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and every crown, though it be small, has the same glory in it as a large one, whereas, although cups and censers, if exceedingly numerous, gild the possessors with a show of opulence, yet if a man prides himself upon small matters, so far from his obtaining honour on that account, he is thought to be vulgar-minded. This man however has destroyed the possessions of honour, and made those of wealth insignificant and unworthy of you. And he did not even see, that Athenians were never anxious for the acquirement of riches, but for that of renown were more ambitious than for anything in the world. Here is a proof. They once possessed greater wealth than any of the Greeks, but to win renown they expended it all, and, contributing out of their private means, they never shrank from any peril in the pursuit of glory. From which they have acquired for themselves imperishable treasures, partly the remembrance of their achieve ments, partly the splendour of the sacred edifices raised to commemorate them, yonder gateway, the Parthenon, docks and porticoes, not a pair of little jars, or three or four golden saucers, each weighing a mina, which, when you please, you will frame another decree to melt down. Not by levying tithes upon themselves, not by doing what their enemies would pray for, doubling the taxes, did they raise these sacred ornaments: not by the help of such counsellors as you did they carry on the government: but by overcoming their enemies, doing what every prudent man would wish them to do, uniting the people in harmony, while they expelled from the market-place men that led such lives as you, they have left behind them a fame that will never die. But you, my countrymen, are so far gone in thoughtlessness and folly, that, even with such examples before your eyes, you will not follow them: but Androtion is repairer of your sacred utensils; Androtion, O earth and heaven! And can any impiety, think ye, surpass this? I look upon it, that a man who is to enter the sanctuaries, to touch the baskets and holy water and superintend the service of religion, ought not to be pure for a stated number of days only, but to have been pure all his lifetime from the practices in which this man's life has been passed.

And of these things by and by. As to his intended defence of Timocrates, though I have a good deal more yet to say, I

will be content.1 That the law is not against your interests and introduced in defiance of all the laws and iniquitous in every respect, I know he will not be able to contend. But he says, I am told, that the money has been paid by Androtion and Glaucetes and Melanopus, and that it would be the hardest thing in the world on himself, if, after these persons, for whose benefit he is charged with having proposed his law, have satisfied the demands of justice, he should nevertheless be convicted. For my part, I think that such an argument is not in any way open to him. For, if you confess that you proposed your law for the benefit of these men, who you say have done what is right, you ought clearly to be convicted on this account, that the existing laws, according to which the jury have sworn to decide, expressly forbid the proposing of any law, unless it be the same for all the citizens. If you assert that your legislation was for the general good, don't talk about the payment of these men; for it has no connexion with the present statute; but show that the statute is useful and proper. That is the purpose for which you say you introduced it, and which I denying have indicted you, and which the jury are called upon to try. I should indeed have no difficulty in showing, that the payment which those men have made is anything but a payment according to law; however, as that is not the question which you have to decide, why should I trouble you with it now?

I expect also that he will not refrain from this argument, that it would be hard on him to suffer for having enacted that no Athenian shall be sent to prison, and that it is specially for the interest of the humble that the laws should be as mild and lenient as possible. Against such an argument it is better you should be prepared by a few observations, and so there will be less chance of your being misled. When he says "that no Athenian shall be sent to prison," don't forget that he is telling a falsehood. It is not this that he has pro

1 The critics wish to alter the text of this passage, because the orator has not yet said anything about the expected argument of Androtion. But we must remember that orators often commit these oversights, and sometimes (if the expression may be allowed) commit them intentionally. Nor is it true that the orator has been silent as to the expected argument of Androtion; for he has anticipated a reference by him to the political services of Timocrates, partly in these very matters for which the prosecutor assails him.

posed, but that you shall have no power to enforce your cumulative penalty. Your verdict, given upon oath after argument and trial, he sets aside. Don't then let him select for recital those expressions in the law which sound the most humane; but let him bring the whole law before you as it stands, and allow you to consider its effects. You will find they are what I tell you, not what Timocrates says. With respect to its being the interest of the many, that the laws should be as mild and lenient as possible, you have to consider an important distinction. There are, men of Athens, two classes of things to which the laws of all states have reference: the first, those rules which govern our mutual dealings and contracts, which define our duties in private matters, and generally, our relations to each other in life; the second, those obligations which every one lies under to the commonwealth, if he means to become a statesman, and pretends to watch over his country's welfare. Now it is for the people's interest, that those laws which concern private life should be framed with mildness and humanity; but on the other hand it is desirable for you, that these laws which concern our public duties should be stringent and severe; for thus you the people will suffer the least wrong from your statesmen. When therefore he resorts to this argument, meet him with the reply, that he abates the rigour, not of those laws which are for you, but of these which inspire your statesmen with fear.

