), Scarborough. March 31; Cook, Fowler, and Outhet,

WELLS (Marie Louise), Fulmer. Feb. 20; H. W. Hards, Abingdon.
WHELPDALE (William John), Buckingham-gate and Wigmore-st.

March 11; Lithgow and Pepper, Wimpole House, 29A, Wimpole-st, W. WILSON (Agnes). Cross-in-Hand. March 1; Champion, Farrington, and Winterton, Brighton.

WINDER (Henry), Ilkley, or WINDER (Mary Jane). March 1; Scott and Turnbull, Leeds.

WRIGHT (Mary), Carlisle. Feb. 28; J. A. Philipson and Co., Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

ZOUCHE OF HARYNGWORTH (Right Hon. Robert Nathaniel Cecil George Baron). Parham, and Eaton-sq. March 25; L. W. Byrne, 22, Surreyet, W.C.

POOLING INSURANCE.-The Licenses Insurance Corporation and Guarantee Fund Limited has established an entirely new scheme of insurance for Fire, Burglary, Workmen's Compensation, &c., by which the profits accrue to the insured. (See p. vi.)—{ADVт.]



THE Council of the Law Society have been in communication with the Inland Revenue authorities upon the subject of delays which take place before vendors are informed whether or not increment value duty is payable by them, and they have received a reply through the secretary to the commissioners (Mr. J. E. Chapman) to the effect that "since increment value duty depends on the excess of the site value of land on the occasion for collection over the original site value, it is impracticable finally to formulate a claim for the duty until the original site value is settled, and that consequently in the initial stages prior to the completion of the original value of land some considerable delay has been in many cases unavoidable. But for the exceptional circumstances of the present time of war, in which it has been necessary to give owners a longer period in which to consider their provisional valuations before they become finally settled, the time would now have practically arrived at which outstanding cases could be disposed of and matters brought to a normal condition, and even in existing circumstances the commissioners now hope to make considerable progress in this direction. I am to add that in the meanwhile the commissioners are, of course, always ready to deal as expeditiously as possible with cases of especial urgency." The Scale Committee of the council, who have had the matter in hand, recommend that for the present no further steps be taken.


THE usual monthly meeting of the directors was held at the Law Society's Hall on Thursday, the 4th inst., Mr. Percy E. Marshall in the chair. The other directors present were Mr. T. H. Gardiner, Mr. F. W. Emery, Mr. A. Toovey, Mr. Mark Waters, Mr. C. E. Leighton, Mr. J. E. W. Rider, Mr. W. M. Woodhouse, and the secretary, Mr. E. E. Barron. A sum of £77 was granted in relief of deserving cases, thirty new members were elected, and other general business was transacted.


A MEETING was held on Monday, the 8th inst., at 3, King's Bench-walk, Temple, E.C., Mr. T. Hynes being in the chair. Mr. C. P. Blackwell moved: "That the case of Joseph Travers and Sons Limited v. Cooper (137 L. T. Jour. 398; (1915) 1 K. B. 73) was wrongly decided." Mr. W. Evill opposed. The motion was lost by one vote.

SOLICITORS' BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION. THE directors held their usual monthly meeting at the Law Society, Chancery-lane, on the 10th inst., Mr. Wm. C. Blandy (Reading) in the chair, the other directors present_being_Messrs. L. B. Carslake, T. S. Curtis, T. Dixon (Chelmsford), W. Dowson, H. Fulton (Salisbury), W. E. Gillett, C. Goddard, W. H. Gray, J. R. B. Gregory, L. W. North Hickley, C. G. May, E. F Oldham, H. H. Scott (Gloucester), R. S. Taylor, Maurice A. Tweedie, and W. Melmoth Walters. Grants to the amount of £315 were made to poor and deserving cases, four new members were admitted, and other general business transacted.

