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cussing the second edition of the Folio, | able if we were governed by the space it occuwhich had then been out of the press not pies in the volume before us; but Mr. Tuckermuch above twelve months.” “Here,” as man has treated the subject with such genOliver Goldsmith writes in his characteristic uine and hearty appreciation of the histor" Reverie" at this very tavern, “ by a pleas- ical and literary associations of our ancient ant fire, in the very room where old Sir hostelries, and in such a thoroughly English John Falstaff cracked his jokes, in the very tone, that we imagine it will be found the chair which was sometimes honoured by most attractive and readable paper of the Prince Henry, and sometimes polluted by collection. his immoral merry companions, I sat and The inner life of a man of genius, his likes ruminated on the follies of youth ; wished to and dislikes, his quips and quibbles, his be young again, but was resolved to make pains and pleasures, have always exercised the best of life while it lasted, and now and a strange fascination over the Essayist. then compared past and present times to- The elder Disraeli in his Quarrels of Augether." *Another Will, with a sweeter thors,' and Calamities of Authors,' has left name, a Will Mead, kept the "Mermaid," behind a mine of anecdote on the subject; in Bread Street, which was a house of great and Mr. Tuckerman might have made his repute among the gentlefolk, and also an- Essay on “ Authors " more complete by the other historical and literary focus of attrac- judicious use of a few anecdotes from those tion. Here “rare Ben Jonson" met his valuable works. The prevailing faults in friends Shakespeare, Beaumont, and Fletch- this Essay arise from the Author's fancy of er; and Beaumont reminds us of the wit and just mentioning the name of each writer, in humour which flowed there, when he says, combination with his traditionary belong“ What things have we seen

ings. Thus we have a whole page written Done at the · Mermaid’! heard words that have

in this style :-“ Milton — his head like been

that of a saint encircled with rays - seated So nimble and so full of subtle fire,

at the organ, Landor standing in the ilex As if that every one from whom they came

path of a Tuscan villa, Dryden seated in Had meant to put his whole wit in a jest,

oracular dignity in his coffee-house armAnd had resolved to live a fool the rest

chair,” and Camoens breasting the waves Of his dull life.”

with the Lusiad between his teeth." These

and many others Mr. Tuckerman characBoswell records Dr. Johnson's hearty terises as the visions of his student life, praise of the solid comforts and unrestrained which was “ little else than a boundless conviviality of a tavern. There in a cosy panorama that displayed scenes in the lives corner, with a blazing fire and well-cooked of his favourite authors.” Too much of the food, the learned sage who could abstain, earlier portion of this paper is occupied by but could not be moderate," was at liberty mere names and epithets and fine writing, to make those “ inarticulate animal noises instead of good, wholesome criticism or valover his food,” which seemed to yield him uable historical matter: indeed, some parts so much gratification. Mr. Tuckerman re- of the Essay read almost like the catalogue marks that a man so organised might not of a picture gallery. The author is more inappropriately “call a tavern-chair the pleasing and natural in his account of his throne of human felicity," and might repeat meeting and conversation with Sismondi " Shenstone's praise of inns with rapture: and Silvio Pellico. He sees them in Italy :

Beneath this jovial appreciation, however, the former there lurks a sad inference ; it argues a homeless lot, for lonely or ungenial must be the residence, looked like a temperate country gentleman, or contrast with which renders an inn so attract- unambitious and well-to-do citizen. He then ive ; and we must bear in mind that the win-spoke of the changes he observed upon each sacsome aspect they wear in English literature is cessive visit to Italy, of the climate of Switzerbased on their casual and temporary enjoyment; land, and the society of Geneva ; then he reit is as recreative, not abiding places, that they ferred to America, divining at once that it was are usually introduced ; and, in an imaginative my country, and exhibiting entire familiarity point of view, our sense of the appropriate is with‘all that had been accomplished there in litgratified by these landmarks of our precarious erature. He betrayed a keen sense of enjoydestiny, for we are but “pilgrims and sojourn- ment, recognised a genial influence in the scene ers on the earth.” Jeremy Taylor compared before us, and gradually infected me with that human life to an inn, and Archbishop Leighton agreeable feeling only to be derived from what used to say he would prefer to die in one. poor Cowper used to call “comfortable people.”