It would be a long affair to show that every word of his forthcoming speech will be deception and imposture. The mass of it I will pass by, and mention only one head which you will bear in mind. Among all the arguments which he adduces, see if he can bring anything to convince you, that it is right for a legislator to order the same things to be done in relation to what is past and ended, as in relation to the future: for, shameful and scandalous as all the clauses of the statute are, this is the most scandalous and the most unconstitutional. If neither the defendant nor any one else can establish this proposition, you ought clearly to see and understand that he is imposing on you, and to ask yourselves how it ever entered into his head to legislate in such a way. You did not propose your law for nothing, Timocrates: no! very far from that! You cannot suggest any pretext for introducing such a bill, except your own abominable avarice; for

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not one of these men was either a relative or a connexion or an intimate friend of yours. Nor can you allege, that you pitied men who had been cruelly treated, and therefore chose to assist them. In the first place, you never considered it cruel treatment, that they should pay the money of the state so long after it was due, and with such unwillingness and reluctance, after conviction by three tribunals; (it was cruel conduct on their parts, which should excite indi nation rather than move to compassion :) and in the next pace, there is nothing so remarkably kind and gentle in your disposition, more than in that of other people, that you should take pity on them. It is not in the same spirit, to pity A drotion and Glaucetes and Melanopus, for having to refun what they have embezzled, and never to have pitied one of all these in court, or the other citizens, (to whose houses you went with the Eleven and the Receivers and officers,) but to have removed their doors, and drawn the bedclothes from under them, and taken favourite waiting-maids for a distress all which you did for a whole year with Androtion. Surely, you execrable man, the treatment of your countrymen has been far more cruel, and you had much more reason to pity them, who through you orators have no respite from payment of taxes. And this is not enough. The double is exacted from them, and that by you and Androtion, who have never contributed to the property tax a single mite. And yet such was this man's arrogance, such his confidence of impunity, that, though he had ten colleagues, he ventured to enter his account alone with Androtion.1 For Timocrates has no interest, no personal object to serve, when he incurs your hatred, and introduces laws contrary to all the rest, nay, even to a former law of his own, as (by Athene !) I think has not escaped your notice.2

What most (in my judgment) deserves your indignation, I will tell you without disguise. It is this, men of Athens; that, although he does these things for money, although he has decidedly taken up the trade of a hireling, he does not apply the money to purposes, for which, if one knew it, one might have excused him. What do I mean? The defendant's father, men of the jury, is indebted to the state;

To enter in the public book his account of the monies which he had collected during his term of office.

2 "Acerba ironia, quâ Timocratem ridet."-Reiske.

(I do not mention it by way of reproach to him, but from necessity;) and this worthy person allows him to remain so. He, who will inherit the disfranchisement, in case anything happens to his father and yet, rather than pay the debt, chooses to enjoy, during his father's life, what it would cost him to pay it-what baseness do you think he is not capable of? And when you have no pity on your father; when you think it n hardship on him, that, whilst you are making money and profit from the taxes which you levied, from the decrees which you frame, from the laws which you introduce, he, for want of a small sum, is excluded from civic rights-dr you tell us that you feel compassion for any other people? Oh, but he has managed nicely for his sister! Why, if he had committed no other crime, he deserves to perish for this; for he has sold her, instead of giving her in marriage. One of your enemies, a Corcyræan, of the party now holding the city, used to lodge at his house when he came here as ambassador, and expressed a desire to have his sister-on what terms, I forbear to mention so he has given her up for a sum of money, and she is now in Corcyra. A man who, under the pretence of marrying his sister to a foreigner,1 has in reality sold her-who takes this care of his father in his old age-who is a parasite, a hireling politician and decree-drawer-won't you put him to death, men of Athens, when you have got him in your power? If you don't, it will be thought you like trials and annoyances, and don't wish to rid yourselves of bad people.

That all offenders ought to be punished, you would all agree, if you were asked, I am sure. That this man, who has introduced a law to the prejudice of the multitude, deserves punishment above all others, I will endeavour to show you. A thief or highwayman or other malefactor of that sort, in the first place, injures just the person that encounters him, and would not be able to rob all men or steal the property of all; in the next place, he disgraces his own life and character only. But if a man introduces a law, by which a perfect license and impunity is given to those who are mischievously inclined, such a person injures the whole state and disgraces all; for, when a disgraceful law is in force, it is a reproach to the state which enacted it, and a calamity to 1 Which was itself illegal. See the article Exagoges Dike in the Archæological Dictionary.

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