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that appeal that went to their hearts ? Lo- either a nation or an individual. It is evichiel, too, came convinced of the rashness, dent that Charles Stuart, with the instinct nay madness, of the enterprise," as Lord of a doomed man, felt that nothing which Mahon tells us in his admirable narrative, could overtake him could be so fatal and " and determined to urge Charles to desist terrible as a return to his captivity: Had from it and return to France till a more fa- he died on Culloden field, had his boat vourable opportunity.” His brother Fassi- been swamped by the bitter northern waves, fern entreated him to send his decision by and he himself disappeared for ever into letter. " If this Prince once sets eyes on their stormy abysses, it would have been you,” says the sagacious Highlander, “he well for the exile. What was ill for him will make you do what he pleases." But was to leave that land in which he found Lochiel, strong in his own prudence, went himself, even in his worst privations, a man on like the rest to protest and remonstrate. and a Prince, with an independent existThe argument was long between the Adven- ence, and not a miserable puppet of fortune. turer and the chief. At last Charles brought Neither, perhaps, could better have been for it to a climax. “I am resolved to put all to the country itself, which thus rushed upthe hazard," he said. “In a few days I will on a glorious destruction, killing by one raise the Royal standard, and proclaim to splendid act the old life which was doomed the people of Britain that Charles Stuart too, and must have died by inches had there is come over to claim the crown of his ances- been no Forty-five. It is something to call tors, or perish in the attempt. Lochiel, forth that highest bloom of antique virtue, who, my father has often told me, was our that unequalled faithfulness, devotion, and firmest friend, may stay at home and learn honour which throw an everlasting glory upfrom the newspapers the fate of his Prince." on the death-struggle of the highland clans. Against this final argument no Highland It is something for a man to prove himself heart could stand. "Not so," said Lochiel, generous in victory, gay, friendly, magnanmoved out of all prudence; “I will share imous, and gentle, when fortune smiles on the fate of my Prince, whatever it may be, him— patient, tender, cheerful, and unreand so shall every man over whom nature pining in the heaviest calamities. The man or fortune has given me any power.” This and the race embarked together in a venwas the result of every personal meeting be- ture which could not but bring tragic and tween Charles and the Highland chiefs. terrible consequences to both. They did Those who kept aloof, in some instances, their best to overthrow the foundations of escaped the fascination. Sir Alexander all our national peace, and plunge us once Macdonald and the Chief of Macleod stood more into the chaos from which we were esout prudently, withdrawing themselves from caping. They put everything on the cast, all intercourse with the royal suppliant. He pledging their very existence, with scarce landed on the mainland on the 25th July, a possibility of ultimate success, and no surrounded by Highland guards, and a de- hopes but those roused by emotion and votion all the more intense and priceless excitement, without foundation or reality. that it was tinged with despair, and began Yet who can say that they did amiss ? in that distant corner of the empire which Ages of pitiful quiet in a borrowed palace he intended to conquer, the brief, brilliant, were not worth that one brief year of life extraordinary campaign, four months of un- to the leader of this wildest of forlorn hopes. expected and half-iniraculous triumph, which And what would have been a century of was to be followed by such overthrow, such ebbing existence, struggles with new cussuffering and calamity, as reason had pre- toms, and sick efforts to retain che past, dicted and enthusiasm defied.