I led him to speak of his own method of life, We have given a longer notice of this “ Es- which was one of the

most philosophical order. say on Inns" than is perhaps strictly justifi- He considered occasional travel and prudent

habits the best hygiene for a man of sedentary pur- ing expression when I told him of the deep symsuits ; and the great secret both of health and pathy his book had excited in America, and he successful industry the absolute yielding up of grasped my hand with momentary ardour ; but one's consciousness to the business and the di- the man too plainly reflected the martyr. version of the hour — never permitting the one to infringe in the least degree upon the other. Dr. Doran's introductory notes to this I felt an instinctive respect toward him, but at Essay are full of suggestions condensed the same time entirely at home in his company ; into a few pages, and will be preferred by the gentleman and the scholar appeared to me many of our readers to the Essay itself. admirably fused in, without overlaying, the He remarks on the fact of Congreve being man. Presently the friend we mutually expected ashamed of acknowledging that he was an came in, and introduced me to Sismondi. I was author, although he had so little cause for fresh from his Italian Republics’ and Litera- it. When Voltaire called to see him, " the ture of the South of Europe,' and he realised my French writer

expressly stated that the comideal of a humane and earnest historian.

Quite in contrast with this tranquil and ro-) pliment was addressed to the author, and bust votary of letters was the appearance and not merely to Mr. Congreve. The latter manner of Silvio Pellico. No one who has ever remarked that he was a gentleman and not read the chronicle of his imprisonments can for- an author. The rejoinder of the witty get the gentle and aspiring nature just blooming Frenchman was that " if Congreve had been into poetic development, which, by the relentless only a gentleman, he, the French author, fiat of Austrian tyranny, was cut off in a mo- would never have thought of calling upon ment from home, intelligent companionship, and him at all." Upwards of a century since, graceful activity, and subjected to the loneliness, a satirical writer in the pages of “ Sylvanus privation, and torments of long and solitary Urban” gave some statistics of English auconfinement ; nor is the spirit in which he met thors. Those surviving he set down as the bitter reverse less memorable than its tragic 3,000, and they had written in the year predetail — recorded with so much simplicity, and borne with such loving faith. When I arrived ceding 7,000 abortive works: 3,000 born in Turin he was still an object of espionage, and dead, and not a single one that out-lived the it was needful to seek him with caution. Agree-year itself. “Three hundred and twenty ably to instructions previously received, I went perished of sudden death, and a few thouto a café near the Strada Altieri, just at night-sands went to line trunks, make sky-rocket fall, and watched for the arrival of an abbé re- cases, hold pills, or were consumed by markable for his manly beauty. I handed him worms.". Of the authors themselves, a thouthe card of a mutual friend, and made known sand died of lunacy, a larger number were my wishes. The next day he conducted me starved, “ seventeen were hanged, fifteen through several arcades, and by many a group committed suicide, five pastoral poets died of noble-looking Piedmontese soldiers, to a gate- of fistula, others in various ways.” Dr. way, thence up a long flight of steps to a door, at Doran speaks, too, of Milton and his alleged which he gave a significant knock. In a few plagiarism; of Landor's Essay on “ Milton's moments it was quietly opened. He whispered Use and Imitation of the Moderns," and of to the old serva, and we tarried in an ante-cham- the Frenchman's charge that his epic was ber until a diminutive figure in black appeared, taken from an old Italian mystery, the · Adwho received me with a pensive kindliness that, amo' by Andréivi. Cædmon, the Angloto one acquainted with Le Mie Prigioni,' was fraught with pathos. I beheld in the pallor of Saxon poet, and St. Avitus both wrote on that mild face and expanded brow, and the pur- the Creation of man and the Fall, at a peblind eyes, the blight of a dungeon. His man- riod long anterior to Milton: ner was subdued and nervous, and his very tones melancholy. I was unprepared to find, after But, as another French author, M. Guizot, years of liberty, the effects of his experience so has remarked, " It is of little importance to Milvisible, and felt almost guilty of profane curios- tou’s glory whether he was acquainted with them ity in having thus intruded upon his cherished or not. He was one of those who imitate when seclusion. I had known other victims of the they please, for they invent when they choose, same infernal tyranny; but they were men of and they invent even while imitating.” True sterner mould, who had resisted their cruel fate authorship could not be more happily defined by the force of will rather than the patience of than under those words ; and they may be apresignation. Pellico's very delicacy of organisa- plied in reference to another attempt to question tion barbed the arrows of persecution ; and when Milton's originality, in the statement that he at length he was released, loneliness, hope de- founded his epic on the old drama Adomo CQferred, and mental torture had crushed the en- duto by Salandra. Moreover, there is nothing ergy of his nature. The sweetness of his auto- more in common between Milton and his pre biography was but the fragrance of the trampled decessors than that he selected a subject which flower – too unelastic ever again to rise up in they had sung before. Their tune is on an oaten its early beauty. A smile lighted up his brood- reed; but Milton sits down to the organ, and

billows of sound roll forth to awe and enchant ment has mostly great influence, where the the world.

