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On entering upon a new district the inspector should procure a map, with the boundary line of his district marked distinctly upon it, so that he may at a glance see the shape of the whole district. By doing this at the outset, his mind will gradually become familiarized with the configuration of the neighbourhood, and consequently much assistance will be derived.

It is usually convenient to commence duty at nine a.m. each morning, and from that hour until ten a.m. to wait in the office to meet persons who will occasionally be requiring to see the inspector for information. During that hour he may attend to the correspondence, give out instructions to his clerks and assistants as to any special work he may have for them during the day. At ten o'clock he may then proceed into his district, and make any special inspection of premises about which he may have received complaint, or proceed with any other general inspection he may have in hand; such general inspections to be proceeded with at all times when other duties are not requiring his attention.

He is recommended when making his inspections to go about them in a quiet, inoffensive manner, avoiding all appearance of intrusion into private matters, and

give the occupiers of the premises the least possible annoyance. By so doing he will make friends instead of enemies, and receive little pieces of information which he would otherwise fail to get, and which will prove of great assistance to him.

Generally it will be found requisite to visit the slaughter-houses every week on the killing day (Thursday in most places), and call in when least expected on other occasions. The bakehouses, schools, and workshops once in three months will be found to suit the requirements of the Acts. The periods at which to make the general inspections of each ward or section must entirely depend upon local circumstances.

During the last few years the public mind has been aroused upon the subject of the better regulation of cowsheds and dairies, and not unjustly so, considering the great importance of our milk supplies being preserved from all sources of contamination.

The inspector, when making his monthly inspections of cowsheds and dairies, will do well to have the following recommendations carried out as far as practicable :

Every cowshed to be properly lighted and ventilated with lowered windows. The inner walls, doors, and woodwork to be covered with hard, smooth, impervious material to the height of five feet from the floor. The trough manger to be of impervious material, and sloped to allow of being easily cleansed. A properly covered place for the reception of dung must be provided. No privy, cesspool, or urinal shall be within, or communicate directly with, a cowshed, and no inhabited room shall, on any pretext, be situated over it. The space for each cow to be not less than 800 cubic feet.

While on the subject of cowsheds, the following letter will be found both interesting and valuable to the inspector. The letter was sent to Joseph Ansell, Esq., Clerk to the Aston Local Board (who kindly gave me his consent to my making this use of it)

Local Government Board, Whitehall, S.W.,

10th March, 1877. SIR,

I am directed by the Local Government Board to advert to your letter of the 19th ultimo, with which you forwarded a memorial from the local board for the district of Aston, praying that a parliamentary measure might be promoted for the purpose of enabling sanitary authorities to exercise a control over cowsheds and dairies.

It appears to the Board from the first paragraph of the memorial that the matters as to which the local board are advised that they have no power under the Public Health Act, 1875, to make regulations are as follows:1. The providing for the cleanliness of the

animals; 2. The cleanly and healthy storage of milk and

dairy produce; and 3. The prevention of nuisances arising from the

keeping of cows. The providing for the cleanliness of animals and the prevention of nuisances arising from the keeping of cows are purposes so far similar that they may be regarded as one, namely, the prevention of nuisances arising from the keeping of cows.

The Board desire me to point out that in their opinion the local board already possess ample powers under the Public Health Act, 1875, for this purpose.

Under section 44 they are authorized to make bye-laws for “the prevention of the keeping of animals on any premises so as to be injurious to health.”

Further, under sections 49 and 50, there are ample means of securing the removal from cowsheds of any undue accumulation of dung, &c., from which nuisance may be anticipated. Again, on reference to section 91, it will be seen (1) That any premises in such a state as to be a nuisance or injurious to health : (3) Any animal so kept as to be a nuisance or injurious to health; and (4) Any accumulation or deposit which is a nuisance or injurious to health, shall be deemed to be nuisances liable to be dealt with summarily in the manner provided by the Act.

The Board think that it is hardly necessary to point out that for the abatement of such nuisances extensive powers are confirmed by the Act.

The regulations which the local board wish to make for “the cleanly and healthy storage of milk and dairy produce” would doubtless have for their chief object the prevention of the spread of disease by infected milk. Although for this purpose fresh legislation may perhaps be requisite, it may be questioned whether in many cases the provisions of sections 116–119 of the Public Health Act are not quite suffi

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cient to prevent the exposure for sale, or the use for the food of man, of any milk “diseased, or unsound, or unwholesome, or unfit for the food of man." I am, Sir, your obedient Servant,


Assistant Secretary. To JOSEPH ANSELL, Esq., Clerk to the Aston Local Board,

42, Temple Street, Birmingham.

At the slaughter-house my fellow officer must make himself a frequent visitor. Make the work as agreeable as you can under the circumstances, remembering always to do your duty firmly. Make a rule to visit your slaughter-houses every killing day, and on other days when your work will permit. The inspector will be greatly relieved in his work where public slaughterhouses are erected. A very useful piece of work will be performed if, when slaughter-house licenses are applied for, the inspector will make a minute examination of each of the premises, and advise his committee to refuse all applications where the ventilation, drainage, paving, water supply, &c., are not properly carried out.

The following form will be found useful for all applications for licenses to be made upon :

Application for Slaughter-house License. I, of

,do hereby apply to you to license, or to receive the license of the premises undermentioned, situated within your district, to be used by

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