in comparison with the passion and agony We are obliged, in practical life, to judge of Celtic Scotland, thus accomplished, as it by the common human standard of fail- were, at a stroke, with accompaniment of ure and success. And according to that some of the noblest emotions and greatest standard, this enterprise, doomed from its acts of which human nature is capable ? beginning, and which even in the heart They marched with the wild pibroch wailing of its leaders was an alternative of de- over them, with waving plaids and antispair, can be considered only as a piece quated shields, and hearts full of primitive of tragic folly, madly conceived and bitterly virtues, passions, and errors, for which the punished. But there are other views which world had grown too old, straight into the in the calm of ages, even the most piti- jaws of destruction – into the valley of ful spectator may be allowed to take, death, into the mouth of hell. It was the and which point out the great but difficult end of a race, of a condition of things, of an truth, that pain, calamity, and havoc are ancient, noble, and most unfortunate dynot the worst misfortunes that can befall pasty. Valour unsurpassed, fidelity un
equalled, mercy even, unlooked-for com- | have just quoted. In word and deed, as in panion, marched with them, a guard of hon- outward bearing, the young paladin bore our, to the inevitable tomb. And in the himself like a knight of romance. He put face of all after horrors, all suffering, death, on with his Highland garb the spirit of his and ruin, let us say it was done well. earlier forefathers. Immediately after this
The standard was raised on the 19th of ceremony, and not more than a month from August in Glenfinnan. On the eve of this the moment of his landing, in his eagerness ceremony a party of Keppoch's men, aided to encounter Cope, whom he had thus by a detachment of Camerons, surprised promised to meet, he marched sixteen miles and took captive two companies of soldiers in boots;." and one of the heels coming on their way to reinforce the garrison at off, the Highlanders said they were unco Fort William — an auspicious beginning to glad to hear it, for they hoped the want of the struggle. When Charles approached the heel would make him march more at Glenfinnan with his body-guard of Macdon- leisure. So speedily he marched that he alds, he was chilled and disappointed to was like to fatigue them all.” Whatever find it silent and deserted, not a man yet of his army had to bear, Charles took a share his host having assembled at the trysting in their privations. He lived hardly, slept place. “Uncertain, and anxious for his on the heather by their side, marched at fate," says Lord Mahon, " the Prince en- their side across moor and hill, watched tered one of the neighbouring hovels, and late and rose up early, like a man to the waited for about two hours "- a dreary manner born. He did what was more asbreak in the high current of excitement tonishing still in that age and on such an which must have carried him along. At enterprise. He paid for everything his arlength the Camerons appeared defiling over my consumed, insisted on the strictest disthe hill, six hundred valiant men, advanc-cipline, punished all marauders, and had ing“ in two lines of three men abreast, be- his accounts kept with the precision of a tween which were the English companies private household. The wild clans came taken on the 16th, marching as prisoners, down from the hills full of the instinct of and disarmed.” This sight alone was plunder, with the Adventurer at their head, enough to raise to certainty the hopes of who firmly believed himself the rightful an enthusiastic and imaginative race. In Prince of the rich country through which presence of the triumphant Highlanders they passed. Had they cleared everything and the captive Southrons — emblems of before them, it would have been a natural the two races, no doubt, in many a spark- result to be expected in the circumstances; ling Celtic eye-the standard flew forth to but nothing of the kind appears to have tathe Highland winds. It was unfurled by ken place. “It was not uncommon, inold Tullibardine — the Duke of Athole, as deed,” says Lord Mahon, "for the Highhe was called, though his younger brother landers to stop some respectable portly citat the moment enjoyed the title and posses- izen as he passed along, levelling their mussions of the house. “Such loud huzzas kets at him with savage and threatening and schiming of bonnets up into the air, gestures; but on being asked by the tremappearing like a cloud, was not heard of bling townsman what they wanted, they for a long time,” says a certain Terence usually answered, “a bawbee !"" Charles Mulloy, evidently repeating the description himself levied contributions from the towns given by one of the prisoners. Old Athole through which he passed; but he suffered was above seventy when he threw forth no invasion of the rights of private property. those crimson folds into the Highland air In the Jacobite Memoirs will be found an and proclaimed King James.. Gallant old entire account-book, with all its quaint deage, dauntless youth, the enthusiasm of tails, interspersed with bits of pathetic hisvictory, the sullen silence of the captives tory, showing the careful regulation of his amid all that wild outburst of rejoicing, expenditure. “The Prince paid well for make up another of the wonderful pictures