STOCKPORT INCORPORATED LAW SOCIETY. THE annual meeting was held at the Court-house, Stockport, on Thursday, the 4th inst. Mr. William Johnston was re-elected president for the third year in succession. From the committee's report it appears that the procedure under the Rules of the Supreme Court (Poor Persons) 1914 is being made use of locally through the district registrar, and that the majority of such cases passing through his hands relate to divorce. Since the commencement of the war, weekly collections have been made through the society from the various solicitors' offices in the town for the local War Relief Fund, and such collections have amounted to the present to the sum of £95 148. 2d. Three articled clerks serving with solicitors in Stockport and nine unarticled clerks employed with Stockport solicitors have joined His Majesty's forces. It was announced at the meeting that Mr. William Johnston had given to the society a sum of £50 to provide a prize (to be known as "The Johnston Prize ") to be awarded to clerks articled to solicitors practising in Stockport who attain a high standard of merit in their final examination.

IT'S WAR-TIME. BUT DON'T FORGET THE MIDDLESEX HOSPITAL. Its responsibilities are great and must be met.


To SECRETARIES.-Reports of meetings should reach the office not later than first post Thursday morning to ensure insertion in the current number.


UNIVERSITY OF LONDON LAW STUDENTS' SOCIETY.—At a meeting held on Tuesday at University College (Mr. R. F. Levy president, in the chair), the subject for debate was: "That all adult bachelors should be taxed." Mr. H. Todd Thornbery, B.Sc., opened in the affirmative and Mr. J. L. M. Perez in the negative. The president and the following members also spoke: Messrs. E. W. Goodale, C. F. Inniss, P. A. Wood, T. Francondi, H. P. Wells, E. M. Duke, F. Bradbury, and A. A. Carreras. The leaders replied, and on the motion being put to the meeting it was lost by one vote.

PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. Information intended for publication under the above heading should reach us not later than Thursday morning in each week, as publics. tion is otherwise delayed.

The Hon. MALCOLM MARTIN MACNAGHTEN has been elected a Bencher of Lincoln's-inn, in succession to the late Hon. Sir Edward Charles Macnaghten, Bart., K.C. Mr. Macnaghten was called by Lincoln's-inn and the Inner Temple in 1894.

Mr. WALTER L. WILLIAMS, of the firm of Williams and Williams, solicitors, Fishguard, has been appointed Coroner for the North Division of the County of Pembrokeshire, in succession to the late Mr. Ivor Evans. Mr. Williams was admitted in 1911.


This column is intended for the use of members of the Legal Profession, and therefore queries trom lay correspondents cannot be inserted. Under no circumstances are editorial replies undertaken. None are inserted unless the name and address of the writer are sent, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of bona fides.


23. EMPLOYER'S RIGHT ΤΟ SUSPEND WORKMAN.-We should be glad if your readers could give us the reference of reports of two cases which we have some recollection of reading, the reference to which we cannot now find. We are under the impression that they are recent cases. The cases were as follows: (1) Dealing with the right of an employer to suspend a workman, which we believe was decided against the employer. (2) Dealing with the question of whether or not the contract of service between an employer and workman which is subject to a weekly notice can be determined by such notice being given at any time.


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This department being open to free discussion on all Professional topics, the Editor does not hold himself responsible for any opinions or statements contained in it.

COUNSEL'S FEES.-Mr. Brinsley Harper is deserving of the sincere thanks of both branches of the Profession for having tack'ed the subject of "Counsel's Fees." and, if his efforts have so far proved abortive, he has the satisfaction of knowing that he bas well and truly laid the foundation-stone for the rectification of a legal absurdity which has too long been a thorn in the side of the public, and, in so far as the record of his efforts reaches the notice of the public, it will appreciate them at their true value, in spite of the opposition of those who would treat this question as one of no importance. Unfortunately, however, as matters stand at present, litigants are glad to be rid of the law, and practical experience tells us that the object of every sound business man now is to avoid litigation if it is possible to do so, and more especially if he has once had "some" and suffered. The public is the " sadly in need of the relief which Mr. Brinsley Harper is seeking goose that lays the golden egg," and it is to give it. In every bill of costs in connection with any consider.