commonplace wish to keep the peace and In our own country Milton made but “slow to maintain property on which the Empire way,” not merely with the general but with the at first rested, and to which it has appealed educated public. Dryden supposed he wrote so often, is stronger than any other political • Paradise Lost' in blank verse because he was idea. What is the cause of this and what unable to do it in rhyme! Johnson depreciated him by asserting that if he could cut a colossus

are to be its effects ? out of the rock he could not carve heads upon cherry-stones ; as if Milton's briefer poems and

The most common accusation against the sonnets were unworthy of the author of the Empire is that it is a “ failure." M. Theirs great epic! Hannah More united with Johnson, says — “There is no new blunder left for not only in thinking these briefer poems bad, it to commit; it has already committed all but in critically examining why they were so ! which are possible," — and though this is But there is no end to the vagaries of authors the rhetorical exaggeration of a professionwhen judging of other writers.

al assailant, yet in fairness it must be owned We should like to transfer to our col- that looked at with the eyes of a Frenchumns much more of Dr. Doran's pleasant

man the success of the Empire is not so gossip, on “ Authors” and other subjects plain as it was only a year or two ago. A treated in the volume before us. Mr.

Frenchman cares much, unreasonably much, Tuckerman's Essay on “Doctors," where probably, about foreign policy — about uphe jokes and tells us anecdotes of the med- holding the power and the dignity of his ical profession from Hippocrates down to country among other nations. But the polHahnemann; that on Lawyers, where he is icy of the Emperor, though successful, has both grave and gay, and the papers on Hol- not been successful for France; though idays, Actors, Newspapers, and Preachers, wise, it has not been wise for France. He must all be read to be appreciated. We introduced into practical diplomacy the can recommend the volume to our readers principle of nationalities; he first made a as an amusing and instructive contribution term of use and authority out of what was to the light literature of England, by an au- before a vague and fanatical expression ;, he thor who, while he is not forgetful of the said — " It is well that great nations with poets and authors of his native country, common speech, and similar character, and shows a large acquaintance with our old strong sympathies, should have a common English writers, and a genuine love of the Government; the ancient boundaries which great works they have bequeathed to the separate such nations are but inherited difAnglo-Saxon race.

ficulties; they keep apart those whom nature has made similar and whom God has

joined.” But in consequence Italy has been From The Economist, 19 Sept.

made, and Germany is being made. France, WHY THE FRENCH EMPIRE IS BECOMING the Continent, is becoming only one of several

instead of being the one compact nation on UNPOPULAR.

compact nations. The creation of GerThe most important recent change in many is the creation of a counterweight; politics is that the French Empire is becom- and the rise of Italy is the rise of an oppoing unpopular. There is a " light in the nent. In history, France prospered because eyes” of its opponents which there never she was more prosperous and more equal was before; they, feel not only that they than these two competing countries which are men who are right, but that they are men are conterminous with her, but now they who may succeed; they begin to think not will soon be as compact as she is. And only that their cause may prosper, but that this is the plain result of Louis Napoleon's it may prosper in their time. The news characteristic policy. It is the best thing papers discuss whether the present form of he has done for Europe; it is that by which Government is the best or not, somewhat in after ages he will be remembered for as in 1832, before the Empire, they dis- good if by anything. But it has been alcussed whether a Republic was the best or ready, and manifestly in future must be, not. Prosecutions against the press are disadvantageous to France, and therefore incessant; elections are carried against the the French do not like it. Government not only in large cities where anti-Imperialists were always strong, and In domestic policy, again, Frenchmen where Liberal ideas are always to be found say “No doubt the Emperor is successif anywhere, but in remote country districts ful, but then we have to pay for his success, like the Jura where Liberalism does not He makes great improvements; he alters abound, where a Government as Govern- our towns; he makes a nineteenth century