everything he got,” says the steward who of which this story is full. When Charles furnished this remarkable record, “and alhad addressed his Highlanders, he turned, ways ordered drink-money to be given libcourteous as a true Prince, to the English erally where he lodged." His courteous captain, who stood by: “You may go to generosity to his prisoners has already been your General,” he said; “ tell him what mentioned. When called upon to rejoice you have seen, and that I am coming that his enemies were at his feet, he turned to give him battle;” and thus dismissed away compassionate, lamenting the fate of with chivalrous promptitude the honourable "his father's deluded subjects." And when enemy. “No gentleman could be better urged to make reprisals upon the English used 'than he was,” adds the authority we captives for cruelties inflicted on his friends,
his high nature revolted against the sug-| left the path clear for the invaders. As gestion. “I cannot in cold blood take they marched, stream after stream joined away lives which I have spared in the heat them; here an entire clan, there a smaller of action,” said the noble young Adventur- party. The gentlemen of the country joined er; nor would he ever threaten to do so, the Prince's march after the Highland line saying, with still greater magnanimity, that was passed, bringing true hearts and stout it was below him to make empty threats courage, if not so many additional broadwhich he never would put into execution. swords. When any doubtful man fell in It was with the greatest difficulty that he his way, his eloquence and charm of manner was forced to answer the proclamation of had its usual effect. “ An angel could not the Government offering a reward for his resist such soothing close applications," own head, by a counter-proclamation set- said Cluny Macpherson, lately captain in ting a price on that of the Elector of Hano- the Hanoverian service, but soon at Charles's ver. His rival and contemporary Cumber- side with all his clan. He lived with them land, unfortunately, was not moved by so all like a brother, falling into their patrifine a sense of honour. Throughout the archal familiar habits. Even his own royal story, indeed, Charles shows himself the affairs and melancholy family life were talked preux chevalier to whom, alas! permanent of among the genial affectionate company. victory is slow to come. His was not the At Nairn House, on the way south,
one genius of battle, nor the merciless policy of the company happened to observe what which could take advantage of all chances. a thoughtful state his father would now be A tender heart and noble consideration for in, from the consideration of those dangers others are, no doubt, qualities of a great and difficulties he had to encounter with, leader; but these have rarely been exhibited and that upon this account he was much to for the benefit of the enemy. Charles be pitied, because his mind behoved to be was not a great leader; he was a spotless much upon the rack. The Prince replied knight. His foe disarmed was, if not his that he did not half so much pity his father friend, at least his fellow-creature, to be as his brother; -for,' said he, the King dealt with in a spirit of splendid humanity; has been inured to disappointments and the very assassins who threatened his own distresses, and has learnt to bear up easily life called forth, at worst, a pitiful con- under the misfortunes of life; but poor temptuous mercy. It is Sir Lancelot who Harry! his young and tender years make moves across those fields of brief battle, bim much to be pitied, for few brothers love those gleams of briefer triumph. Such a as we do.?" character, while it rouses all the generous This reference to the melancholy Roman admiration of which the mind is capable, home completes the picture. In the midst awakes at the same time a pang of compas- of his dangers the Prince had a sigh to spare sion. It is doomed from the commence for the brother into whose life this wild and ment of its career. It is unqualified for bright romance was never to fall. Poor that bloody arena which is no longer gov- Harry! who made no struggle for any erned by the laws of knighthood. The gen- rights, real or supposed, but placed his eral whose compassionate soul melts over his cardinal's hat, like a weight of stone, forbidenemy's forces, who has not the heart to ding all possibility of resuscitation, upon shoot a traitor or keep a prisoner, whose the grave of the Stuarts. No such possimind is set on conducting his warfare by bility was then apparent; but yet his galfeats of personal valour, by lofty generosity lant brother grieved for the lad, left alone, and consideration, can never win more with nothing better than a hunting party to than Charles won - a swift, short, brilliant stir his blood, in place of the swelling tide campaign; until the common herd, sur- of life in his own veins. In Athole " he prised, takes courage in its numbers; and was very cheerful, taking his share in sevthe rude soldier, careless of blood or suffer- eral dances, such as minuets and Highland ing, resumes his hard supremacy. It is reels." In almost every great house he Cumberland, shooting the wounded on the passed, some little feast was prepared for field, giving no quarter, crushing down the the Chevalier. When he entered Perth it country with his iron boot, who wins the was amid acclamations, but with one louis day.