able litigation we, who see more of the practical side, know that the vast preponderance of counsel's fees as compared with solicitors' fees is the bugbear which is fast driving the public from the courts, and we know, too, how often when cases are almost ready for trial the prospect of having to pay heavy and unlimited counsel's fees literally forces clients to compromise. Are the Bar Council alive to this fact, and do they know how often clients ask, "Why should I pay fees to counsel's clerks ? Why don't they pay their own clerks in the same way as you do ?" It is evident that the recent negotiations between the Bar Council and the Law Society have to all intents and purposes broken down. It also appears to be apparent that the Bar Council is proceeding in this matter upon the basis that it is the master of the situation, and that the resolution passed at the recent meeting of the Law Society will not carry the matter any further so far as the Bar Council is concerned, but whether that resolution will have its influence in another place in the near future remains to be seen. The Legislature has fixed, and, indeed, very strenuously fixed, the fees which are to be charged by one branch of the Profession, and there appears to be no good reason why it should not adopt a similar course in regard to the other branch of the Profession. Which is the most anxious and laborious work, drawing a brief or perusing and considering it? We are limited to a fee for instructions for brief (fixed usually according to the number of witnesses engaged or other circumstances) and to 18 per folio for drawing, and, if we enter into any discussion in the brief in regard to the case law on the question in dispute, we are told on taxation that it is irregular and must be disallowed, although it is obvious that the result of the consideration and comparison of various cases for sometimes months previously does often very materially assist counsel in bringing out more clearly the points to be tried and the application of the various decisions. Our fees for attendance at court are also fixed according to the time engaged. If we are limited to a fixed fee per folio for drawing, why should not counsel be limited to a fixed fee for "perusing and considering," and another fixed fee for atten lance at court also according to the time engaged? What is "good for the gander is good for the goose." If we fail to attend the court or send a qualified substitute our fees are disallowed. Not so with our brothers. They may take their fees, not attend, and still retain their fees. We, too, are responsible for negligence and they are not. Such a state of affairs exists in no other business or profession in the Empire. No wonder the layman is continually reminding us that there are too many lawyers in Parliament. There is no real difficulty in the way of fixing a scale of fees for senior and junior counsel. When this has been done, the public will know what they have to pay and also that they will get what they have paid for, and the wretched bargaining which sometimes takes place between solicitors and counsel's clerks in reference to the sacred "honora

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rium" will cease. Briefs will not run so much, as they do now, in fixed channels, litigation will revive, and we may some day see even partnerships between counsel. The suggestion that counsel should be treated on the lines which are considered satisfactory for solicitors will, of course, be duly flouted, but we shall see. History shows that the other branch of the Profession has been very busy from time to time in prescribing for solicitors. It would, indeed, seem reasonable that each branch should try the medicine of the other. We have taken quite a lot in years gone by, and submissively too, but our friends will not even taste of ours. E. A. COLLINS.

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Lieutenant FREDERICK BRIAN ARTHUR FARGUS, solicitor, commanding machine gun section, 9th Battalion London Regiment (Queen Victoria's Rifles), was killed in action on the 1st Jan., while serving with the British Expeditionary Force. He was admitted in 1911, and was a member of the firm of Clayton, Sons, and Fargus, of 10, Lancaster-place, Strand, W.C.

Trooper LEONARD TAYLOR DICKINSON, solicitor, of the firm of J. L Dickinson and Sons, of Bristol and Weston-super-Mare, was killed in action at Ypres whilst serving in the North Somersetshire Yeomanry. He was admitted in 1911.

Lieutenant KENNETH HILL IVES, solicitor, 8 h Battalion West Yorkshire Regiment, died of pneumonia at the R.A.M.C. Hospital, York, on the 9th Dec. He was assistant to Mr. A. W. Willey, of Leeds, and admitted in June 1914.

Lieutenant GEORGE THOMPSON, solicitor, No. 2 Heavy Battery, Devonshire R.G.A., died at the Military Hospital, Devonport, on the 16th Jan. He was admitted in 1905," and was a member of the firm of Greenway, Sons, and Thompson, of Plymouth.