habits the best hygiene for a man of sedentary pur- ing expression when I told him of the deep sym-
suits ; and the great secret both of health and pathy his book had excited in America, and he
successful industry the absolute yielding up of grasped my hand with momentary ardour ; but
one's consciousness to the business and the di- the man too plainly reflected the martyr.
version of the hour - — never permitting the one
to infringe in the least degree upon the other. Dr. Doran's introductory notes to this
I felt an instinctive respect toward him, but at Essay are full of suggestions condensed
the same time entirely at home in his company ; into a few pages, and will be preferred by
the gentleman and the scholar appeared to me many of our readers to the Essay itself.
admirably fused in, without overlaying, the He remarks on the fact of Congreve being
man. Presently the friend we mutually expected ashamed of acknowledging that he was an
came in, and introduced me to Sismondi. I was author, although he had so little cause for
fresh from his “ Italian Republics' and Litera- it. When Voltaire called to see him, “ the
ture of the South of Europe,' and he realised my French

writer expressly stated that the comideal of a humane and earnest historian.

Quite in contrast with this tranquil and ro-) pliment was addressed to the author, and bust votary of letters was the appearance and not merely to Mr. Congreve. The latter manner of Silvio Pellico. No one who has ever remarked that he was a gentleman and not read the chronicle of his imprisonments can for- an author. The rejoinder of the witty get the gentle and aspiring nature just blooming Frenchman was that "if Congreve had been into poetic development, which, by the relentless only a gentleman, he, the French author, fiat of Austrian tyranny, was cut off in a mo- would never have thought of calling upon ment from home, intelligent companionship, and him at all." Upwards of a century since, graceful activity, and subjected to the loneliness, a satirical writer in the pages of “ Sylvanus privation, and torments of long and solitary Urban" gave some statistics of English auconfinement ; nor is the spirit in which he met thors. Those surviving he set down as the bitter reverse less memorable than its tragic 3,000, and they had written in the year predetail — recorded with so much simplicity, and borne with such loving faith. When I arrived ceding 7,000 'abortive works : 3,000 born in Turin he was still an object of espionage, and dead, and not a single one that out-lived the it was needful to seek him with caution. Agree-year itself. “Three hundred and twenty ably to instructions previously received, I went perished of sudden death, and a few thouto a café near the Strada Alfieri, just at night-sands went to line trunks, make sky-rocket fall, and watched for the arrival of an abbé re- cases, hold pills, or were consumed by markable for his manly beauty. I handed him worms.” Of the authors themselves, a thouthe card of a mutual friend, and made known sand died of lunacy, a larger number were my wishes. The next day he conducted me starved, “ seventeen were hanged, fifteen through several arcades, and by many a group committed suicide, five pastoral poets died of noble-looking Piedmontese soldiers, to a gate-of fistula, others in various ways." Dr. way, thence up a long flight of steps to a door, at Doran speaks, too, of Milton and his alleged which he gave a significant knock. In a few plagiarism ; of Landor's Essay on " Milton's moments it was quietly opened. He whispered Use and Imitation of the Moderns," and of to the old serva, and we tarried in an ante-cham- the Frenchman's charge that his epic was ber until a diminutive figure in black appeared, taken from an old Italian mystery, the Adwho received me with a pensive kindliness that, to one acquainted with · Le Mie Prigioni,'

was amo' by Andréivi. Cædmon, the Anglofraught with pathos. I beheld in the pallor of Saxon poet, and St. Avitus both wrote on that mild face and expanded brow, and the pur- the Creation of man and the Fall, at a peblind eyes, the blight of a dungeon. His man-riod long anterior to Milton: ner was subdued and nervous, and his very tones melancholy. I was unprepared to find, after But, as another French author, M. Guizot, years of liberty, the effects of his experience so has remarked, “ It is of little importance to Milvisible, and felt almost guilty of profane curios- ton's glory whether he was acquainted with them ity in having thus intruded upon his cherished or not. Be was one of those who imitate when seclusion. I had known other victims of the they please, for they invent when they choose, same infernal tyranny; but they were men of and they invent even while imitating." True sterner mould, who had resisted their cruel fate authorship could not be more happily defined by the force of will rather than the patience of than under those words ; and they may be apresignation. Pellico's very delicacy of organisa- plied in reference to another attempt to question tion barbed the arrows of persecution ; and when Milton's originality, in the statement that he at length he was released, loneliness, hope de- founded his epic on the old drama Adamo Caferred, and mental torture had crushed the en- duto by Salandra. Moreover, there is nothing ergy of his nature. The sweetness of his auto- more in common between Milton and his prebiography was but the fragrance of the trampled decessors than that he selected a subject which flower— too unelastic ever again to rise up in they had sung before. Their tune is on an oaten its early beauty. A smile lighted up his brood- reed; but Milton sits down to the organ, and