d'or only in his pocket, the last of the 4000 The march of the Prince and his followers he had brought with him. Thus the most as far as Edinburgh was in its way a royal fatal risk and the strangest triumph, univerprogress. Cope having taken himself out sal acclamations and absolute destitution, of the way, too timid or too prudent'to try his all lightly borne with the sweet daring of fortune among the Highland passes, had youth, mingled in his life. The merchants withdrawn by sea to the low country, and at the fair, notwithstanding his poverty,
“ received passports to protect their per- and tried to bring them to temper by representsons and goods;" and to one of them, a ing that it was a mean, barbarous principle linendraper from London, the royal gentle- among princes, and must dishonour them in the man courteously addressed himself, bidding eyes of all men of honour ; that I did not see how him tell his townsfolk that he should be at my cousin's having set me the example would St. James's in two months. In the morning justify me in imitating that which I blame so he rose early to drill his troops; in the pacify them. Some even went so far as to say,
much in him. But nothing I could say would evening left the ball, as soon as he had Shall we venture our lives for a man who danced one measure, to visit his sentry- seems so indifferent of his own?' Thus have I posts. No time was there in his busy life been drawn in to do a thing for which I condemn for unprofitable thoughts. And yet there myself. Your Majesty knows that in my naturo was time enough for full consideration of I am neither cruel nor revengeful; and God, what he was doing in all its aspects. We who knows my heart, knows that if the Prince cannot refrain from quoting here a remark- who has forced me to this (for it is he that has able letter, printed in the Jacobite Me-forced me) was in my power, the greatest pleasmoirs,' and said to be written from Perth ure I could feel would be in treating him as the to his father in Rome, though we
Black Prince treated his enemy, the King of obliged to add that the only evidence for France— to make him ashamed of having shown its authenticity is the fact that it was found himself so inhuman an enemy to a man for atin Bishop Forbes's collections. It ex- tempting a thing, whom he hinself (if he had presses, at least, sentiments which we know any spirit) would despise for not attempting. by indisputable testimony to have been easiness about me. He is safe who is in Goul's
« I beg your Majesty would be under no unspoken by Charles :
protection. If I die, it shall be as I lived, with " PERTH, September 16th, 1745. honour; and the pleasure I take in thinking I “SIR, - Since my landing, everything has bave a brother in all respects more worthy than succeeded to my wishes. It has pleased God to myself to support your just cause, and redeem prosper me hitherto even beyond my expecta- your country from the oppression under which it tions. I have got together thirteen hundred groans (if it will suffer itself to be rescued), men, and am promised more brave determined makes life more indifferent to me. As I know men, who are resolved to die or conquer with and admire the fortitude with which your Majme. The enemy marched a body of troops to esty has supported your misfortunes, and the attack me; but when they came near they generous disdain with which you have rejected changed their mind, and, by taking a different all offers of foreign assistance, on terms which to the north, to the great disappointment of my friends should at this time take advantage of the route and making forced marches, have escaped you thought dishonourable to yourself and inju
rious to your country ; if bold but interested Highlanders; but I am not at all sorry for it; I shall have the greater glory in beating them tender affection with which they know you love when they are more numerous and supported by me, I hope you will reject their proposals with their dragoons.
the same magnanimity you have hitherto shown, “ I have occasion every day to reflect on your left his brave son, when he was in danger
and leave me to shift for myself as Edward III. Majesty's last words to me that I should find power, if tempered with justice and clemency, being oppressed by numbers in the field. No, an easy thing to myself, and not grievous to sir, let it never be said that to save your son you those under me. "Tis owing to the observance injured your country. When your enemies bring of this rule, and to my conformity to the customs in foreign troops, and you reject all foreign asof these people, that I have got their hearts to a
sistance on dishonourable terms, your deluded degree not to be easily conceived by those who do subjects of England must see who is the true not see it
... I keep my health better in father of his people. For my own part I dethese wild mountains than I used to do in the clare, once for all, that while I breathe I will Campagna Felice, and sleep sounder lying on
never consent to alienate one foot of land that the bare ground than I used to do in the palaces belongs to the crown of England, or set my hand in Rome.
to any treaty inconsistent with its sovereignty “ There is one thing, and but one, in which I and independency.* If the English will have had any difference with my faithful Highlanders. my life, let them take it if they can ; but no unIt was about the price upon my kinsman's head, kindness on their part shall ever force me to do which, knowing your Majesty's generous hu- a thing which may justify them 'in taking it. manity, I am sure will shock you, as it did me,
I may be overcome by my enemies, but I will when I was shown the proclamation setting a not dishonour myself; if I die, it shall be with price on my head. I smised, and treated it with my sword in hand, fighting for the liberty of the disdain I thought it deserved ; upon which those who fight against me. they flew into a violent rage, and insisted on my doing the same by him. As this flowed solely
This would seem to refer to an offer of assistance from the poor men's love and concern for me, 1 from France, on condition of the surrender of Ire
land, which is mentioned in some contemporary did not know how to be angry with them for it, I documents.