Captain THOMAS HERBERT RICHMOND, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, died on the 1st Nov., at the Base Hospital at Boulogne, of wounds received in action. Captain Richmond was articled to Mr. J. E. Bolton, of Kendal, and afterwards to Mr. H. Pennington, of 64, Lincoln's-inn fields, W.C. He was admitted in 1908 and returned to Kendal for a short time. He then received an appointment with Messrs. Orr, Dignam, and Co., of Calcutta.

Captain HAROLD WILTON, solicitor, 4th Wessex Brigade R F.A., died as the result of a shooting accident in India. He was articled to Mr. Edward Windeat, of Totnes, admitted in March 1913, and practised at Dock House, Billiter-street, E.C.

Lieutenant JOHN RICHARD BAGGALLAY WEEDING, Royal Welsh Regiment, was killed in action near Ypres. Lieutenant Weeding was admitted a solicitor in 1906, and was a member of the staff of the Surrey County Council at Kingston. On the outbreak of the war he joined the Royal Flying Corps, and later received a commission in the Royal Welsh Regiment.

Private LEONARD VANE TURNER, solicitor, 14th Battalion County of London Regiment (the London Scottish), was killed in action on the 21st Dec. He was admitted in Oct. 1913, having served his articles with Mr. S. H. Turner, of 69, Aldermanbury, E.C.

Mr. WILLIAM HENDERSON, solicitor, of the firm of Fussell and Co., Bristol, died at his residence, Albert-road, in Clifton, on the 5th inst., aged sixty-five. Mr. Henderson was a member of a well-known family and followed his father in the Profession, being admitted in 1871. For many years he was a partner, and lately sole principal, of the firm now known as Fussell and Co.

Mr. THOMAS DUERDIN DUTTON, solicitor, well known as an advocate in the criminal courts, died on the 7th inst., aged sixtyeight. During Mr. Dutton's practice of over forty years he was engaged in many of the most celebrated cases in the criminal courts. He defended Lefroy, who was executed for the murder of Mr. Gold on the Brighton Railway. Mr. Dutton was admitted in 1872. He was a member of the Law Socie y.

Mr. WILLIAM MANN TROLLOPE, senior partner in the firm of Messrs. Trollope and Winck worth, solicitors, of Abingdon-street, Westminster, died on the 6th inst., aged ninety-one. He was Town Clerk of Westminster under the Ancient Court of Burgesses from 1859 to 1901, when it was merged in the new corporation. The Ancient Court made its last appearance at the funeral of Queen Victoria. Mr. Trollope was admitted in 1847. He was a member of the Law Society and of the Solicitors' Benevolent Association.


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SANITARY ASSURANCE.-Before renting or purchasing a house it is advisable to obtain an independent report on the condition of the Drains, Sanitary Fittings, and Water Supply. Moderate fees for Sanitary Inspections on application to the Sanitary Engineering Company, 115, Victoria-street, Westminster. Telegrams: Sanitation," London.[An? FIXED INCOMES.-Houses and Residential Flats can Furnished on a new system of Deferred Payments especially adapted for those with fixed incomes who do not wish to disturb investments. Selection from the largest stock in the world. Everything legibly marked in plain figures. Maple and Co. Ltd., Tottenham Courtroad, London, W.-[Advt.]

now be


Professional Partnerships Dissolved.


SAMSON, CHARLES LEOPOLD; RILEY, MORETON JOHN; NEWMAN, ARTHUR; BRANDON, THOMAS; LANG, FREDERICK; KERSHAW, JAMES; and KERSHAW, HAROLD SLANEY, solicitors, 6, Austin-friars, E.C.; and Manchester, under style of Grundy. Kershaw, Samson, and Co. July 24, 1914. So far as regards A. Newman. The remaining partners will continue to carry on the business under old style.




To surrender at the High Court of Justice, in Bankruptcy. DEITCHMAN, ISRAEL (trading as Wells, Rose, and Co.), Great Sutton-st, Clerkenwell, poultry salesman Feb. 3.

E. SPIEGEL AND Co., New Broad-st. Feb. 1. TATTERSALL, JAMES WILLIAM, and TATTERSALL. TOM WHITAKER, Kimberleyrd, Willesden-la, electrical engineers. Feb. 1.

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