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billows of sound roll forth to awe and enchant ment has mostly great influence, where the the world.

commonplace wish to keep the peace and In our own country Milton made but" slow to maintain property on which the Empire way,” not merely with the general but with the at first rested, and to which it has appealed educated public. Dryden supposed he wrote so often, is stronger than any other political

Paradise Lost' in blank verse because he was idea. What is the cause of this and what unable to do it in rhyme! Johnson depreciated are to be its effects ? him by asserting that if he could cut a colossus out of the rock he could not carve heads upon cherry-stones ; as if Milton's briefer poems and

The most common accusation against the Bonnets were unworthy of the author of the Empire is that it is a “ failure.” M. Theirs great epic! Hannah More united with Johnson, says — “There is no new blunder left for not only in thinking these briefer poems bad, it to commit; it has already committed all but in critically examining why they were so ! which are possible,” — and though this is But there is no end to the vagaries of authors the rhetorical exaggeration of a professionwhen judging of other writers.

al assailant, yet in fairness it must be owned We should like to transfer to our col- that looked at with the eyes of a Frenchnmns much more of Dr. Doran's pleasant man the success of the Empire is not so gossip on "Authors” and other subjects plain as it was only a year or two ago. A treated in the volume before us. Mr.

Frenchman cares much, unreasonably much, Tuckerman's Essay on “Doctors," where probably, about foreign policy — about uphe jokes and tells us anecdotes of the med- holding the power and the dignity of his ical profession from Hippocrates down to country among other nations. But the polHahnemann ; that on Lawyers, where he is icy of the Emperor, though successful, has both grave and gay, and the papers on Hol- not been successful for France; though idays, Actors, Newspapers, and Preachers, wise, it has not been wise for France. He must all be read to be appreciated. We introduced into practical diplomacy the can recommend the volume to our readers principle of nationalities; he first made a as an amusing and instructive contribution term of use and authority out of what was to the light literature of England, by an au- before a vague and fanatical expression ; he thor who, while he is not forgetful of the said — “ It is well that great nations with poets and authors of his native country, common speech, and similar character, and shows a large acquaintance with our old strong sympathies, should have a common English writers, and a genuine love of the Government; the ancient boundaries which great works they have bequeathed to the separate such nations are but inherited difAnglo-Saxon race.

ficulties; they keep apart those whom nature has made similar and whom God has

joined.” But in consequence Italy has been From The Economist, 19 Sept.

made, and Germany is being made. France, WHY THE FRENCH EMPIRE IS BECOMING the Continent, is becoming only one of several

instead of being the one compact nation on UNPOPULAR.

compact nations. The creation of GerThe most important recent change in many is the creation of a counterweight; politics is that the French Empire is becom- and the rise of Italy is the rise of an oppoing unpopular. There is a " light in the nent. In history, France prospered because eyes" of its opponents which there never she was more prosperous and more equal was before ; they feel not only that they than these two competing countries which are men who are right, but that they are men are conterminous with her, but now they who may succeed; they begin to think not will soon be as compact as she is. And only that their cause may prosper, but that this is the plain result of Louis Napoleon's it may prosper in their time. The news characteristic policy. It is the best thing papers discuss whether the present form of he has done for Europe; it is that by which Government is the best or not, somewhat in after ages he will be remembered for as in 1852, before the Empire, they dis- good if by anything. But it has been alcussed whether a Republic was the best or ready, and manifestly in future must be, Dot. Prosecutions against the press are disadvantageous to France, and therefore incessant; elections are carried against the the French do not like it. Government not only in large cities where anti-Imperialists were always strong, and In domestic policy, again, Frenchmen where Liberal ideas are always to be found say — “No doubt the Emperor is successif anywhere, but in remote country districts fui, but then we have to pay for his success. like the Jura where Liberalism does not He makes great improvements; he alters abound, where a Government as Govern- iour towns; he makes a nineteenth century

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