"I know there will be fulsome addresses from fresh from the influences of the interrupted the different corporations of England ; but I hope sermons, were seized with such a panic as, they will impose on none but the lower and more to do them justice, women are seldom asiguorant people. They will no doubt endeavour sailed by when patriotism. demands a sacrito revive all the errors and excesses of my grand- fice from them. They clung to their valfather's unhappy reign, and impute them to iant defenders with tears and outcries. Why your Majesty and me, who had no hand in them, should a husband and father risk his preand suffered most by them. Can anything be cious life against the wild Highlander, whose more unreasonable than to suppose that your Majesty, who is so sensible of and has so often trade was tighting? The honest burghers considered the fatal error of your father, would felt with their wives that the idea was monwith your eyes open go and repeat them?
strous. They melted away imperceptibly, “ Notwithstanding the repeated assurance your stealing off through friendly close and shelMajesty has given in your declaration that you tering wynd, and when their captain looked will not invade any man's property, they en- round, outside the gate, he found himself deavour to persuade the unthinking people that followed by the merest handful, not inore one of the first things they are to expect will be than a score of men ! Such a satire upon to see the public credit destroyed; as if it would human nature could scarcely have been perbe your interest to render yourself contemptible petrated by any poet. It is history alone in the eyes of all the nations of Europe, and make which dares to indulge in such wild ridicule all the kingdoms you hope to reign over poor at of its subordinate figures. While the tremhome and insignificant abroad.
“I find it a great loss that the brave Lord bling militia pulled off their rusty blades in Marishall is not with me. His character is very
the secret seclusion of home, the wild eager high in the country, and it must be so wherever enemy outside their gates dispersed almost it is known. I had rather see him as a thousand by a breath the troopers who had made bold French, who, if they should come only as friends sto go and look at them; and its chiefs once to assist your Majesty in the recovery of your more summoned the city to surrender. The just rights, the weak people would believe came bailies met and talked and trembled, and as invaders. There is one man in this country could not tell what to do. They tried to whom I could wish to have my friend, and that gain time and negotiate, hoping in Sir John is the Duke of Argyll, who I find is in great Cope, who was about landing at Dunbar. credit among them, on account of his great abil. All the next day was spent in their futile ities and quality, and has many dependents by frightened struggles. But early on Tueshis large fortune ; but I am told I can hardly day morning, Lochiel, with five hundred flatter myself with the hopes of it. The hard Camerons, took the matter in hand; and the usage which his family has received from ours hus sunk deep into his mind. What have those burghers and their wives woke up to find princes to answer for who by their cruelties have that, with less trouble than they had experaised enemies not only to themselves but to rienced in getting out of their uniforms, the their innocent children ?"
Highlanders had taken possession of their
city! – a strange little dramatic touch of On the 15th of September the city of Ed- laughter in a story too full of tears. inburgh, in which the Whig party had a The scenes that followed have been so destronghold, was plunged into the wildest scribed as that none may venture to repeat commotion. The fire-bell was set tolling them. Yet as the stranger treads the longon the sober Sunday afternoon while all the deserted floors, and lingers in the recessed population were at church. Frightened windows of that gallery at Holyrood, hung and excited, the towns-people rose in the with all its impossible kings, he will find midst of the sermons, some of which at least another picture come up before him with a were far from complimentary to the ap- pathos too profound for words. All those proaching Prince, and rushed out into the gallant soldiers doomed to so speedy and streets, where the trainbands of the town violent an end — the winding-sheet high on were assembled, and through which Hamil- their breasts, as the superstition of their ton's dragoons were marching on the way country says - some to perish on the scafto defeat and flight. Then there ensued a fold, some under the brutal coup de grace of scene of extravagant farce in the midst of Cumberland's butchers; one, the highest of the heart-rending tragedy. It is almost all, reserved for a more lingering, more Shakespearian in the depth of contrast. dreadful fate; - all those fair women, whose The volunteers cheered the dragoons; and hearts, for a moment gay, were to be wrung the dragoons, scarcely less faint-hearted in with what tortures of anxiety, what vain efthe moment of danger than their amateur forts, what sickening hopes! Never could coadjutors, replied by answering cheers and be more pathetic merry-making than Charles the clash of their doughty swords. At these Edward's ball in the old house of his fathers. sounds the Edinburgh wives and mothers, The coronach seems to sound over the